言語類型論と統語論的記述(第2版)2:複文<br>Language Typology and Syntactic Description : Complex Construction 〈2〉 (2ND)

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言語類型論と統語論的記述(第2版)2:複文
Language Typology and Syntactic Description : Complex Construction 〈2〉 (2ND)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 465 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
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Full Description


This unique three-volume 2007 survey brings together a team of leading scholars to explore the syntactic and morphological structures of the world's languages. Clearly organized and broad-ranging, it covers topics such as parts-of-speech, passives, complementation, relative clauses, adverbial clauses, inflectional morphology, tense, aspect, mood, and diexis. The contributors look at the major ways that these notions are realized, and provide informative sketches of them at work in a range of languages. Each volume is accessibly written and clearly explains each new concept introduced. Although the volumes can be read independently, together they provide an indispensable reference work for all linguists and fieldworkers interested in cross-linguistic generalizations. Most of the chapters in the second edition are substantially revised or completely new - some on topics not covered by the first edition. Volume II covers co-ordination, complementation, noun phrase structure, relative clauses, adverbial clauses, discourse structure, and sentences as combinations of clauses.

Table of Contents

        List of figures                            xii
List of tables xiii
List of contributors xiv
Acknowledgements xv
List of abbreviations and symbols xvii
Coordination 1 (51)
Martin Haspelmath
Introduction 1 (5)
Types and positions of coordinators 6 (9)
Asyndetic coordination 7 (1)
Monosyndetic coordination 8 (2)
Bisyndetic coordination 10 (1)
Multiple coordinands 11 (3)
The scope of coordinators 14 (1)
Emphatic coordination 15 (4)
Conjunction and disjunction 15 (2)
Emphatic negative coordination 17 (2)
Types of coordinands 19 (3)
Semantic subtypes of coordination 22 (6)
Semantic subtypes of conjunction 23 (2)
Semantic subtypes of disjunction 25 (3)
Semantic subtypes of adversative 28 (1)
coordination
Some special strategies of conjunction 28 (9)
Comitative conjunction 29 (4)
Inclusory conjunction 33 (3)
Summary conjunction 36 (1)
Ellipsis in coordination 37 (8)
Delimiting coordination 45 (5)
Coordination versus 46 (2)
dependency/subordination
Degrees of grammaticalization 48 (1)
Is coordination universal? 49 (1)
Appendix: terminological issues 50 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 51 (1)
Complementation 52 (99)
Michael Noonan
Introduction 52 (1)
The morphology of complements 53 (21)
Complement types 53 (2)
Complementizers 55 (4)
The morphology of complement types 59 (1)
Sentence-like complement types 59 (2)
Indicative versus subjunctive 61 (4)
sentence-like complements
Paratactic complements and verb 65 (2)
serialization in complementation
Infinitive complements 67 (3)
Nominalized complements 70 (2)
Participial complements 72 (2)
Summary 74 (1)
The syntax of complementation 74 (27)
Equi-deletion 75 (4)
Raised arguments 79 (4)
Incorporation of reduced complements 83 (4)
into the matrix
Parataxis and serialization 87 (5)
Distribution of complements within 92 (6)
sentences
Sequence of tense / mood restrictions 98 (2)
Negative raising 100 (1)
The semantics of complementation 101 (44)
The semantics of complement types 102 (1)
Mood distinctions 102 (9)
Degree of reduction 111 (3)
Complementizers 114 (2)
Manner of syntactic relation to the 116 (2)
matrix
Grammatical status of the complement 118 (2)
predicate
The classes of complement-taking 120 (1)
predicates
Utterance predicates 121 (3)
Propositional attitude predicates 124 (2)
