The Proterozoic Biosphere (2-Volume Set) : A Multidisciplinary Study (Reissue)

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The Proterozoic Biosphere (2-Volume Set) : A Multidisciplinary Study (Reissue)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 1374 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521367936
  • DDC分類 560

Full Description


First published in 1992, The Proterozoic Biosphere was the first major study of the paleobiology of the Proterozoic Earth. It is a multidisciplinary work dealing with the evolution of the Earth, the environment and life during the forty percent of Earth's history that extends from the middle of the Precambrian eon (2500 Ma) to the beginning of the Paleozoic era (550 Ma). The book includes a vast amount of data on Proterozoic organisms and their analogs. Prepared by the Precambrian Paleobiology Research Group, a multidisciplinary consortium of forty-one scientists from eight countries, this monograph was a benchmark in the development of the science of the biochemistry and the organic chemistry of Proterozoic sediments. The study aimed to generate data and analyses based on the re-examination of previous studies and on newer investigations and to build towards the future by placing special emphasis on neglected aspects of paleobiologic study and unsolved problems in the field.

Table of Contents

  PART ONE
List of Contributors xix
Preface xxi
1 Geology and Paleobiology of the Archean 5 (38)
Earth
J. William Schopf
Sherwood Chang
W. Gary Ernst
Heinrich D. Holland
James F. Kasting
Donald R. Lowe
1.1 Introduction 7 (2)
J. William Schopf
1.2 Formation of the Earth and the Origin 9 (4)
of Life
James F. Kasting
Sherwood Chang
1.2.1 Origin and Development of the 9 (1)
Early Atmosphere
1.2.2 Timing and Environmental Setting 10 (1)
of the Origin of Life
1.2.3 Chemical Evolution and the Origin 10 (1)
of Life
1.2.4 Paleoenvironmental Considerations 11 (1)
1.2.5 Geologic and Paleobiologic 11 (2)
Considerations
1.3 The Archean Geologic Record 13 (8)
Donald R. Lowe
W. Gary Ernst
1.3.1 Formation and Evolution of the 13 (1)
Pre-Archean Earth
1.3.2 Principal Archean Geologic 14 (2)
Terranes
1.3.3 Archean Crustal Evolution 16 (2)
1.3.4 Conclusions 18 (3)
1.4 The Environment of the Archean Earth 21 (4)
Heinrich D. Holland
James F. Kasting
1.4.1 Introduction 21 (1)
1.4.2 Evidence for Liquid Water and the 21 (1)
Early Archean Surface Temperature
1.4.3 Archean Ocean Chemistry 21 (2)
1.4.4 The Archean Atmosphere 23 (1)
1.4.5 The Archean Terrigenous 23 (1)
Environment
1.4.6 The Environmental Influence of 23 (2)
Archean Impact Events
1.5 Paleobiology of the Archean 25 (16)
J. William Schopf
1.5.1 Introduction 25 (1)
1.5.2 Recent paleobiological studies of 25 (2)
the Early Archean Fig Tree and
Onverwacht Groups (Swaziland
Supergroup), South Africa
1.5.3 Controversial Microfossils 27 (1)
Previously Described from the Early
Archean Warrawoona Group, Western
Australia
1.5.4 Newly Discovered Microfossils 28 (9)
from the Early Archean Apex Basalt
(Warrawoona Group), Western Australia
1.5.5 The Early Archean Microbiota 37 (2)
1.5.6 Conclusions 39 (2)
1.6 Geology and Paleobiology of the 41 (2)
Archean Earth: Current Status and Future
Research Directions
