言語類型論と統語論的記述(第2版)1:節構造<br>Language Typology and Syntactic Description : Clause Structure 〈1〉 (2ND)

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言語類型論と統語論的記述(第2版)1:節構造
Language Typology and Syntactic Description : Clause Structure 〈1〉 (2ND)

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基本説明

Contents: 1. Parts-of-speech systems Paul Schachter and Timothy Shopen; 2. Word Order Matthew S. Dryer; 3. The major functions of the noun phrase Avery D. Andrews; 4. Clause types Matthew S. Dryer; 5. Speech act distinctions in grammar Ekkehard König and Peter Siemund; 6. Passive in the world’s languages Edward L. Keenan and Matthew S. Dryer; 7. A typology of information packaging in the clause William A. Foley.

Full Description


This unique three-volume survey brings together a team of leading scholars to explore the syntactic and morphological structures of the world's languages. Clearly organized and broad-ranging, it covers topics such as parts-of-speech, passives, complementation, relative clauses, adverbial clauses, inflectional morphology, tense, aspect, mood, and diexis. The contributors look at the major ways that these notions are realized, and provide informative sketches of them at work in a range of languages. Each volume is accessibly written and clearly explains each new concept introduced. Although the volumes can be read independently, together they provide an indispensable reference work for all linguists and fieldworkers interested in cross-linguistic generalizations. Volume I covers parts-of-speech systems, word order, the noun phrase, clause types, speech act distinctions, the passive, and information packaging in the clause.