Pretence predicates 126 (1)
Commentative predicates (factives) 127 (2)
Predicates of knowledge and acquisition 129 (1)
of knowledge
Predicates of fearing 130 (2)
Desiderative predicates 132 (4)
Manipulative predicates 136 (1)
Modal predicates 137 (2)
Achievement predicates 139 (1)
Phasal predicates (aspectuals) 139 (3)
Immediate perception predicates 142 (2)
Negative predicates 144 (1)
Conjunctive predicates 144 (1)
Complement systems 145 (2)
A note on noun complementation 147 (2)
Obtaining information about complement 149 (1)
systems
Suggestions for further reading 150 (1)
Noun phrase structure 151 (55)
Matthew S. Dryer
Introduction 151 (1)
Simple noun phrases 151 (26)
Articles 152 (9)
The notion of `determiner' 161 (1)
Demonstratives 162 (2)
Numerals 164 (2)
Plural words 166 (2)
Adjectives 168 (6)
Nouns used as modifiers 174 (1)
Locative adverbs 175 (1)
Interrogative modifiers 175 (2)
Miscellaneous noun modifiers 177 (1)
Complex noun phrases 177 (16)
Genitive or possessive constructions 177 (1)
Genitive constructions with nominal 177 (5)
possessors
Pronominal possessors 182 (2)
Multiple genitive constructions 184 (1)
Alienable and inalienable possession 185 (5)
Nonreferential genitives 190 (1)
Adpositional phrases 191 (1)
Relative clauses 191 (2)
Conjoined noun phrases 193 (1)
Noun phrases without nouns 193 (11)
Noun phrases with only `modifying' words 194 (3)
Headless relative clauses 197 (6)
Noun clauses 203 (1)
Conclusion 204 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 205 (1)
Relative clauses 206 (31)
Avery D. Andrews
Introduction 206 (2)
Relationships between NP mat and S rel 208 (9)
Embedded RCS 208 (1)
External RCS 208 (4)
Internal RCS 212 (1)
Free RCS 213 (1)
Adjoined RCS 214 (3)
The Treatment of NP rel 217 (6)
Marking 217 (2)
Pronominalization 219 (1)
Movement 220 (2)
Omission 222 (1)
Other possibilities 223 (1)
Constraints on the function of NP rel 223 (8)
Island constraints 224 (2)
The Accessibility Hierarchy 226 (1)
Subjects 226 (3)
Objects, indirect objects, and obliques 229 (2)
The treatment of S rcl 231 (4)
Reduction and nominalization 232 (1)
Marking the function of NP rel 233 (2)
Suggestions for further reading 235 (2)
Adverbial clauses 237 (1)
Sandra A. Thompson
Robert E. Longacre
Shin Ja J. Hwang
PART I A TYPOLOGY OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSKS 237 (32)
Introduction 237 (1)
Characterization of adverbial clauses 237 (6)
The types of adverbial subordinate clauses 243 (24)
Clauses that can be substituted by a 243 (2)
single word
Time clauses 245 (1)
Temporal sequence clauses 245 (2)
Time/cause 247 (1)
`Before' clauses 247 (2)
Locative clauses 249 (1)
Manner clauses 249 (1)
Summary 250 (1)
Clauses that cannot be substituted by a 250 (1)
single word
Purpose and reason clauses 250 (1)
Datives, benefactives, or allatives 251 (1)
Same and different subjects 252 (1)
Negative purpose clauses 253 (1)
Circumstantial clauses 253 (1)
Simultaneous clauses 254 (1)
Conditional clauses 255 (1)
The semantics of conditionals 255 (1)
The syntax of conditionals 256 (1)
Conditionals and time clauses 257 (1)
Predictive clauses: `real' or `unreal'? 258 (1)
Imaginative conditionals.'' 259 (1)
hypothetical and counterfactual
Negative conditionals 260 (1)
Concessive conditionals 261 (1)
Concessive clauses 262 (1)
Substitutive clauses 263 (1)
Additive clauses 264 (1)
Absolutive clauses 264 (2)
Summary 266 (1)
`Speech act' adverbial clauses 267 (1)
Borrowed subordinators 267 (2)
Summary and conclusions 269 (1)
PART II ADVERBIAL CLAUSES BEYOND THE SENTENCE 269 (152)
Introduction 269 (2)
Adverbial clauses and discourse movement 271 (1)
Cohesion between successive paragraphs 272 (3)
Cohesion within the paragraph 275 (20)
Linkage via adverbial clauses in 276 (1)
sentence margins
Adverbial clauses in prior-time margins 276 (3)
