茶の化学および健康増進に関わる特質<br>Tea and Tea Products : Chemistry and Health-Promoting Properties (Nutraceutical Science and Technology) (1ST)

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茶の化学および健康増進に関わる特質
Tea and Tea Products : Chemistry and Health-Promoting Properties (Nutraceutical Science and Technology) (1ST)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 305 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780849380822
  • DDC分類 663.9'4

基本説明

Provides extensive coverage of the chemistry, biology, and health promoting properties of most teas including back, green, and oolong.

Full Description


The past decade has seen considerable interest and progress in unraveling the beneficial health effects of tea, particularly its polyphenolic components and its antioxidant activity. Understanding the science behind the claims will help in the production and marketing of teas and tea products. Pulling together recent research and presenting it in an organized format, Tea and Tea Products discusses the manufacturing and chemistry of various teas including green, black, Pu-erh, white, and GABA teas.Emphasizing black and green teas equally, the book presents comprehensive and up-to-date reviews and perspectives on the chemistry of tea components and the molecular biology of green tea catechins and black tea theaflavins. It covers the analysis, formation mechanisms, and bioavailability of tea polyphenols and discusses bioactivities of teas including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anti diabetes. Increased awareness of the many health benefits of tea has fueled an increase in the market for ready to drink teas and tea products in general that will continue to grow. This expanding market requires a resource that provides the evidence. The editors of this volume have more than 100 research publications in tea, and experience in editing more than 50 books between them. Under their expertise and editorial guidance, the contributors present chapters that explore the science behind the health claims of teas.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            vii
Editors ix
Contributors xi
1 Green Tea and Black Tea
Manufacturing and Consumption 1
Xiaochun Wan, Daxiang Li, and Zhengzhu
Zhang
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Green Tea Manufacturing 2
1.3 Black Tea Manufacturing 3
1.4 Tea Consumption 5
1.4.1 Green Tea Consumption 6
1.4.2 Black Tea Consumption 7
1.5 Conclusion 8
References 8
2 Pu-erh Tea
Its Manufacturing and Health Benefits 9
Huai-Yuan Chen, Shoei-Yn Lin-Shiau, and
Jen-Kun Lin
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Manufacturing of Pu-erh Tea 10
2.2.1 Classical Pressing Method 10
2.2.2 Wet-Piling Method 12
2.3 Health Benefits of Pu-erh Tea 13
2.3.1 Health Benefits as Described in 13
Folk Medicine
2.3.2 The Hypolipidemic and Antiobesity 13
Effects of Pu-erh Tea
2.3.3 Inhibition of Plasma Lipid 14
through Suppressing Hepatic Fatty Acid
Synthase
2.3.4 Suppression of Plasma Uric Acid 14
by Inhibiting Xanthine Oxidase
Acknowledgments 15
References 15
3 White Tea
Its Manufacture, Chemistry, and Health 17
Effects
He-Yuan Jiang
3.1 Introduction 17
3.2 Manufacturing of White Tea 18
3.2.1 Silver Needle with White Hair 19
3.2.2 White Peony 19
3.3 Main Constituents of White Tea 20
3.3.1 Water 20
3.3.2 Enzymes 20
3.3.3 Polyphenols 21
3.3.4 Amino Acids 22
3.3.5 Carbohydrates 22
3.3.6 Other Chemicals 23
3.3.7 Chemicals in White Hair 23
3.4 Health Benefits of White Tea 25
3.4.1 Health-Beneficial Components 25
3.4.2 Anticarcinogenicity 26
3.4.3 Antioxidant Activity 27
3.4.4 Antimicrobial Activity 27