J. William Schopf
1.6.1 Archean Paleobiology: Problems 41 (2)
and Perspectives
2 Geological Evolution of the Proterozoic 43 (38)
Earth
Donald R. Lowe
Nicolas J. Beukes
John P. Grotzinger
Raymond V. Ingersoll
Joseph L. Kirschvink
Cornelis Klein
Ian B. Lambert
Jan Veizer
2.1 Introduction 45 (2)
Donald R. Lowe
2.2 Proterozoic Sedimentary Basins 47 (4)
John P. Grotzinger
Raymond V. Ingersoll
2.2.1 Introduction 47 (1)
2.2.2 Preservation of the Proterozoic 47 (1)
Record
2.2.3 Extensional Settings 47 (2)
2.2.4 Compressional Settings 49 (1)
2.2.5 Strike-Slip Basins 49 (1)
2.2.6 Conclusions 50 (1)
2.3 Late Proterozoic Low-Latitude Global 51 (2)
Glaciation: the Snowball Earth
Joseph L. Kirschvink
2.3.1 Introduction 51 (1)
2.3.2 Mechanisms Responsible for 51 (1)
Low-Latitude Glaciation
2.3.3 Implications of the Global 52 (1)
Snowball Model
2.4 The Proterozoic Sedimentary Record 53 (6)
Donald R. Lowe
2.4.1 Introduction 53 (1)
2.4.2 Greenstone Association 53 (1)
2.4.3 Cratonic Association 54 (1)
2.4.4 Secular Development of 54 (5)
Proterozoic Supracrustal Sequences
2.5 Proterozoic Mineral Deposits Through 59 (4)
Time
Ian B. Lambert
Nicolas J. Beukes
Cornelis Klein
Jan Veizer
2.5.1 Introduction 59 (1)
2.5.2 Greenstone Belt Stage 59 (1)
2.5.3 Cratonization Stage 60 (1)
2.5.4 Stable Craton-Rifting Stage 61 (2)
2.6 Recycling and Preservation 63 (4)
Probabilities of Sediments
Jan Veizer
2.6.1 Introduction 63 (1)
2.6.2 Preservation Probabilities for 63 (2)
Tectonic Domains
2.6.3 Preservation Probabilities for 65 (2)
Sediments
2.7 Major Events in the Geological 67 (10)
Development of the Precambrian Earth
Donald R. Lowe
2.7.1 Introduction 67 (1)
2.7.2 Principal Precambrian 67 (5)
Crust-Forming Episodes
2.7.3 Secular Variation in the Patterns 72 (2)
of Crustal Formation
2.7.4 Rates of Crustal Growth 74 (1)
2.7.5 Conclusions 74 (3)
2.8 Summary and Conclusions 77 (2)
Donald R. Lowe
2.9 Unresolved Problems and Future 79 (2)
Research Directions
Donald R. Lowe
3 Proterozoic Biogeochemistry 81 (54)
J.M. Hayes
David J. Des Marais
Ian B. Lambert
Harald Strauss
Roger E. Summons
3.1 Principles of Molecular and Isotopic 83 (12)
Biogeochemistry
Roger E. Summons
J.M. Hayes
3.1.1 Preservation and Syngenicity 83 (1)
3.1.2 Formation of Kerogen 84 (1)
3.1.3 Biomarkers: Origin and 84 (4)
Significance
3.1.4 Rudiments of Isotopic 88 (1)
Biogeochemistry
3.1.5 Isotopes in Natural Systems 89 (6)
3.2 Concentrations of Organic Carbon and 95 (6)
Maturities and Elemental Compositions of
Kerogens
Harald Strauss
David J. Des Marais
J.M. Hayes
Roger E. Summons
3.2.1 Review of Previous Studies 95 (1)
3.2.2 Results of This Study 96 (1)
3.2.3 Trends in Abundance and 96 (5)
Preservation of Organic Matter
3.3 Abundance and Composition of 101 (16)
Extractable Organic Matter
Roger E. Summons
3.2.1 Preliminary Analysis of Kerogen 101 (3)
and Bitumen
3.3.2 Intensively Studied Rock Units 104 (13)
and Petroleums
3.4 The Carbon-Isotopic Record 117 (12)
Harald Strauss
David J. Des Marais
J.M. Hayes
Roger E. Summons
3.4.1 Total Organic Carbon and 117 (1)
Whole-Rock Carbonate
3.4.2 Isotopic Compositions of Closely 118 (7)
Defined Phases
3.4.3 The Proterozoic Carbon Cycle 125 (4)
3.5 The Sulfur-Isotopic Record 129 (4)
J.M. Hayes
Ian B. Lambert
Harald Strauss
