Arctic Environment Variability in the Context of Global Change (Springer-Praxis Books in Environmental Sciences) (2003. 450 p. w. 90 figs. 25 cm)

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Arctic Environment Variability in the Context of Global Change (Springer-Praxis Books in Environmental Sciences) (2003. 450 p. w. 90 figs. 25 cm)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 450 p.
  • 商品コード 9783540434580

Full Description


The main focus of this book is the study of environmental dynamics in the Arctic, coupled with ecosystem dynamics. Particular emphasis is placed on problems of the composition of the Arctic atmosphere, including minor gases, aerosols and clouds, as well as changes in the composition due to impacts of human activity. Analysis of observational data and numerical modelling results, which characterize the Arctic basin pollution dynamics, and its impact on ecosystems is also provided. Other topics covered include problems of general circulation in the atmosphere and oceans - beginning with the 1930s when the Arctic was regarded as the kitchen of global weather and climate and concluding with the situation today when modern observational data and numerical modelling make for a more balanced view.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            ix
List of contributors xv
Acknowledgements xix
List of figures xxi
List of tables xxvii
List of colour plates xxxiii
List of abbreviations xxxvii
Arctic climate change 1 (16)
O. M. Johannessen
M. W. Miles
L. Bengtsson
L. P. Bobylev
S. I. Kuzmina
Greenhouse warming and the Arctic 1 (2)
Arctic sea ice extent and area 3 (2)
Arctic perennial sea ice area 5 (2)
Arctic sea ice thickness 7 (1)
Long-term variability in sea ice and 8 (5)
temperature
Modelled sea ice extent and predictions 13 (1)
Conclusions and implications 14 (3)
Arctic atmosphere 17 (90)
K. Ya. Kondratyev
Gaseous components 17 (10)
Minor gas components (MGCs) 19 (1)
Carbon dioxide 19 (2)
Dimethylsulphide and nitrogen oxides 21 (2)
Atmospheric pollution in the Arctic 23 (4)
Atmospheric ozone 27 (26)
Stratospheric ozone 32 (9)
Tropospheric ozone 41 (9)
Conclusions 50 (3)
Polar aerosols 53 (19)
Introduction 53 (3)
Aerosol observations 56 (6)
Arctic haze 62 (2)
Antarctic aerosols 64 (6)
Deposition of heavy metals 70 (2)
Cloudiness dynamics 72 (17)
Climatological and synoptic 76 (2)
characteristics
Results of aircraft measurements of the 78 (5)
characteristics of radiation fields and
cloudiness
Numerical modelling of the dynamics of 83 (6)
extended cloudiness and its interaction
with radiation
Atmospheric circulation 89 (18)
G. V. Alekseev
S. I. Kuzmina
L. P. Bobylev
Role of atmospheric circulation in the 89 (4)
formation of polar climate
Fluctuations in atmospheric circulation 93 (4)
at high and temperate latitudes of the
northern hemisphere
Influence of atmospheric circulation on 97 (5)
air temperature oscillations in the
Arctic at temperate latitudes
Surface air temperature (SAT) 102 (5)
Arctic Ocean and sea ice 107 (96)
G. V. Alekseev
O. M. Johannessen
A. A. Koroblev
A. Y. Proshutinsky
Key processes in the Arctic waters 108 (37)
Formation of the upper layer 108 (17)
Atlantic water inflow 125 (13)
Deep and bottom water formation in the 138 (7)
Greenland Sea
Sea ice variability in the Arctic 145 (27)
Variation of sea ice extent during the 145 (15)
20th century from historical data
V. F. Zakharov
Sea ice thickness 160 (12)
A. P. Nagurny
Circulation of water and ice 172 (9)
