Human Motivation (Reprint)

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Human Motivation (Reprint)

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  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521369510
  • DDC分類 153.8

Full Description


Human Motivation, originally published in 1987, offers a broad overview of theory and research from the perspective of a distinguished psychologist whose creative empirical studies of human motives span forty years. David McClelland describes methods for measuring motives, the development of motives out of natural incentives and the relationship of motives to emotions, to values and to performance under a variety of conditions. He examines four major motive systems - achievement, power, affiliation and avoidance - reviewing and evaluating research on how these motive systems affect behaviour. Scientific understanding of motives and their interaction, he argues, contributes to understanding of such diverse and important phenomena as the rise and fall of civilisations, the underlying causes of war, the rate of economic development, the nature of leadership, the reasons for authoritarian or democratic governing styles, the determinants of success in management and the factors responsible for health and illness. Students and instructors alike will find this book an exciting and readable presentation of the psychology of human motivation.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            iii
Foreword v
PART 1 Background 1 (104)
Conscious and Unconscious Motives 3 (28)
Motives as One of Three Major Determinants 4 (2)
of Behavior
Conscious Intents 6 (9)
Unconscious Intents 15 (7)
Experimental Study of Unconscious Motives 22 (3)
Are Unconscious Motives Important? 25 (6)
Motives in the Personality Tradition 31 (37)
Motives as Reasons for What People Spend 32 (3)
Their Time Doing
Motives as Reasons for Abnormal Behavior 35 (5)
Motives as Reasons for Creativity and Growth 40 (2)
Measuring Human Motives 42 (6)
Stages in Motivational Development 48 (9)
Other Views of Developmental Stages 57 (1)
Checking the Validity of the Motivational 58 (6)
Stage Theory
Contributions of the Personality Tradition 64 (4)
Motivation in the Behaviorist Tradition 68 (37)
Thorndike's Studies of Animal Motivation 69 (4)
Hull's Model of How Drives Facilite 73 (11)
Adaptation or Learning
Excitatory Potential in Behavior Theory and 84 (1)
the Meaning of the Term Motivation
The Behaviorist Model of Motivation Applied 85 (10)
to Humans by Spence and Others
Reinterpreting the Behaviorist Studies of 95 (2)
Human Motivation in Terms of What Goes on
in People's Minds
Comparison of the Psychoanalytic and 97 (2)
Behaviorist Contributions to the Study of
Motivation
Limitations of the Behaviorist Model 99 (6)
PART 2 The Nature of Human Motives 105(116)
Emotions as Indicators of Natural Incentives 107(23)
Early Attempts to Find a Biological Basis 108(1)
for Motives
Sign Stimuli in Ethology as a Basis for 109(1)
Natural Incentives
The Case for Natural Incentives in Humans 110(6)
Emotions as Indicators of Natural Incentives 116(6)
Positive Natural Incentives in Infants 122(2)
Classification of Natural Incentives in 124(4)
Terms of the Primary Emotions
Relation of Emotion to Motivation 128(2)
Natural Incentives and Their Derivatives 130(42)
How Natural Incentives Influence the 131(5)
Development of the Hunger Motive
Natural Incentives, Emotions, and Motives 136(3)
The Variety Incentive 139(8)
The Impact Incentive 147(6)
The Contact or Sexual Incentives 153(9)
The Consistency Incentive 162(3)
Interaction of Incentives 165(1)
The Role of Cognition in the Development of 166(1)
Incentives
Symbolic Incentives, or Values 167(5)
Measures of Human Motive Dispositions 172(49)
The Motivational Sequence 173(12)
Arousing Motives to Detect Their Unique 185(5)
Effects on Behavior
Measuring the Strength of Social Motive 190(9)