3.5.1 Results of New Isotopic Analyses 129 (1)
of Sulfides and Sulfates
3.5.2 An Overview of the Record and its 130 (3)
Interpretation
3.6 Unsolved Problems and Conclusions 133 (2)
J.M. Hayes
David J. Des Marais
Ian B. Lambert
Harald Strauss
Roger E. Summons
3.6.1 The Subject 133 (1)
3.6.2 The Proterozoic 133 (2)
4 Proterozoic Atmosphere and Ocean 135 (40)
Cornelis Klein
Nicolas J. Beukes
Heinrich D. Holland
James F. Kasting
Lee R. Kump
Donald R. Lowe
4.1 Introduction 137 (2)
Cornelis Klein
4.2 Time Distribution, Stratigraphy, and 139 (8)
Sedimentologic Setting, and Geochemistry
of Precambrian Iron-Formations
Cornelis Klein
Nicolas J. Beukes
4.2.1 Introduction 139 (1)
4.2.2 Distribution of Iron-Formations 139 (1)
Throughout the Precambrian
4.2.3 Stratigraphic Setting and 139 (2)
Sedimentology of the Depositional
Basins of Iron-Formations
4.2.4 Average Chemistry of Several 141 (6)
Major Iron-Formations
4.3 Models for Iron-Formation Deposition 147 (6)
Nicolas J. Beukes
Cornelis Klein
4.3.1 Introduction 147 (1)
4.3.2 Paleoenvironmental Interpretation 147 (4)
of Iron-Formation Deposition in the
Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa
4.3.3 Paleoenvironmental Interpretation 151 (2)
of Iron-Formation Deposition in Later
Proterozoic Time
4.4 Distribution and Paleoenvironmental 153 (4)
Interpretation of Proterozoic Paleosols
Heinrich D. Holland
4.4.1 Introduction 153 (1)
4.4.2 Implications for the Proterozoic 153 (4)
Atmosphere
4.5 Other Geological Indicators 157 (2)
Donald R. Lowe
4.5.1 Glacial Deposits 157 (1)
4.5.2 Red Beds 157 (1)
4.5.3 Detrital Uraninites 158 (1)
4.6 Atmospheric Evolution: the Rise of 159 (6)
Oxygen
James F. Kasting
Heinrich D. Holland
Lee R. Kump
4.6.1 Introduction 159 (1)
4.6.2 The Three-Stage Model for the 159 (1)
Rise of O2
4.6.3 Development of the Modern Aerobic 160 (1)
(Stage III) Atmosphere
4.6.4 Biogeochemical Cycles and Their 161 (1)
Effects on O2
4.6.5 Modern and Ancient Controls on O2
4.6.6 Ozone and Other Trace Gases 162 (3)
4.7 Proterozoic Climates: the Effect of 165 (4)
Changing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
Concentrations
James F. Kasting
4.7.1 The Climatic Record 165 (1)
4.7.2 Solar Luminosity and Possible 165 (1)
Greenhouse Gases
4.7.3 Proterozoic CO2 Levels from 166 (1)
Climate Model Calculations
4.7.4 The Late Precambrian Icehouse 167 (2)
4.8 Chemistry and Evolution of the 169 (4)
Proterozoic Ocean
Heinrich D. Holland
4.8.1 Introduction 169 (1)
4.8.2 The Influence of Atmospheric 169 (2)
Oxygen Concentrations on the
Proterozoic Ocean
4.8.3 An Evaluation of the Oceanic 171 (2)
Oxygen Flux to Oxidize Hydrothermal
Reductants
4.9 Conclusions and Unsolved Problems 173 (2)
Cornelis Klein
Nicolas J. Beukes
Heinrich D. Holland
James F. Kasting
Donald R. Lowe
5 Proterozoic and Selected Early Cambrian 175 (70)
Microfossils: Prokaryotes and Protists
Carl V. Mendelson
John Bauld
Robert J. Horodyski
Jere H. Lipps
Toby B. Moore
J. William Schopf
5.1 Introduction 177 (2)
Carl V. Mendelson
5.2 Historical Development of Proterozoic 179 (6)
Micropaleontology
J. William Schopf
5.2.1 Introduction 179 (1)
5.2.2 Phases of Development of 180 (5)
Proterozoic Micropaleontology
5.3 Preservation of Prokaryotes and 185 (10)
Organic-Walled and Calcareous and