A. Y. Proshutinsky
Surface circulation 173 (5)
Circulation in intermediate warm layer 178 (3)
Modelling of the ocean and sea ice 181 (22)
circulation
A. Y. Proshutinsky
Modelling of the ocean and ice 184 (6)
circulation in relation to Arctic
climate change
Some recent results of coupled 190 (4)
ice-ocean 3-D modelling
Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison 194 (9)
Project (AOMIP)
Air-sea interaction in the presence of the 203 (34)
Arctic pack ice
R. W. Lindsay
A. P. Makshtas
Introduction 203 (2)
Energy balance of the Arctic pack ice 205 (22)
Surface energy balance model 205 (7)
Temporal variability of energy exchange 212 (13)
processes
Restrictions and advantages of obtained 225 (2)
results for modelling the sea ice cover
and related heat processes in the
Arctic Basin
Sensitivity of modelled sea ice to 227 (9)
external forcing
Comparison of NCEP reanalysis and NP 227 (1)
data
Short description of the 227
dynamic-thermodynamic model
Sensitivity of the thermodynamic model 221 (15)
to possible variations in external
forcing
Conclusion 236 (1)
Land surface processes 237 (72)
L. P. Bobylev
N. Mognard
A. F. Glazovsky
K. S. Khvorostovsky
V. I. Kharuk
G. V. Alekseev
Snow cover dynamics 237 (14)
N. Mognard
Introduction 237 (1)
Global scale measurements of snow cover 238 (5)
Variability of global snow cover extent 243 (3)
(SCE)
Variability of regional snow water 246 (2)
equivalent or snow depth
Perspectives: applications of global 248 (3)
snow cover monitoring
Glacier dynamics 251 (19)
A. F. Glazovsky
Mass balance measurements 254 (11)
General results 265 (4)
Glacier dynamics in the future 269 (1)
Greenland Ice Sheet elevation variations 270 (11)
K. S. Khvorostovsky
L. P. Bobylev
O. M. Johannessen
Introduction 270 (2)
Methodology of ice sheet elevation 272 (2)
change study using satellite radar
altimetry
Results and discussion 274 (6)
Conclusions 280 (1)
Forest-tundra ecotone dynamics 281 (19)
V. I. Kharuk
E. V. Fedotova
River outflow variability 300 (9)
G. V. Alekseev
V. V. Ivanov
S. I. Kuzmina
Initial data 300 (2)
Methods of analysis 302 (1)
Run-off variability 302 (7)
Arctic Basin pollution dynamics 309 (54)
K. Ya. Kondratyev
V. F. Krapivin
G. W. Phillips
Arctic Basin pollution problems 309 (4)
Application of modelling technology to 313 (23)
the study of pollutant dynamics in arctic
seas
SSMAE structure 313 (3)
Marine biota block (MBB) 316 (5)
Hydrological block (HB) 321 (1)
Pollution block (PSM) 322 (2)
Simulation results 324 (10)
Summary and conclusions 334 (2)
Interactions in the Arctic system 336 (14)
Biocomplexity in the Arctic system 350 (7)
Biocomplexity indicator 350 (2)
The BSS biocomplexity model 352 (1)
Biocomplexity problem related to 353 (4)
fisheries in the Okhotsk Sea
Carbon cycle dynamics in the Arctic system 357 (6)
Arctic marine ecosystems 363 (28)
I. A. Melnikov
E. G. Kolosova
L. S. Zhitina
Introduction 363 (2)
Pelagic sea ice ecosystem 365 (6)
Upper ocean ecosystem 371 (13)
Coastal sea ice ecosystem 384 (7)
Regional change analysis: north-western 391 (20)
Russia
N. N. Filatov
S. P. Grippa
L. E. Nazarova
Ju. A. Salo
Data and analysis techniques 391 (2)
Climate and water balance element 393 (3)
variability and water level fluctuations
during the period of observations
Dendrochronological data analysis 396 (10)
Comparison of observed and modelled data 406 (1)
Possible changes of climate and water 407 (2)
balance parameters for the period
2000-2050
Conclusion 409 (2)
References 411 (50)
Index 461