Table of Contents

        List of figures                            xi
List of tables xii
List of contributors xiii
Acknowledgements xiv
List of abbreviations and symbols xvi
Parts-of-speech systems 1 (60)
Paul Schachter
Timothy Shopen†
Introduction 1 (2)
Open classes 3 (19)
Nouns 5 (4)
Verbs 9 (4)
Adjectives 13 (6)
Adverbs 19 (3)
Closed classes 22 (38)
Pronouns and other pro-forms 24 (10)
Noun adjuncts 34 (6)
Verb adjuncts 40 (5)
Conjunctions 45 (7)
Other closed classes 52 (8)
Suggestions for further reading 60 (1)
Word order 61 (71)
Matthew S. Dryer
Introduction 61 (1)
Some basic word order correlations 61 (12)
Verb-final languages 61 (3)
Verb-initial languages 64 (4)
svo languages 68 (3)
Object-initial languages 71 (1)
Interim summary 72 (1)
Conclusion 73 (1)
Identifying basic word order 73 (5)
Identifying constructions 78 (9)
cross-linguistically
Identifying the order of subject, 78 (1)
object, and verb
Identifying subjects 78 (1)
The order of subject, object, and verb 79 (1)
Lexical noun phrases versus pronouns 80 (1)
Identification of manner adverbs 80 (1)
Identification of prepositions and 81 (1)
postpositions
Adpositions versus case affixes 82 (1)
Case affixes versus adpositional clitics 82 (3)
Adpositions and relational nouns 85 (1)
Languages without adpositions 86 (1)
Identification of genitives 86 (1)
Alienable versus inalienable possession 86 (1)
Lexical genitives versus possessive 87 (1)
pronouns
Exceptions to word order generalizations 87 (2)
Other word order characteristics that 89 (7)
correlate with the order of object and
verb bidirectionally
Verb and adpositional phrases 89 (1)
Verb and non-argument noun phrases 90 (1)
Main verb and auxiliary verb 90 (1)
Copula verb and predicate 91 (1)
Question particles 91 (2)
Complementizer and clause 93 (1)
Article and noun 94 (2)
Subordinate and main clause 96 (1)
Word order characteristics that correlate 96 (5)
with the order of object and verb
unidirectionally
Noun and relative clause 96 (2)
Plural word and noun 98 (1)
Intermediate unidirectional and 99 (1)
bidirectional cases
Subordinator and clause 99 (1)
Complementizer and clause 100 (1)
Word order characteristics that do not 101 (7)
correlate with the order of object and
verb
Adjective and noun 101 (1)
The absence of a correlation with the 101 (1)
order of object and verb
Identifying adjectives 102 (2)
Demonstrative and noun 104 (1)
Numeral and noun 105 (1)
Negative particle and verb 105 (2)
Tense-aspect particle and verb 107 (1)
Degree word and adjective 107 (1)
Other typological characteristics 108 (2)
correlating with the order of object and
verb
Position of interrogative expressions 108 (2)
in content questions
Affix position 110 (1)
The use of case in distinguishing 110 (1)
transitive arguments
Other sorts of implicational 110 (1)
generalizations
Order among elements at the same level 111 (2)
Languages with flexible word order 113 (1)
Typological versus language-particular 114 (1)
description of word order
Examples of summaries of word order 115 (14)
properties
Siyin Chin 116 (4)
Batad Ifugao 120 (9)
Summary 129 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 130 (2)
The major functions of the noun phrase 132 (92)
Avery D. Andrews
Introduction 132 (3)
Preliminaries 135 (17)
Semantic roles 135 (2)
Agent and patient 137 (3)
Other semantic roles 140 (1)
Coding strategies 141 (1)
Order and arrangement 141 (1)
NP-marking 142 (3)
Cross-referencing 145 (3)
Pragmatic functions 148 (1)
Topics and topic--comment articulation 149 (1)
Focus-presupposition articulation 150 (1)
Thetic articulation 150 (2)
Overview of grammatical functions 152 (12)
Types of grammatical function 152 (2)
External functions 154 (3)
Oblique functions 157 (1)
Obliques (PPS) in English 157 (4)
Obliques in Warlpiri 161 (3)
Core grammatical functions 164 (33)
Subjects 165 (1)
A concept of subject 166 (1)
Subjects and coding features in 166 (2)
ordinary main clauses
Subject ellipsis 168 (6)
Coding features in non-main clauses 174 (2)
Switch reference 176 (1)
Reflexivization 177 (2)
Other properties of subjects 179 (1)
Other core grammatical relations 180 (1)
Direct objects and second objects 180 (8)
Indirect objects 188 (3)
Other core relations 191 (2)
Syntactic ergativity 193 (4)
Reconsidering grammatical relations 197 (25)
Mixed syntactic ergativity 198 (4)
The Philippine type 202 (9)
The universal status of a- and 211 (1)
p-subjects
Manipuri 212 (4)
Split intransitivity 216 (6)
Conclusion 222 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 222 (2)
Clause types 224 (52)
Matthew S. Dryer
Introduction 224 (1)
Nonverbal predicates 224 (26)
Types of copulas 225 (2)
Adjectival predicates 227 (2)
Nominal predicates 229 (4)
Equational clauses versus clauses with 233 (3)
true nominal predicates
Optional copulas 236 (2)
Locative predicates / existential 238 (1)
clauses
Locative copulas 238 (2)
Existential clauses 240 (4)
Existential clauses for expressing 244 (2)
predicate possession
Other types of existential clauses 246 (1)
Minor types of clauses with nonverbal 247 (3)
predicates
Verbal predicates 250 (25)
Transitive versus intransitive clauses 250 (1)
Ergative versus accusative patterns 251 (2)
Ditransitive clauses 253 (6)
Subtypes of intransitive clauses 259 (1)
Stative versus nonstative clauses 259 (2)
Split intransitivity 261 (6)
Zero-intransitive (or ambient) clauses 267 (3)
Semi-transitive clauses 270 (4)
Clauses with derived verbs 274 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 275 (1)
Speech act distinctions in grammar 276 (49)
Ekkehard Konig
Peter Siemund
Speech acts and sentence types 276 (8)
Declarative sentences 284 (6)
Declaratives in relation to the other 285 (3)
basic types
Interaction with evidentiality 288 (2)
Interrogative sentences 290 (13)
Polar interrogatives 292 (1)
International marking 292 (2)
Interrogative particles 294 (2)
Interrogative tags 296 (1)
Disjunctive-negative structures 297 (1)
Change in the order of constituents 298 (1)
Verbal inflection 299 (1)
Constituent interrogatives 299 (4)
Imperative sentences 303 (13)
Positive imperatives 304 (4)
Negative imperatives (prohibitives) 308 (3)
Indirect strategies 311 (2)
Related constructions 313 (3)
Some minor sentence types 316 (6)
Exclamatives 316 (2)
Echo questions 318 (1)
Nonfinite preservatives 319 (1)
Answers to questions 320 (2)
Summary and conclusion 322 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 323 (2)
Passive in the world's languages 325 (37)
Edward L. Keenan
Matthew S. Dryer
Introduction 325 (1)
Passive as a foregrounding and 325 (3)
backgrounding operation
Basic passives 328 (14)
General properties of basic passives 328 (4)
The syntactic form of basic passives 332 (1)
Strict morphological passives 333 (3)
Periphrastic passives 336 (3)
The semantics of basic passives 339 (1)
Aspectual differences 340 (1)
Degree of subject affectedness 341 (1)
Non-basic passives 342 (10)
Passives with agent phrases 342 (1)
Agent phrases in non-passive 342 (1)
constructions
The form of agent phrases 343 (2)
Passives on non-transitive verbs 345 (3)
Passives on ditransitive verb phrases 348 (2)
Other passives with non-patient subjects 350 (2)
Constructions that resemble passives 352 (7)
Middles 352 (2)
Unspecified subject constructions 354 (2)
Inverses 356 (3)
Antipassives 359 (1)
The functional load of passive in grammars 359 (2)
Suggestions for further reading 361 (1)
A typology of information packaging in the 362 (85)
clause
William A. Foley
Introduction 362 (2)
On verbal semantics and packaging options 364 (19)
Conceptual events, participants, and 364 (6)
perspective
Parameters governing actor choices 370 (4)
Parameters governing undergoer choices 374 (6)
Intransitive verbs and the 380 (3)
unaccusative/unergative split
On argument structure and pivots 383 (19)
The nature of argument structure 383 (6)
The notion of pivot 389 (5)
A typology of pivots 394 (8)
On information structure 402 (16)
The discourse status of noun phrases 402 (7)
The information status of noun phrases 409 (4)
The animacy hierarchy 413 (3)
Topics, pivots, and prominence 416 (2)
On voice: clause-internal packaging 418 (24)
options
Passive constructions 418 (4)
Foregrounding passives 422 (1)
Backgrounding passives 423 (4)
Summary 427 (2)
Antipassive constructions 429 (1)
Foregrounding antipassives 430 (3)
Backgrounding antipassives 433 (4)
Applicative constructions 437 (4)
Summary of clause-internal packaging 441 (1)
constructions
On clause-external packaging options: 442 (4)
topicalizations, left dislocations, and
right dislocations
Suggestions for further reading 446 (1)
Bibliography 447 (23)
Subject index 470