無線通信の物理学的原理(第2版)<br>Physical Principles of Wireless Communications (2 Revised)

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無線通信の物理学的原理(第2版)
Physical Principles of Wireless Communications (2 Revised)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 279 p./サイズ 50 illus.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9781439878972
  • DDC分類 621.384

基本説明

This popular text describes the salient features of modern wireless commuincation systems integrated with rigorous analysis of the devices and physical mechanisms that constitute the physical layers of these systems.

Full Description


Updated and expanded, Physical Principles of Wireless Communications, Second Edition illustrates the relationship between scientific discoveries and their application to the invention and engineering of wireless communication systems. The second edition of this popular textbook starts with a review of the relevant physical laws, including Planck's Law of Blackbody Radiation, Maxwell's equations, and the laws of Special and General Relativity. It describes sources of electromagnetic noise, operation of antennas and antenna arrays, propagation losses, and satellite operation in sufficient detail to allow students to perform their own system designs and engineering calculations.Illustrating the operation of the physical layer of wireless communication systems-including cell phones, communication satellites, and wireless local area networks-the text covers the basic equations of electromagnetism, the principles of probability theory, and the operation of antennas. It explores the propagation of electromagnetic waves and describes the losses and interference effects that waves encounter as they propagate through cities, inside buildings, and to and from satellites orbiting the earth. Important natural phenomena are also described, including Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, ionospheric reflection, and tropospheric refraction.New in the Second Edition:Descriptions of 3G and 4G cell phone systemsDiscussions on the relation between the basic laws of quantum and relativistic physics and the engineering of modern wireless communication systemsA new section on Planck's Law of Blackbody RadiationExpanded discussions on general relativity and special relativity and their relevance to GPS system designAn expanded chapter on antennas that includes wire loop antennasExpanded discussion of shadowing correlations and their effect on cell phone system designThe text covers the physics of Geostationary Earth Orbiting satellites, Medium Earth Orbiting satellites, and Low Earth Orbiting satellites enabling students to evaluate and make first order designs of SATCOM systems. It also reviews the principles of probability theory to help them accurately determine the margins that must be allowed to account for statistical variation in path loss. The included problem sets and sample solutions provide students with the understanding of contemporary wireless systems needed to participate in the development of future systems.