Siliceous Protists
Robert J. Horodyski
John Bauld
Jere H. Lipps
Carl V. Mendelson
5.3.1 Introduction 185 (1)
5.3.2 Prokaryotes 185 (4)
5.3.3 Eukaryotes (Primarily Acritarchs) 189 (3)
5.3.4 Preservation Potential of Naked, 192 (1)
Agglutinated, Calcareous, and Siliceous
Protists
5.3.5 Bias in the Microfossil Record: 192 (3)
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes as a
Function of Paleoenvironment and
Lithology
5.4 Proterozoic Prokaryotes: Affinities, 195 (24)
Geologic Distribution, and Evolutionary
Trends
J. William Schopf
5.4.1 Introduction 195 (1)
5.4.2 Morphometric Effects of 195 (7)
Preservational Compression of
Microfossils in Shales
5.4.3 Methods for Inferring the 202 (2)
Probable Affinities of the Principal
Categories of Proterozoic Microfossils
5.4.4 Coccoidal Microorganisms and 204 (6)
Proterozoic Microfossils
5.4.5 Ellipsoidal Microorganisms and 210 (1)
Proterozoic Microfossils
5.4.6 Non-septate Filamentous 211 (4)
Microorganisms, Prokaryotic Sheaths,
and Proterozoic Microfossils
5.4.7 Septate Filamentous 215 (3)
Microorganisms and Proterozoic
Microfossils
5.4.8 Summary: Inferred Affinities and 218 (1)
Evolutionary Trends of the Principal
Categories of Proterozoic Prokaryotic
Microfossils
5.5 Proterozoic and Early Cambrian 219 (14)
Acritarchs
Carl V. Mendelson
J. William Schopf
5.5.1 Introduction 219 (1)
5.5.2 Major Types of Proterozoic and 219 (9)
Early Cambrian Acritarchs
5.5.3 Milestones in Morphological 228 (3)
Evolution in Acritarchs
5.5.4 Closing Remarks 231 (2)
5.6 Distinctive Problematical Proterozoic 233 (4)
Microfossils
Toby B. Moore
Robert J. Horodyski
Jere H. Lipps
J. William Schopf
5.6.1 Introduction 233 (1)
5.6.2 Distinctive Proterozoic 233 (4)
Micro-problematica
5.7 Proterozoic and Cambrian Skeletonized 237 (4)
Protists
Jere H. Lipps
5.7.1 Introduction 237 (1)
5.7.2 Proterozoic Skeletonized Protists 237 (1)
5.7.3 Cambrian Skeletonized Protists 237 (2)
5.7.4 Summary 239 (2)
5.8 Unsolved Problems and Future Research 241 (2)
Directions
Carl V. Mendelson
J. William Schopf
5.8.1 Introduction 241 (1)
5.8.2 Major Problem Areas 241 (2)
5.9 Summary and Conclusions: The Current 243 (2)
Status of Proterozoic Micropaleontology
Carl V. Mendelson
J. William Schopf
6 Modern Mat-Building Microbial 245 (98)
Communities: a Key to the Interpretation of
Proterozoic Stromatolitic Communities
Beverly K. Pierson
John Bauld
Richard W. Castenholz
Elisa D'Amelio
David J. Des Marais
Jack D. Farmer
John P. Grotzinger
Bo Barker Jørgensen
Douglas C. Nelson
Anna C. Palmisano
J. William Schopf
Roger E. Summons
Malcolm R. Walter
David M. Ward
6.1 Introduction 247 (6)
Beverly K. Pierson
6.2 Proterozoic Stromatolites 253 (8)
Malcolm R. Walter
John P. Grotzinger
J. William Schopf
6.2.1 Stromatolite Morphology and 253 (2)
Taxonomy
6.2.2 Microbiotas of Proterozoic 255 (1)
Stromatolitic Communities
6.2.3 Paleoecology of Proterozoic 255 (2)
Stromatolites
6.2.4 Growth and Lithification of 257 (1)
Proterozoic Stromatolites
6.2.5 Temporal Distribution, Taxonomic 258 (1)
Diversity, and Abundance of Proterozoic
Stromatolites
6.2.6 Interpretation of the 259 (2)
Stromatolitic Fossil Record
6.3 Modern Microbial Mats 261 (10)
John Bauld
Elisa D'Amelio
Jack D. Farmer