References 27
4 Biological Functions and Manufacturing of 31
GABA Tea
Andi Shau-mei Ou, Yung-sheng Tsai, and
Hsueh-fang Wang
4.1 Introduction 32
4.2 Invention of GABA Tea 32
4.3 Biological Functions of GABA 32
4.3.1 GABA and Hypertension 33
4.3.2 GABA and Depression 33
4.3.3 GABA and Sleep 34
4.3.4 GABA and Alcoholism 34
4.3.5 GABA and Growth Hormone 34
4.3.6 GABA and Diabetes 35
4.3.7 GABA and Parkinson's Disease 35
4.3.8 GABA and Epilepsy 36
4.4 Pathway for the Formation of GABA in 36
Tea
4.5 The Manufacturing of GABA Tea 37
4.5.1 GABA Accumulation 38
4.5.2 The Basic Procedure of 39
Manufacturing GABA Tea
4.5.3 The Effect of Different Gas 39
Treatments on the Content of GABA in Tea
4.5.4 The Effect of Different Sources 40
of Fresh Tea Leaves on the Content of
GABA in Tea
4.5.5 The Effects of N2 Treatment 41
Temperature and Duration on the Content
of GABA in Tea
4.5.6 The New Techniques for Increasing 42
the Content of GABA in Tea
4.5.6.1 Anaerobic輸erobic Fermentation 42
4.5.6.2 Microwave Irradiation 43
4.5.6.3 Infrared Irradiation 43
4.5.6.4 Addition of Sodium Glutamate 44
Solution
4.6 The Biological Functions of GABA Tea 44
4.7 Conclusions 49
References 52
5 Production of Theaflavins, Theasinensins, 59
and Related Polyphenols during Tea
Fermentation
Takashi Tanaka, Yosuke Matsuo, and Isao
Kouno
5.1 Introduction 59
5.2 Model Fermentation Experiments 61
5.3 Production and Oxidation of 62
Theaflavins
5.4 Oxidation of Catechol-Type Catechins 64
5.5 Oxidation of Pyrogallol-Type 66
Catechins and Formation of Theasinensins
5.6 Polyphenol with a Theanine Strecker 68
Aldehyde Moiety
5.7 Another Pathway for Benzotropolone 70
Formation
5.8 Why Are Black Tea Polyphenols So 71
Complex?
References 73
6 Analytical Methods for Bioactive Compounds 77
in Teas
Chi-Chun Wong, Ka-Wing Cheng, Jianfei Chao,
Xiaofang Peng, Zongping Zheng, Jiajun Wu,
Feng Chen, and Mingfu Wang
6.1 Introduction 78
6.2 Analysis of Catechins 79
6.2.1 Sample Preparation 79
6.2.2 HPLC 80
6.2.3 HPLC-MS 82
6.2.4 HPLC Electrochemical Detection 85
6.2.5 HPLC芳luorescence Detection 86
6.2.6 HPLC砲hemiluminescence Detection 87
6.2.7 Capillary Electrophoresis 88
6.2.7.1 CZE 88
6.2.7.2 MEKC 89
6.2.7.3 MEEKC 89
6.2.8 Near-Infrared Reflectance 90
Spectroscopy (NIRS)
6.2.9 NMR 91
6.2.10 High-Speed Countercurrent 91
Chromatography (HSCCC)
6.2.11 Planar Chromatography 92
6.2.12 Gas Chromatography (GC) 93
6.2.13 Spectrophotometry 93
6.3 Analysis of Theaflavins 94
6.3.1 HPLC剖V Detection 94
6.3.2 LC-MS 95
6.3.3 LC胞lectrochemical Detection 95
6.3.4 CE 96
6.3.5 HSCCC 96
6.3.6 Spectrophotometry 96
6.4 Analysis of Methyl Xanthines 97
6.4.1 HPLC剖V Detection 97
6.4.2 LC-MS 98
6.4.3 CE 99
6.5 Analysis of Thearubigins 100
6.5.1 Spectrophotometry 100
6.5.2 Mass Spectrometry 101
6.6 Conclusions 102
References 102
7 Bioavailability and Metabolism of Tea 111
Catechins in Human Subjects
Ting Sun, Chi-Tang Ho, and Fereidoon Shahidi
7.1 Introduction 111
7.2 Bioavailability and Metabolism of Tea 112
Catechins in Humans
7.2.1 Absorption 113
7.2.2 Bioavailability and 113
Biotransformation
7.2.2.1 Pharmacokinetic Study and 113
Metabolism In Vivo
7.2.2.2 Microbial Metabolism 120
7.2.3 Tissue Distribution 121
7.2.4 Excretion 122
7.2.5 Comparison of Pharmacokinetic 122
Parameters of Tea Catechins
7.3 Difference between Human and Rat in 124
the Metabolites of Tea Catechins
7.4 Bioavailability of Catechins Affected 124
by Pure or Mixed Form and Food Matrix
7.5 In Vivo Biological Activities of Tea 125
Catechins
7.6 Toxicity of Tea Catechins 126
7.7 Conclusion 126
References 127
8 Antioxidant Properties and Mechanisms of 131
Tea Polyphenols
