ニンニクの伝承知識と科学<br>Garlic and Other Alliums : The Lore and the Science

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ニンニクの伝承知識と科学
Garlic and Other Alliums : The Lore and the Science

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  • 提携先の海外書籍取次会社に在庫がございます。通常約2週間で発送いたします。
    重要ご説明事項
    1. 納期遅延や、ご入手不能となる場合が若干ございます。
    2. 複数冊ご注文の場合、分割発送となる場合がございます。
    3. 美品のご指定は承りかねます。
  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 480 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9781849731805
  • DDC分類 584.33

基本説明

The name "Allium" is said to come from the Greek word to avoid because of its offensive smell. The genus Allium. This unique book, with a foreword by 1990 Nobel Laureate E.J. Corey, outlines the extensive history and the fascinating past and present uses of these plants, sorting out fact from fiction based upon detailed scrutiny of historic documents as well as numerous laboratories studies.

Full Description


The name "Allium" is said to come from the Greek word to avoid because of its offensive smell. The genus Allium includes more than 800 species of which only a few have been cultivated as foods. Many of the other members of this genus are popular with gardeners as easy to maintain perennials, although the smell of some members of the genus can be off-putting. The smell is a consequence of breakdown of sulfur-containing compounds which is a characteristic of this family of plants. Garlic, onions, leeks, chives and other members of the genus Allium occupy a unique position both as edible plants and herbal medicines, appreciated since the dawn of civilization. Alliums have been featured through the ages in literature, where they are both praised and reviled, as well as in architecture and the decorative arts. Garlic pills are top-selling herbal supplements while garlic-based products show considerable promise as environmentally friendly pesticides. The remarkable properties of the alliums can be understood based on the occurrence of a number of relatively simple sulfur-containing chemical compounds ingeniously packaged by nature in these plants. This unique book, with a foreword by 1990 Nobel Laureate E.J. Corey, outlines the extensive history and the fascinating past and present uses of these plants, sorting out fact from fiction based upon detailed scrutiny of historic documents as well as numerous laboratories studies. Readers will be entertained and educated as they learn about early cultivation of garlic and other alliums while being introduced to the chemistry and biochemistry. They will learn how alliums have been portrayed and used in literature, poetry, the arts and how alliums are featured in the world's oldest cookbook. Technical material is presented in a manner understandable to a general audience, particularly through the use of illustrations to simplify more difficult concepts and explain how experimental work is conducted. The book is heavily illustrated with examples of alliums in art, literature, agriculture, medicine and other areas and includes rare botanical drawings of many members of the genus Allium. Essential reading for anyone with a general interest in science, the book is written at a level accessible to experts and non-experts alike. It has sufficient additional detail and references to satisfy both those wanting to know more, as well as researchers in disciplines as diverse as archaeology, medicine, ecology, pharmacology, food and plant sciences, agriculture, and organic chemistry.

