性とジェンダー(第2版)<br>Sex and Gender (2ND)

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性とジェンダー(第2版)
Sex and Gender (2ND)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 280 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521635332
  • DDC分類 155.33

基本説明

学生向けテキスト。
Drawing on the latest research, new developments are explored such as the rise of evolutionary psychology, the influence of Social Role Theory, and new psychoanalytic and ethnomethodological approaches.

Full Description


Sex and Gender is a substantially revised second edition of a classic text. Adopting a balanced and straightforward approach to the often controversial study of sex differences, the authors aim to introduce the reader to the fundamental questions relating to sex and gender in an accessible way at the same time as drawing on research in this and related areas. New developments which are explored in this edition include the rise of evolutionary psychology and the influence of Social Role Theory as well as additional psychoanalytic and ethno-methodological approaches which have all contributed to a greater understanding of the complex nature of masculinity and femininity.

Table of Contents

        List of figures                            x
List of tables xi
Preface xiii
Commonsense beliefs and psychological 1 (18)
research strategies
Commonsense beliefs 1 (5)
Commonsense influences on psychological 6 (8)
research
Scientific research and commonsense 6 (2)
beliefs
Similarities and differences 8 (4)
The nature of explanations 12 (2)
Research strategies 14 (3)
Nomothetic versus ideographic approaches 14 (1)
Levels of explanation 15 (2)
Sex or gender? 17 (1)
Further reading 18 (1)
Stereotypes, attitudes, and personal 19 (20)
attributes
Introduction 19 (1)
The content of gender stereotypes 20 (3)
Stereotypes and roles 23 (3)
Do stereotypes reflect prejudice or reality? 26 (2)
Attitudes towards women and men 28 (3)
Individual differences in stereotypic traits 31 (2)
Gender schema 33 (2)
Masculinity and femininity 35 (2)
Conclusions 37 (1)
Further reading 38 (1)
Origins 39 (20)
Introduction 39 (1)
The origins of sexual reproduction 40 (2)
Why two sexes? 42 (1)
Sexual dimorphism and sexual selection 43 (3)
The sexual natures of men and women 46 (2)
Sexual selection and psychological sex 48 (3)
differences
The hunter-gatherer way of life 51 (1)
Gender roles 52 (2)
The origin of patriarchy 54 (2)
Conclusions 56 (1)
Further reading 57 (2)
Developmental influences 59 (25)
Introduction 59 (1)
Socialisation: the information potentially 60 (4)
transmitted to boys and girls
Routes of cultural transmission 60 (1)
Parents' responses to infants 60 (1)
Parents' treatment of of boys and girls 61 (2)
The social environment outside the family 63 (1)
Socialisation: transmission through social 64 (2)
learning
Imitation of role models 64 (1)
The learning of gender-appropriate 65 (1)
behaviour
Socialisation: acquisition through 66 (4)
cognitive processes
Gender identity 66 (1)
Gender constancy and stability 67 (2)
Cues for identifying sex 69 (1)
Socialisation from a cognitive 70 (1)
developmental perspective
Does biological development influence 71 (4)
behaviour?
General issues 71 (1)
The role of sex hormones in development 72 (1)
Rough-and-tumble play 73 (1)
Activity levels 74 (1)
A biosocial approach to gender development 75 (6)
Sex-segregation in childhood 77 (2)
Sex-segregated groups as the context for 79 (1)
socialisation influences
The boundaries of childhood gender roles 80 (1)
Conclusions: why socialisation and biology 81 (2)
are not independent of one another
Further reading 83 (1)
Sexuality: psychophysiology, psychoanalysis, 84 (25)
and social construction
Introduction 84 (1)
The physiological measurement of sexual 85 (7)
behaviour
The human orgasm 85 (3)
Sources of sexual satisfaction 88 (2)
Recording and reporting physiological 90 (1)
arousal
Questionnaire reports of sexual experience 91 (1)
Psychoanalytic explanations of sexuality 92 (8)
The unconscious 93 (1)
Psychosexual development 94 (6)
The social construction of sexuality 100 (7)
In the beginning there was man 100 (1)
From two to many 101 (1)
The xanith of Oman: a third gender role? 102 (1)
Native North American genders 103 (2)
Beyond two gender roles 105 (2)
Conclusions 107 (1)
Further reading 107 (2)
Aggression, violence, and power 109 (26)
Introduction 109 (1)
Aggression and violence between members of 110 (6)
the same sex
Are men really more aggressive than women? 110 (2)
Which men are likely to be violent? 112 (2)
Women's aggression 114 (2)
Why is there a sex difference in same-sex 116 (7)
violence?
Masculine values and their evolutionary 116 (3)
underpinning
The proximate cause of male aggression 119 (2)
and violence: is testosterone involved?
Socialisation explanations of men's 121 (1)
aggression
Women's aggression from an evolutionary 122 (1)
perspective
Violence in heterosexual relationships 123 (3)
Sexual aggression 126 (4)
Power, aggression, and violence 130 (3)
Conclusions 133 (1)
Further reading 133 (2)
Fear, anxiety, and mental health 135 (25)
Introduction 135 (1)
Do women experience more negative emotions? 135 (2)
Do women's emotions fluctuate more than 137 (6)
those of men?
Are there sex differences in mental health? 143 (1)
Diagnosing mental disorders 143 (4)
Sex differences in specific disorders 147 (6)
Mood disorders 147 (2)
Anxiety disorders 149 (2)
Schizophrenia and other psychotic 151 (1)
disorders
Eating disorders 151 (1)
Substance-related disorders 152 (1)
Personality disorders 152 (1)
How are sex differences explained? 153 (5)
Conclusions 158 (1)
Further reading 159 (1)
The domestic sphere 160 (22)
Introduction 160 (2)
The family and marriage 162 (8)
The changing family 163 (1)
Women and marriage 164 (3)
The family in history 167 (3)
Mothering and attachment 170 (7)
Attachment theory 170 (2)
Gender-related issues in the development 172 (2)
of attachment bonds: caregivers
Gender issues in the development of 174 (1)
attachment bonds: infants and children
Developmental hazards 174 (2)
Attachment and social development 176 (1)
Fathers and mothers 177 (4)
One-parent families 177 (2)
Mothers' reports of fathers' caregiving 179 (1)
Personality differences among fathers 180 (1)
Conclusions 181 (1)
Further reading 181 (1)
Work, education, and occupational achievement 182 (25)
Introduction 182 (1)
Do men get better jobs and earn more money 182 (3)
than women?
Are there more men with high intellectual 185 (3)
ability?
Specific cognitive abilities 188 (3)
Gender stereotypes in occupations and 191 (1)
training
Male chauvinism or masculine chauvinism? 192 (2)
Does sex bias operate in occupational 194 (7)
decisions?
Self-stereotyping 201 (2)
Social dominance orientation 203 (2)
Conclusions 205 (1)
Further reading 206 (1)
Looking back and looking ahead 207 (18)
Introduction 207 (1)
The limitations of existing meta-analyses 208 (7)
Age range 208 (2)
National and cultural representation 210 (3)
Historical context 213 (2)
Major theoretical developments 215 (3)
Beyond sex differences 218 (5)
Postscript 223 (1)
Further reading 223 (2)
References 225 (43)
Index 268