Key Features: A summary of the basic physics of DC plasma and the utilization of the plasma in the sputtering environment; The transient charging characteristics of the target during reactive sputtering of insulating films are discussed in detail; and more.
Diffusion Barrier Stack - 5 nm -3 nm -2 nm :. . . -. . . . : . . O. 21-lm Figure 2: Schematic representing a cross-sectional view of the topography that is encountered in the processing of integrated circuits. (Not to scale) these sub-micron sized features is depicted in Fig. 2. The role of the diffusion barrier is to prevent the diffusion of metallic ions into the interlayer dielectric (lLD). Depending on the technology, in particular the choice of the ILD and the metal interconnect, the diffusion barrier may be Ti, Ta, TiN, TaN, or a multi-layered structure of these materials. The adhesion of the barrier to the dielectric, the conformality of the barrier to the feature, the physical structure of the film, and the chemical composition of the film are key issues that are determined in part by the nature of the deposition process. Likewise, after the growth of the barrier, a conducting layer (the seed layer) is needed for subsequent filling of the trench by electrochemical deposition. Again, the growth process must be able to deposit a film that is continuous along the topography of the sub-micron sized features. Other factors of concern are the purity and the texture of the seed layer, as both of these factors influence the final resistivity of the metallic interconnect. Sputter-deposited coatings are also commonly employed for their electro-optical properties. For example, an electrochromic glazing is used to control the flux of light that is transmitted through a glazed material.
1: Introduction. 1. Overview Of Sputtering For Technological Applications. 2. Plasma-Surface Interactions. 3. Charging Of Insulating Surfaces. 4. Overview Of The Monograph.
2:Basic Plasma Phenomenon. 1. The Plasma State. 2. Basic Plasma Structure. 3. Collisions. 4. Summary.
3: Plasma Sources Used For Sputter Deposition. 1. Direct Current (DC) Sources. 2. Alternating Current (AC) Sources. 3. Summary.
4: Response Of A Plasma To An Applied Bias. 1. General Considerations And Approximations. 2. Quasi-Static Approximation Of The Sheath. 3. Breakdown Of The Quasi-Static Approximation. 4. Transient Nature Of The Sheath. 5. Summary.
5: Sinusoidal Waveform. 1. Quasi-Static Regime. 2. Transient Sheath Regime. 3. Summary.
6: Pulsed Waveform. 1. Definition Of The Pulse. 2. Quasi-Static Response Of The System To An Applied Pulse. 3. Approximated Predictions Of Energy Spectra. 4. Higher Frequency Response Of The System To The Pulsed Waveform. 5. Comparison Between Sinusoidal And Pulsed Waveforms. 6. Summary.
7: Application Of A Pulsed Waveform To A Target: Pulsed Reactive Sputtering. 1. Introduction. 2. Application Of A Pulse For Arc Suppression (Predictions). 3. Application Of A Pulse To Reactive Sputtering (Practice). 4. Summary.
8: Application Of A Pulsed Waveform To A Substrate: Pulsed Bias Sputtering. 1. Introduction. 2. Considerations For Pulsed Biasing Of The Substrate. 3. Observed Flux Of Charge To A Pulsed Substrate. 4. Application Of A Pulsed Bias To Film Growth. 5. Summary.
9: Conclusions And Future Directions. 1. Conclusions. 2. Future Directions.