Xiaochun Wan, Daxiang Li, and Zhengzhu Zhang
8.1 Introduction 131
8.1.1 Catechins 132
8.1.2 Flavonol and Glycosides 132
8.1.3 Anthocyanidin and 134
Leucoanthocyanidin
8.1.4 Phenolic Acids and Depsides 135
8.2 Structural Characteristics of Tea 135
Polyphenols
8.3 Antioxidant Properties and Mechanisms 139
of Tea Polyphenols
8.3.1 Antioxidant Properties of Tea 140
Polyphenols
8.3.2 Antioxidant Mechanisms of Tea 141
Polyphenols
8.3.2.1 Scavenging Reactive Oxygen 141
Species
8.3.2.2 Chelating Metal Ions to Prevent 153
Oxidation
8.3.2.3 Regulation Enzymes or Genes 153
Related to Oxidation or Antioxidation
8.4 Conclusions 155
References 155
9 Mechanisms of Cancer Chemoprevention by Tea 161
and Tea Polyphenols
Jen-Kun Lin
9.1 Introduction 161
9.2 Health Effects of Tea and Tea 163
Polyphenols
9.3 Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms 163
of Cancer Chemoprevention by Tea and Tea
Polyphenols
9.3.1 Antioxidative Effects and 166
Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species
9.3.2 Suppression of Tumor 166
Proliferation through Mitogenic
Signaling Blockade
9.3.3 Inhibition of MAPK Signaling 167
9.3.4 Inhibition of PI3K Pathway 167
9.3.5 Inhibition of Cell Cycle 167
Progression
9.3.6 Suppression of iNOS Signaling 168
9.3.7 Suppression of NF-KB Activation 168
through Downregulating IKB Kinase
9.3.8 Inhibition of Proteasome Activity 169
9.3.9 Inhibition of Matrix 169
Metalloproteinase (MMP)
9.3.10 Induction of Apoptosis 169
9.3.11 Suppression of Fatty Acid 171
Synthase (FAS)
9.4 General Remarks on the Mechanisms of 171
Cancer Chemoprevention
9.5 Conclusions 173
Acknowledgments 174
References 174
10 Effect of Tea and Tea Constituents on 177
Inflammation
Divya Ramji, Mou-Tuan Huang, Fereidoon
Shahidi, and Chi-Tang Ho
10.1 Introduction 177
10.2 Inflammation 177
10.3 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Tea 180
References 186
11 Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cell 191
Proliferation by Theaflavins and
Epigallocatechin 3-gallate through Suppressing
Proteasomal Activities
Jen-Kun Lin, Yu-Wen Chen, and Shoei-Yn
Lin-Shiau
11.1 Introduction 192
11.2 Inhibition of Tea Polyphenols on 193
Proteasomal Activities
11.2.1 Tea Polyphenols and Gallates 193
11.2.2 20S and 26S Proteasomes 194
11.2.3 Cell Culture and Cell Extract 194
Preparation
11.2.4 Assay for Purified 20S and 26S 194
Proteasome Activity
11.2.5 Assay for the Proteasome 194
Activity in Whole Cell Extracts
11.2.6 Luminescence ATP Detection Assay 195
11.3 Inhibition of Proteasomal Activities 195
in Cancer Cells by Tea Polyphenols
11.3.1 Growth Inhibitory Effects of the 195
Tea Polyphenols on Cancer Cells
11.3.2 Comparison of the Inhibitory 195
Effect of the Black Tea Polyphenols on
Purified Proteasome Activity Derived
from Different Sources
11.3.3 Inhibition of the Proteasomal 198
Activities in Tumor Cell Extracts by
the Black Tea Polyphenols
11.3.4 Inhibition of the 199
Chymotrypsin-like Activity of Purified
Proteasomes by Galloyl-Ester砲ontaining
Polyphenols
11.3.5 The Possible Contribution of the 201
Galloyl Group of Polyphenols on
Inhibition of the Proteasome
11.4 General Remarks on the Inhibition 202
Mechanisms of Tea Polyphenols
11.4.1 Proteasome Inhibition and Cancer 202
Chemoprevention
11.4.2 Involvement of p53 in Proteasome 204
Inhibition
11.4.3 The Role of Galloyl Structure in 204
Proteasome Inhibition
11.4.4 Proposed Molecular Mechanism of 205
Proteasome Inhibition by Tea Polyphenols
Acknowledgments 206
References 207
12 Suppression of Prostate Carcinogenesis by 211
Tea Polyphenols through Inhibiting Microsomal
Aromatase and 5α-Reductase.