Adverbial clauses in concurrent-time 279 (1)
margins
Adverbial clauses in reason margins 280 (3)
Adverbial clauses in conditional margins 283 (2)
Adverbial clauses in purpose margins 285 (1)
Adverbial clauses in concessive margins 286 (2)
Balanced or parallel clauses in 288 (1)
successive sentences
Adverbial clauses for local background 288 (2)
Lexical overlap as conjunctival element 290 (1)
with generic verb
Lexical overlap as conjunction 290 (1)
(particle)
Adverbial clauses as topics 291 (4)
Preposed versus postposed adverbial 295 (4)
clauses
Functional differences between preposed 295 (2)
and postposed adverbial clauses
Functional equivalents to postposed 297 (2)
clauses in head-final languages
Conclusion 299 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 299 (2)
Discourse structure 301 (71)
Elise Karkkainen
Marja-Leena Sorjonen
Marja-Liisa Helasvuo
Introduction 301 (4)
Conversation in focus 302 (1)
Linguistic structure emerging for and 303 (1)
from interaction
Speech as process 304 (1)
Turn-taking and sequentiality as building 305 (17)
blocks of the organization of interaction
Turn-taking organization 306 (9)
Sequence organization 315 (6)
Summary 321 (1)
Subjectivity and the syntax of 322 (14)
conversation
Subjectivity in linguistics 322 (3)
Patterns of subjectivity in natural 325 (7)
discourse
Widening the picture: subjectivity as 332 (4)
arising from the interaction
Summary 336 (1)
Self-repair and syntax of conversation 336 (19)
Self-repair as a syntactic and 336 (3)
interactional phenomenon
Initiation of same-turn self-repair 339 (6)
Morphological repair 345 (2)
Same-turn self-repair and the syntactic 347 (1)
structuring of talk
Delaying the next noun due 347 (1)
Scope of backing up in the utterance 348 (7)
when repairing
Summary 355 (1)
Co-constructions in a cross-linguistic 355 (15)
perspective
What is a co-construction? 355 (2)
Typical conversational contexts for 357 (7)
co-constructions
Grammatical constraints on 364 (5)
co-constructions
Prosody of co-constructions 369 (1)
Summary 369 (1)
Conclusion 370 (1)
Appendix 371 (1)
Sentences as combinations of clauses 372 (49)
Robert E. Longacre
Introduction 372 (1)
Definitions and distinctions 372 (5)
Nucleus, base, and margin 372 (2)
Coordinate and subordinate clauses 374 (1)
Co-ranking and chaining structures 374 (2)
Methods of cohesion 376 (1)
Notions that encode within sentence 377 (9)
structure
Conjoining 378 (1)
Coupling 378 (1)
Contrast 378 (1)
Comparison 379 (1)
Alternation 379 (1)
Temporality 379 (1)
Overlap 379 (1)
Succession 380 (1)
Implication 380 (1)
Conditionality 380 (1)
Causation 381 (1)
Counterfactuality 381 (1)
Paraphrase 382 (1)
Paraphrase without noticeable gain or 382 (1)
loss of information
Paraphrase in which there is gain of 382 (1)
information in the second base
Paraphrase in which there is loss of 382 (1)
information in the second base
Other kinds of paraphrase 383 (1)
Illustration 383 (1)
Simile 383 (1)
Exemplification 383 (1)
Deixis 384 (1)
Attribution 384 (1)
Frustration 385 (1)
Frustration involving temporal notions 385 (1)
Frustrated implication 385 (1)
Frustrated modality 386 (1)
Organization of what follows 386 (1)
Co-ranking structures 386 (12)
English 386 (2)
Ibaloi (Philippines) 388 (5)
Chicahuaxtla Trique (Mexico) 393 (5)
Medial-final chaining structures 398 (19)
The distinctive features of 399 (3)
medial-final clause chaining
The germinal notions and their 402 (2)
development (in Papua New Guinea)
Relations superimposed over chaining 404 (7)
(Wojokeso, Papua New Guinea)
Medial-final clause chaining in South 411 (5)
America
The problem of the `endless' sentence 416 (1)
Initial-consecutive chaining structures 417 (3)
Where sentence is not a separate level 420 (1)
Conclusion 420 (1)
Bibliography 421 (29)
Language index 450 (4)
Subject index 454