Table of Contents

    Chapter 1 Allium Botany and Cultivation,       1  (32)
Ancient and Modern
1.1 Introduction 1 (2)
1.2 Allium Botany and Phytochemistry 3 (16)
1.2.1 The Naming of Alliums 3 (1)
1.2.2 Allium Botany 4 (8)
1.2.3 Allium Phytochemistry 12 (2)
1.2.4 Alliums as Ornamentals 14 (4)
1.2.5 Alliums as Invasive Weeds: Crow 18 (1)
Garlic
A. Vineale
1.3 Allium Cultivation in Ancient and 19 (14)
Modern Times
1.3.1 Alliums in Ancient Egypt and the 19 (5)
Mediterranean Basin
1.3.2 Alliums in Ancient India, China 24 (2)
and Medieval Europe
1.3.3 Alllium Cultivation Today 26 (7)
Chapter 2 All Things Allium: Alliums in 33 (27)
Literature, the Arts and Culture
2.1 Introduction 33 (1)
2.2 Alliums in Literature 34 (7)
2.3 Alliums in Poetry 41 (2)
2.4 Alliums in Film, Song and Ballet 43 (2)
2.5 Alliums in Painting 45 (2)
2.6 Alliums in Architecture: Onion and 47 (5)
Garlic Domes
2.7 Alliums Everywhere: Jewelry, 52 (2)
Numismatics, Stamps, Porcelain, and so
forth
2.8 Allium Usage Among Different Cultures 54 (6)
Since Biblical Times: Alliophiles,
Alliophobes, the Evil Eye and Onion Laws
Chapter 3 Allium Chemistry 101: Historical 60 (40)
Highlights, Fascinating Facts and Unusual
Uses for Alliums; Kitchen Chemistry
3.1 Introduction 60 (1)
3.2 Early History of Garlic and Onion 61 (5)
Chemistry
3.3 The Rensselaer Connection: Isolation 66 (6)
of Allicin from Chopped Garlic
3.4 The Basis for the Antibiotic Activity 72 (1)
of Allium-Derived Compounds
3.5 The Basis for the Pungency of Cut 73 (2)
Alliums
3.6 The Basis for the Strong Odor of Cut 75 (1)
Alliums
3.7 How Onion Makes us Cry and What to do 76 (1)
About it
3.8 No Tears from New Zealand: 77 (1)
Genetically Engineering the Tearless Onion
3.9 Determining the Geographical Origin 78 (1)
of Alliums
3.10 Metabolism of Compounds from 78 (8)
Alliums: Garlic Breath, Garlic Sweat, the
Case of the Black-Speckled Dolls, Stinky
Milk and an Ancient Fertility Test
3.10.1 Metabolism of Allium Compounds 79 (1)
3.10.2 Garlic Breath 80 (1)
3.10.3 Hydrogen Sulfide: Stinky but 81 (2)
Vital
3.10.4 The Case of the Black-Speckled 83 (1)
Dolls
3.10.5 Fighting Garlic Breath 84 (1)
Naturally; Chlorophyll as a Deodorant
for Garlic
3.10.6 Diagnostic Value of Garlic 84 (1)
Breath; Forensic Significance of
Garlic-like Odor
3.10.7 Stinky Milk 85 (1)
3.10.8 An Ancient Fertility Test 85 (1)
3.11 Alliums in Art: Dyeing with Onion 86 (5)
Skins and Garlic Glue in Gilding
3.12 Alliums in the Kitchen as Spices, 91 (9)
Herbs and Foods
3.12.1 Introduction 91 (2)
3.12.2 Onions in the Kitchen: The 93 (2)
Effect of Cooking Temperature
3.12.3 Garlic in the Kitchen: Crushing, 95 (5)
Baking, Boiling, Frying, Pickling and
Drying Garlic
Chapter 4 Chemistry in a Salad Bowl: Allium 100(124)
Chemistry and Biochemistry
4.1 The Basel Connection: Alliin, the 100(7)
Allicin-Precursor from Garlic
4.2 The Helsinki Connection: The Onion 107(7)
Lachrymatory Factor (LF) and its
Precursor, Isoalliin
4.2.1 Isoalliin, Precursor of the Onion 107(3)
Lachrymatory Factor (LF)
4.2.2 The Onion Lachrymatory Factor (LF) 110(4)
4.3 The St. Louis and Albany Connections: 114(18)
Revised Structures for Sulfenic Acids,
the Onion LF and the LF Dimer
4.4 A Tale of Two Enzymes: Alliinase, a 132(7)
Cellular Assembly Line for Allicin
Formation; LF Synthase, Making a Slow
Reaction Fast
4.4.1 Allicin from Alliin and why 132(6)
Allicin from Garlic is Racemic
4.4.2 The LF Synthase Enzyme 138(1)
4.5 The Aroma and Taste of Alliums: A 139(26)