Dispositions
Alternative Measures of Motive Strength 199(22)
Evaluated According to the Criteria for
Good Measurement
Part 3 Important Motive Systems 221(192)
The Achievement Motive 223(45)
Measuring the Need for Achievement 224(2)
Evidence That the Need for Achievement 226(1)
Score Measures a Motive
What Is the Incentive for the Achievement 227(11)
Motive?
How High Need for Achievement Affects 238(8)
Performance
Other Characteristics of People with a 246(5)
Strong Need to Achieve
Social Consequences of a Strong Need to 251(4)
Achieve
Relationship of the Achievement Motive to 255(5)
the Protestant Ethic and the Rise of
Capitalism
Other Influences Affecting the Achievement 260(8)
Motive Early in Life
The Power Motive 268(65)
Measuring the Need for Power 269(2)
Evidence that the n Power Score Measures a 271(9)
Motive
Outlets of the Need for Power 280(12)
Catharsis 292(4)
Role of the Power Motive in Drinking 296(6)
How Maturity Modulates the Expression of 302(10)
the Power Motive
Controlled and Impulsive Assertiveness in 312(8)
Organizational Behavior
Inhibited Power Motive Syndrome and 320(5)
Susceptibility to Illness
Origins of the Power Motive 325(8)
The Affiliative Motives 333(40)
The Meaning of Love 334(1)
The Sexual Motive 335(6)
Measuring the Sexual Motive in Fantasy 341(5)
The Need for Affiliation 346(2)
Characteristics of People with a Strong 348(11)
Need for Affiliation
The Intimacy Motive 359(7)
The Affiliative Motives and Health 366(2)
Origins of the Affiliative Motives 368(1)
Relationship of Sexuality to Affiliation 369(4)
and Intimacy
The Avoidance Motives 373(40)
Generalized Anxiety as a Motive 374(7)
Fear of Failure 381(5)
Measuring Fear of Failure in Fantasy 386(5)
Comparison of Measures of Fear of Failure 391(1)
Origins of the Fear of Failure 392(1)
Fear of Rejection 393(4)
Fear of Success 397(7)
Fear of Power 404(4)
Other Fears 408(2)
Conclusion 410(3)
PART 4 Contextual Effects on Human Motives 413(196)
Motivational Trends in Society 415(58)
Analyzing the Reasons for the Growth and 416(7)
Decline of Civilizations
The Collective Concern for Achievement, 423(15)
Entrepreneurship, and Economic Growth
The Collective Concern for Affiliation and 438(3)
Civil Rights
The Collective Concern for Power 441(3)
Historical Shifts in Collective Motive 444(12)
Levels
Origins of Collective Motivations 456(8)
Difficulties in Interpreting Motive Trends 464(9)
in Society
Cognitive Effects on Motivation 473(41)
Cognitive Influences on Motive Arousal 474(14)
Motive-related Cognitions 488(16)
Cognitions Affecting the Translation of 504(10)
Motivation Into the Impulse to Act
How Motives Interact with Values and Skills 514(33)
to Determine What People Do
Drives, Habit Strength, and Incentives as 515(1)
Determinants of Response Strength
Motives, Expectancies of Success, and 516(6)
Values as Determinants of Performance
How the Achievement Motive, Skill, and 522(5)
Achievement Values Affect Performance
How Motives, Skills, and Values Jointly 527(1)
Determine Success as a Naval Officer
Factors Influencing Affiliative Acts and 527(17)
Choices
The Distinction Between Motives and Intents 544(3)
Motivation Training 547(40)
Applying Expectancy-Value Theory to 548(5)
Improving Academic Performance
Achievement Motivation Training for 553(14)
Entrepreneurs
Achievement Motivation Training in Schools 567(2)
Origin Training in the Classroom 569(8)
Power Motivation Training 577(10)
Milestones in the Progress Toward a 587(22)
Scientific Understanding of Human Motivation
Measuring Motives 588(2)
Definition of a Motive 590(5)
Accumulated Knowledge About Three Important 595(3)
Human Motive Systems
Understanding How Motives Combine with 598(3)
Other Characteristics to Determine Action
Some Issues Needing Further Clarification 601(5)
The Relationship of Progress in Psychology 606(3)
to Its Role in Society
Bibliography 609(32)
Acknowledgments 641