Table of Contents

        List of Figures                            xvii
List of Tables xxiii
Preface to the First Edition xxv
Preface to the Second Edition xxvii
The Author xxix
Acknowledgments xxxi
Chapter 1 An Introduction to Modern 1 (38)
Wireless Communications
1.1 A Brief History of Wireless 1 (13)
Communications
1.1.1 Faraday, Maxwell, and Hertz: The 2 (4)
Discovery of Electromagnetic Waves
1.1.2 Guglielmo Marconi, Inventor of 6 (2)
Wireless Communications
1.1.3 Developments in the Vacuum 8 (3)
Electronics Era (1906 to 1947)
1.1.4 The Modern Era in Wireless 11 (3)
Communications (1947 to the Present)
1.2 Basic Concepts 14 (6)
1.2.1 Information Capacity of a 14 (1)
Communication Channel
1.2.2 Antenna Fundamentals 15 (1)
1.2.3 The Basic Layout of a Wireless 16 (2)
Communications System
1.2.4 Decibels and Link Budgets 18 (2)
1.3 Characteristics of Some Modern 20 (15)
Communication Systems
1.3.1 Mobile Communications (Frequency 20 (2)
Division Multiple Access, FDMA, and
Trunking)
1.3.2 Analog Cell Phone Systems 22 (5)
1.3.3 Digital Cell Phone Systems (Time 27 (1)
Division Multiple Access, TDMA, and
Code Division Multiple Access, CDMA)
1.3.4 Overview of Past, Present, and 28 (4)
Future Cell Phone Systems
1.3.5 Wireless Local Area Networks 32 (1)
(WLANs) of Computers
1.3.6 SATCOM Systems 33 (2)
1.4 The Plan of This Book 35 (4)
Problems 36 (1)
Bibliography 37 (2)
Chapter 2 Noise in Wireless Communications 39 (24)
2.1 Fundamental Noise Concepts 39 (7)
2.1.1 Radiation Resistance and Antenna 39 (1)
Efficiency
2.1.2 Nyquist Noise Theorem, Antenna 40 (4)
Temperature, and Receiver Noise
2.1.3 Equivalent Circuit of Antenna and 44 (2)
Receiver for Calculating Noise
2.2 Contributions to Antenna Temperature 46 (12)
2.2.1 Thermal Sources of Noise and 47 (3)
Blackbody Radiation
2.2.2 Cosmic Noise 50 (2)
2.2.3 Atmospheric Noise 52 (2)
2.2.4 Big Bang Noise (Cosmic Microwave 54 (4)
Background Radiation)
2.2.5 Noise Attenuation 58 (1)
2.3 Noise in Specific Systems 58 (5)
2.3.1 Noise in Pagers 58 (1)
2.3.2 Noise in Cell Phones 59 (1)
2.3.3 Noise in Millimeter-Wave SATCOM 60 (1)
Problems 61 (1)
Bibliography 62 (1)
Chapter 3 Antennas 63 (44)
3.1 Brief Review of Electromagnetism 63 (6)
3.1.1 Maxwell's Equations and Boundary 64 (4)
Conditions
3.1.2 Vector Potential and the 68 (1)
Inhomogeneous Helmholtz Equation
3.2 Radiation from a Hertzian Dipole 69 (17)
3.2.1 Solution of the Inhomogeneous 69 (3)
Helmholtz Equation in the Vector
Potential A
3.2.2 Near Fields and Far Fields of a 72 (2)
Hertzian Dipole
3.2.3 Basic Antenna Parameters 74 (2)
3.2.4 Directive Gain, D(φ,θ); 76 (2)
Directivity, D; and Gain, G
3.2.5 Radiation Resistance of a 78 (1)
Hertzian Dipole Antenna
3.2.6 Electrically Short Dipole Antenna 78 (4)
(Length << λ)
3.2.7 Small Loop Antennas 82 (4)
3.3 Receiving Antennas, Polarization, and 86 (11)
Aperture Antennas
3.3.1 Universal Relationship between 86 (4)
Gain and Effective Area
3.3.2 Friis Transmission Formula 90 (1)
3.3.3 Polarization Mismatch 90 (2)
3.3.4 A Brief Treatment of Aperture 92 (5)
Antennas
3.4 Thin-Wire Dipole Antennas 97 (10)
3.4.1 General Analysis of Thin-Wire 99 (2)
Dipole Antennas
3.4.2 The Half-Wave Dipole 101 (2)
Problems 103 (2)
Bibliography 105 (2)
Chapter 4 Antenna Arrays 107 (34)
4.1 Omnidirectional Radiation Pattern in 107 (7)
the Horizontal Plane with Vertical
Focusing
4.1.1 Arrays of Half-Wave Dipoles 107 (1)
4.1.2 Colinear Arrays 108 (2)
4.1.3 Colinear Arrays with Equal 110 (3)
Incremental Phase Advance
4.1.4 Elevation Control with a Phased 113 (1)
Colinear Antenna Array
4.2 Antennas Displaced in the Horizontal 114 (7)
Plane
4.2.1 Radiation Pattern of Two 115 (3)
Horizontally Displaced Dipoles
4.2.2 Broadside Arrays 118 (1)
4.2.3 Endfire Arrays 118 (1)
4.2.4 Smart Antenna Arrays 119 (2)
4.3 Image Antennas 121 (7)
4.3.1 The Principle of Images 121 (1)
4.3.2 Quarter-Wave Monopole above a 121 (2)
Conducting Plane
4.3.3 Antennas for Handheld Cell Phones 123 (1)
4.3.4 Half-Wave Dipoles and Reflectors 124 (4)
4.4 Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas 128 (13)
4.4.1 The TM10 Microstrip Patch Cavity 128 (2)
4.4.2 Duality in Maxwell's Equations 130 (2)
and Radiation from a Slot
4.4.3 Radiation from the Edges of a 132 (5)
Microstrip Cavity
4.4.4 Array of Microstrip Patch Antennas 137 (1)