Multitude of Flavor Precursors
4.5.1 Analysis by Paper and Thin Layer 139(3)
Chromatography
4.5.2 Analysis by High Performance 142(10)
Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and LC-MS
4.5.3 Gas Chromatographic Analysis of 152(1)
Distilled Allium Oils; Artifact Problems
4.5.3.1 Distilled Onion Oil 153(1)
4.5.3.2 Artifact Formation 154(3)
4.5.4 Ambient Mass Spectrometric Study 157(1)
of Alliums
4.5.4.1 Direct Analysis in Real Time 158(3)
(DART): A Mass Spectrometric Method for
Direct Observation of 2-Propenesulfenic
Acid, Propanethial S-Oxide, Allicin and
Other Reactive Allium Sulfur Compounds
4.5.4.2 Desorption Electrospray 161(1)
Ionization (DESI)
4.5.4.3 Extractive Electrospray 162(1)
Ionization (EESI)
4.5.4.4 Plasma-Assisted 162(1)
Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry
(PADI)
4.5.5 X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic 162(3)
Imaging of Onion Cells
4.5.6 Other Separation and Analysis 165(1)
Methods: Supercritical Fluid
Chromatography (SFC), Capillary
Electrophoresis and Cysteine
Sulfoxide-Specific Biosensors
4.6 Precursors of the Precursors, Alliin, 165(7)
Isoalliin and Methiin: Biosynthetic
Origins of Allium Sulfur Compounds
4.7 Allicin Transformations, Part 1: 172(18)
Garlic Oil Revisited
4.7.1 Allicin Wonderland 172(1)
4.7.2 Garlic Oil Formation by 173(1)
Hydrolysis of Allicin
4.7.3 Analytical Considerations; 174(4)
Coordination Ion Spray-Mass
Spectrometry (CIS-MS)
4.7.4 Analysis of Garlic Oil by Nuclear 178(3)
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
4.7.5 Synthesis of Symmetrical and 181(2)
Unsymmetrical Trisulfides and Heavier
Polysulfides
4.7.6 Mechanistic Considerations 183(7)
4.8 Allicin Transformations, Part 2: The 190(3)
Discovery of Ajoene
4.9 Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant Activity 193(3)
of Allium Compounds
4.10 The Munich/Nagoya Connection: 196(2)
Cepaenes, Nine-Carbon, Three-Sulfur,
One-Oxygen Molecules from Onion
4.11 From Munich to Albany: The Solution 198(9)
to a Chemical Puzzle - Zwiebelanes and a
Bis-sulfine
4.11.1 Discovery of Zwiebelanes 198(6)
4.11.2 Discovery of a Bis-sulfine 204(3)
4.11.3 Super Smelly Onion Compounds 207(1)
4.12 Silencing Genes Alters Natural 207(2)
Products Chemistry: The Tearless Onion
4.13 Garlic Greening, Onion Pinking and a 209(5)
Novel Red Pyrrole Pigment from
"Drumstick" Alliums
4.14 Selenium Compounds in Alliums 214(8)
4.15 Synopsis of Allium Chemistry 222(2)
Chapter 5 Alliums in Folk and Complementary 224(74)
Medicine
5.1 Early History of Alliums in Folk 224(8)
Medicine
5.2 Garlic Dietary Supplements: Marketing 232(7)
and Regulation
5.3 Garlic as Medicine: A Legal Ruling 239(1)
5.4 Health Benefits of Garlic and Other 240(4)
Alliums: Evidence-Based Review System for
Scientifically Evaluating Health Claims
and its Application to Evaluating Research
5.5 Antimicrobial Activity of Allium 244(10)
Extracts and Supplements: In vitro, In
vivo, Dietary and Clinical Studies
5.5.1 Antifungal Activity of Allium 246(2)
Compounds
5.5.2 Antibacterial Activity of Allium 248(2)
Compounds: Bad Breath - Disease or Cure?
5.5.3 The Garlic Mask Treatment for 250(1)
Tuberculosis
5.5.4 Antiparasitic Activity of Allium 251(2)
Compounds: In vitro Studies
5.5.5 Antiviral Activity of Allium 253(1)
Compounds
5.6 Alliums and Cancer: Dietary, In vitro 254(10)
and In vivo Studies
5.6.1 Evidence-based Review of Garlic 256(2)
Intake and Cancer Risk
5.6.2 Epidemiological Studies 258(1)