Jen-Kun Lin
12.1 Introduction 211
12.2 Aromatase and 5α-Reductase in 212
Estradiol Biosynthesis
12.3 Inhibition of Aromatase by Tea 213
Polyphenols
12.4 Inhibition of 5α-Reductase by 214
Finasteride and Dutasteride
12.5 Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer 214
with Finasteride
12.6 Inhibition of 5α-Reductase by 215
Tea Polyphenols
12.7 Inhibitory Effects of Tea 215
Polyphenols and 5GG on the Expression of
Androgen Receptor Protein
12.8 Inhibitory Effects of TF3 and 5GG 216
on the Expression of Androgen Regulated
Gene (PSA)
12.9 Inhibitory Effects of Tea 216
Polyphenols and 5GG on Cell Proliferation
of LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells
12.10 The Mechanism of Prostate Cancer 216
Chemoprevention by Tea and Tea Polyphenols
Acknowledgments and Notes 217
References 218
13 Green Tea-Induced Thermogenesis Controlling 221
Body Weight
John Shi, Sophia Jun Xue, and Yukio Kakuda
13.1 Introduction 221
13.2 Effects of Catechins (EGCG, ECG, 222
EGC, and EC) on Catechol-O-Methyl
Transferase
13.3 Tea Catechins and the Treatment of 228
Obesity
13.4 Conclusion and Discussion 230
Acknowledgments 231
References 231
14 Fermented Tea Is More Effective Than 233
Unfermented Tea in Suppressing Lipogenesis and
Obesity
Jen-Kun Lin and Shoei-Yn Lin-Shiau
14.1 Introduction 233
14.2 Inhibition of the Body Weight of 234
Rodents by Tea and Tea Polyphenols
14.3 Inhibition of Lipogenesis by Tea and 235
Tea Polyphenols
14.4 Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase by 235
Tea Polyphenols In Vitro
14.5 Suppression of Fatty Acid Synthase 236
by Tea Polyphenols In Vivo
14.6 Enhancement of Cellular Energy 236
Expenditure by Tea Drinking
14.7 General Discussion on the Action 238
Mechanisms of Antiobesity Effects of Tea
14.8 Conclusion 240
Acknowledgments and Notes 241
References 241
15 Trapping of Methylglyoxal by Tea Polyphenols 245
Di Tan, Chih-Yu Lo, Xi Shao, Yu Wang,
Shengmin Sang, Fereidoon Shahidi, and
Chi-Tang Ho
15.1 Introduction 245
15.2 Methylglyoxal 246
15.2.1 Analytical Methods for 247
Quantification of Glyoxal and
Methylglyoxal
15.3 Effects of Tea and Its Polyphenols 248
on Diabetes
15.3.1 Human Studies 248
15.3.2 Animal Study 248
15.3.3 In Vivo Study 249
15.3.4 Effects of Tea and Its 249
Polyphenols on Diabetes-Related
Complications and AGE Formation
15.4 Reaction of MG with Tea Polyphenols 249
15.4.1 Detection and Quantification of 249
Methylglyoxal with GC System
15.4.2 Trapping of Methylglyoxal by Tea 250
Polyphenolic Compounds
15.5 Summary and Conclusions 251
References 253
16 Chemistry and Biological Properties of 255
Theanine
Xiaochun Wan, Zhengzhu Zhang, and Daxiang Li
16.1 Introduction 255
16.2 Biosynthesis of Theanine in Tea Plant 257
16.3 Production of Theanine 258
16.3.1 Biosynthesis of Theanine 258
16.3.2 Chemical Synthesis of Theanine 259
16.4 Biological Properties of Theanine 261
16.4.1 Fate of Theanine after Oral 262
Ingestion
16.4.2 Theanine Influences the Release 262
and Concentration of Several
Neurotransmitters
16.4.3 Relaxation Effect 262
16.4.4 Improvement of Learning Ability 263
16.4.5 Regulation of Blood Pressure 264
16.4.6 Neuroprotection 264
16.4.7 Theanine Reduces the Adverse 267
Reactions of Doxorubicin by Changing
the Glutathione Level
16.4.7.1 Tumor Development Inhibitor 267
16.4.7.2 Chemotherapeutic Drug 267
Enhancement
16.5 Additional Benefits of Theanine 269
16.5.1 Inhibition of the Stimulating 269
Effects of Caffeine
16.5.2 Promotion of Weight Loss 269
16.5.3 Enhancement of Immune System 269
16.6 Conclusions 270
References 271
17 Flavor Stability of Tea Drinks 275
Hideki Masuda
17.1 Introduction 275
17.2 Manufacturing Process of Tea Drinks 275
17.3 Flavor Stability of Green Tea Drinks 278
17.4 Flavor Stability of Black Tea Drinks 291
17.5 Conclusions 293
Acknowledgment 294
References 297
Index 301