Problems 138 (1)
Bibliography 139 (2)
Chapter 5 Radio Frequency (RF) Wave 141 (30)
Propagation
5.1 Some Simple Models of Path Loss in 142 (8)
Radio Frequency (RF) Wave Propagation
5.1.1 Free Space Propagation 142 (1)
5.1.2 Laws of Reflection and Refraction 143 (3)
at a Planar Boundary
5.1.3 Effect of Surface Roughness 146 (1)
5.1.4 Plane Earth Propagation Model 147 (3)
5.2 Diffraction over Single and Multiple 150 (10)
Obstructions
5.2.1 Diffraction by a Single Knife Edge 150 (6)
5.2.2 Deygout Method of Approximately 156 (1)
Treating Multiple Diffracting Edges
5.2.3 The Causebrook Correction to the 157 (3)
Deygout Method
5.3 Wave Propagation in an Urban 160 (11)
Environment
5.3.1 The Delisle/Egli Empirical 160 (1)
Expression for Path Loss
5.3.2 The Flat-Edge Model for Path Loss 161 (2)
from the Base Station to the Final
Street
5.3.3 Ikegami Model of Excess Path Loss 163 (1)
in the Final Street
5.3.4 The Walfisch-Bertoni Analysis of 164 (3)
the Parametric Dependence of Path Loss
Problems 167 (2)
Bibliography 169 (2)
Chapter 6 Statistical Considerations in 171 (32)
Designing Cell Phone Systems and Wireless
Local Area Networks (WLANs)
6.1 A Brief Review of Statistical Analysis 171 (2)
6.1.1 Random Variables 171 (2)
6.1.2 Random Processes 173 (1)
6.2 Shadowing 173 (12)
6.2.1 The Log-Normal Probability 174 (1)
Distribution Function
6.2.2 The Complementary Cumulative 174 (1)
Normal Distribution Function (Q
Function)
6.2.3 Calculating Margin and 175 (1)
Probability of Call Completion
6.2.4 Probability of Call Completion 176 (3)
Averaged over a Cell
6.2.5 Additional Signal Loss from 179 (1)
Propagating into Buildings
6.2.6 Shadowing Autocorrelation (Serial 180 (2)
Correlation)
6.2.7 Shadowing Cross-Correlation 182 (3)
6.3 Slow and Fast Fading 185 (9)
6.3.1 Slow Fading 185 (1)
6.3.2 Rayleigh Fading 186 (3)
6.3.3 Margin to Allow for Both 189 (1)
Shadowing and Rayleigh Fading
6.3.4 Bit Error Rates in Digital 189 (2)
Communications
6.3.5 Ricean Fading 191 (2)
6.3.6 Doppler Broadening 193 (1)
6.4 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) 194 (9)
6.4.1 Propagation Losses Inside 195 (3)
Buildings
6.4.2 Standards for WLANs 198 (1)
6.4.3 Sharing WLAN Resources 199 (1)
Problems 200 (1)
Bibliography 201 (2)
Chapter 7 Tropospheric and Ionospheric 203 (24)
Effects in Long-Range Communications
7.1 Extending the Range Using 203 (6)
Tropospheric Refraction
7.1.1 Limit on Line-of-Sight 203 (2)
Communications
7.1.2 Bouger's Law for Refraction by 205 (2)
Tropospheric Layers
7.1.3 Increase in Range Due to 207 (2)
Tropospheric Refraction
7.2 Long-Range Communications by 209 (7)
Ionospheric Reflection
7.2.1 The Ionospheric Plasma 209 (2)
7.2.2 Radio Frequency (RF) Wave 211 (3)
Interaction with Plasma
7.2.3 Sample Calculations of Maximum 214 (2)
Usable Frequency and Maximum Range in a
Communications System Based on
Ionospheric Reflection
7.3 Propagation through the Ionosphere 216 (11)
7.3.1 Time Delay of a Wave Passing 216 (1)
through the Ionosphere
7.3.2 Dispersion of a Wave Passing 217 (1)
through the Ionosphere
7.3.3 Faraday Rotation of the Direction 218 (6)
of Polarization in the Ionosphere
Problems 224 (1)
Bibliography 225 (2)
Chapter 8 Satellite Communications (SATCOM) 227 (30)
8.1 Satellite Fundamentals 227 (3)
8.1.1 Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) 227 (2)
8.1.2 Example of a GEO SATCOM System 229 (1)
8.2 SATCOM Signal Attenuation 230 (6)
8.2.1 Attenuation Due to Atmospheric 230 (1)
Gases
8.2.2 Attenuation Due to Rain 231 (3)
8.2.3 The Rain Rate Used in SATCOM 234 (2)
System Design
8.3 Design of GEO SATCOM Systems 236 (8)
8.3.1 Noise Calculations for SATCOM 236 (4)
8.3.2 Design of GEO SATCOM System for 240 (4)
Wideband Transmission
8.4 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) Satellites 244 (3)
8.4.1 Global Positioning System (GPS) 244 (1)
8.4.2 General Relativity, Special 244 (3)
Relativity, and the Synchronization of
Clocks
8.5 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Communication 247 (10)
Satellites
8.5.1 The Iridium LEO SATCOM System 248 (1)
8.5.2 Path Loss in LEO SATCOM 249 (3)
8.5.3 Doppler Shift in LEO SATCOM 252 (1)
Problems 253 (1)
Bibliography 254 (3)
Appendix A 257 (2)
Appendix B 259 (2)
Appendix C 261 (2)
Nomenclature 263 (8)
English Alphabet 263 (6)
Greek Alphabet 269 (2)
Index 271