5.6.3 Clinical Trials: Use of Ajoene in 258(1)
Treating Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer and
Allicin in Gastroscopic Treatment of
Gastric Carcinoma
5.6.4 In vitro and In vivo Mechanistic 259(5)
Studies
5.7 The Effect of Dietary Garlic and 264(13)
Onions and Garlic Supplements on
Cardiovascular Disease
5.7.1 Epidemiological Studies 265(1)
5.7.2 In vitro and In vivo Studies 265(1)
Relevant to the Cardiovascular Benefits
of Allium Consumption
5.7.3 Allium Antioxidants 266(1)
5.7.4 The Effect of Dietary Garlic and 267(3)
Garlic Supplements on Cholesterol
Levels: The Stanford Clinical Trial
5.7.5 Antithrombotic Activity of 270(3)
Dietary Garlic and Other Alliums;
Garlic Supplements and their Effect on
Platelet Biochemistry and Physiology
5.7.6 Antihypertensive Activity of 273(3)
Dietary Garlic and Garlic Supplements
5.7.7 Dietary Garlic and Inflammation 276(1)
5.7.8 Garlic and Hyperhomocysteinemia 276(1)
5.7.9 Garlic and High-Altitude Sickness 276(1)
and Hepatopulmonary Syndrome
5.7.10 Summary of Cardiovascular 277(1)
Benefits of Garlic
5.8 Dietary Alliums and Diabetes 277(1)
5.9 Garlic Sulfur Compounds: Antidotes 278(1)
for Cyanide, Arsenic and Lead Poisoning
5.10 Dietary Alliums as Anti-asthmatic 279(3)
and Anti-inflammatory Agents and use for
Stings and Bites; Topical Allium Extract
Application and Scar Healing
5.11 Onion Consumption and Bone Loss 282(1)
5.12 Adverse Effects and Health Risks 283(5)
Associated with Allium Foods
5.12.1 How much Garlic can be Safely 283(1)
Consumed per Day?
5.12.2 Garlic Consumption by Pregnant 284(1)
or Lactating Women: Infant Bad Breath
5.12.3 How do Onions cause Gastric 285(1)
Reflux and Heartburn?
5.12.4 Allium-Linked Botulism and 285(1)
Hepatitus
5.12.5 Choking on Cloves 286(2)
5.12.6 Allium Allergies and Contact 288(1)
Dermatitis
5.13 Don't Feed your Pet Onion or Garlic! 288(2)
5.14 Adverse Effects and Herb-Drug 290(5)
Interactions from Medicinal Use of Garlic
5.14.1 Burns from Medicinal Use of 291(3)
Garlic
5.14.2 Garlic-Drug Interactions 294(1)
5.14.3 Effect of Garlic on Platelets 295(1)
and Blood Clotting Processes
5.15 Overview of the Clinical 295(3)
Effectiveness of Garlic
Chapter 6 Alliums in the Environment: 298(28)
Allelopathy and Allium-Derived Attractants,
Antibiotics, Herbicides, Pesticides and
Repellents
6.1 It's a Jungle Out There! 299(1)
6.2 Herbicidal and Pesticidal Activity of 300(7)
Allium Plants in their Natural Environment
6.2.1 Learning from Leeks 301(3)
6.2.2 An Assertive Plant: The Case of 304(3)
Bear's Garlic
A. Ursinum
6.3 Pesticidal and Antibiotic Activity 307(13)
and Insect Repellent Properties of
Compounds from Allium Plants
6.3.1 Nematodes 308(3)
6.3.2 Coleoptera (beetles), Lepidoptera 311(5)
(moths, butterflies), Hemiptera (true
bugs; includes aphids), and Diptera
(true flies; includes mosquitoes),
Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants) and
Isoptera (termites)
6.3.3 Arachnida (Acari: mites and ticks) 316(1)
6.3.4 Gastropods: Slugs and Snails 317(1)
6.3.5 Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, Fungi 318(2)
and Oomycetes: Phytoanticipins
6.4 Use of Onion as an Insect Repellent 320(1)
by Capuchine Monkeys
6.5 Bird Repellent Activity of Compounds 321(1)
from Allium Plants
6.6 Companion Planting/Intercropping with 322(3)
Alliums
6.7 Conclusions 325(1)
Bibliography 326(5)
References 331(64)
Appendix 1 Tables 395(10)
Appendix 2 Historical Illustrations of Alliums 405(29)
from Flora Germanica
Subject Index 434