Examines the nature and aspects of the 'criminal career' through the longitudinal analysis of 45,000 Danish offenders.
How can the average 'criminal career' be characterized and how common are career criminals? Does offending become more specialized and/or more serious as people get older? Do female careers in crime differ from those of males in substance or only in magnitude? Britta Kyvsgaard examines these questions through her longitudinal analysis of the life circumstances and criminal pursuits of 45,000 Danish offenders. This 2002 book provides a remarkably broad assessment of the full spectrum of criminal career patterns. The data, unparalleled in size and quality, allows powerful analyses of criminal behavior, even among relatively small demographic subgroups. Kyvsgaard is thus able to make solid assessments of offending patterns for males and females, juveniles and middle-aged adults, and employed and unemployed individuals. Furthermore, she examines the empirical evidence of the effects of deterrence and incapacitation. Her findings suggest rehabilitation as an alternative worthy of further research.
1. The career concept in criminological research; Part I. Objectives, Methodology and Sample: 2. Objectives; 3. Methodology and Validity; 4. Data and Data Quality; 5. The longitudinal design; 6. Crime trends and criminal policy in Denmark; Part II. The Criminal Career: 7. Prevalence; 8. Individual crime frequencies; 9. Criminal onset; 10. Recidivism and duration of the criminal career; 11. Desistance from the criminal career; 12. Specialization or versatility in the type of offenses; 13. Escalation in the seriousness of crime; Part III. Sanctions and Deterrence: 14. The incapacitative effects of sanctions; 15. The deterrent effect of sanctions; 16. Punishment, treatment, and the pendulum; Part IV. Discussion of Results: 17. The contributions and challenges of criminal career research.