6.3.1 Morphology of Modern Microbial 261 (5)
Mats
6.3.2 Biotic and Environmental Factors 266 (1)
Controlling Mat Morphology, Lamination,
Fabric, and Morphogenesis
6.3.3 Feedback Relationships Between 267 (4)
Biotic and Environmental Factors
6.4 The Microenvironment Within Modern 271 (8)
Microbial Mats
Bo Barker Jørgensen
Richard W. Castenholz
Beverly K. Pierson
6.4.1 Microenvironmental Parameters 271 (1)
6.4.2 The Physical Microenvironment 271 (2)
6.4.3 The Chemical Microenvironment 273 (1)
6.4.4 Microbial Movements 274 (5)
6.5 Photosynthetic Activity in Modern 279 (8)
Microbial Mat-Building Communities
Richard W. Castenholz
John Bauld
Beverly K. Pierson
6.5.1 Types of Photosynthetic Activity 279 (1)
6.5.2 Photosynthetic Activity in 280 (4)
Microbial Mats
6.5.3 Pigments in Mats 284 (1)
6.5.4 Productivity in Mat Ecosystems 285 (2)
6.6 Chemotrophy and Decompsition in 287 (8)
Modern Microbial Mats
Bo Barker Jørgensen
Douglas C. Nelson
David M. Ward
6.6.1 Decompsition and Element Cycling 287 (1)
6.6.2 Heterotrophic Processes 287 (4)
6.6.3 Chemolithotrophic Processes 291 (4)
6.7 Grazing and Bioturbation in Modern 295 (4)
Microbial Mats
Jack D. Farmer
6.7.1 Introduction 295 (1)
6.7.2 Grazing in Microbial Mats of 295 (2)
Restricted, Hypersaline Environments
6.7.3 Grazing in Thermal Spring Mats 297 (1)
6.7.4 Implications of Faunal Studies of 297 (2)
Microbial Mats for Proterozoic
Paleobiology
6.8 The Biogeochemistry of Carbon in 299 (10)
Modern Microbial Mats
David J. Des Marais
John Bauld
Anna C. Palmisano
Roger E. Summons
David M. Ward
6.8.1 Introduction 299 (1)
6.8.2 Elemental Abundances 299 (1)
6.8.3 Stable Carbon Isotopes 299 (4)
6.8.4 Biomarkers 303 (6)
6.9 Modern Phototrophic Microbial Mats: 309 (16)
Anoxygenic, Intermittently
Oxygenic/Anoxygenic, Thermal, Eukaryotic,
and Terrestrial
David M. Ward
John Bauld
Richard W. Castenholz
Beverly K. Pierson
6.9.1 Introduction 309 (1)
6.9.2 Anoxygenic Mats 309 (3)
6.9.3 Intermittently 312 (1)
Oxygenic/Anoxygenic Mats
6.9.4 Thermal Mats 313 (8)
6.9.5 Eukaryotic Microbial Mats 321 (3)
6.9.6 Terrestrial Mats 324 (1)
6.10 Case Study of a Modern Microbial 325 (10)
Mat-Building Community: the Submerged
Cyanobacterial Mats of Guerrero Negro,
Baja California Sur, Mexico
David J. Des Marais
Elisa D'Amilio
Jack D. Farmer
Bo Barker Jørgensen
Anna C. Palmisano
Beverly K. Pierson
6.10.1 Introduction 325 (1)
6.10.2 The Benthic Mats: Trends Along 325 (3)
the Salinity Gradient
6.10.3 Trends With Depth in a Mat 328 (3)
6.10.4 Comparison of Guerrero Negro and 331 (1)
Solar Lake Mat Communities
6.10.5 Characteristics of Stromatolites 332 (3)
Predicted from Studies of Microbial Mats
6.11 A General Comparison of Microbial 335 (4)
Mats and Microbial Stromatolites:
Bridging the Gap Between the Modern and
the Fossil
Malcolm R. Walter
John Bauld
David J. Des Marais
J. William Schopf
6.11.1 Introduction 335 (1)
6.11.2 Analogies and Homologies Between 335 (2)
Extant Microbial Mats and Ancient
Stromatolites
6.11.3 General Geochemical Comparisons 337 (1)
6.11.4 Closing Remarks 338 (1)
6.12 Unsolved Problems and Future 339 (2)
Research Directions
Beverly K. Pierson
6.13 Summary and Conclusions: The Current 341 (2)
Status of Studies of Modern Microbial
Mat-Building Communities and Their
Relevance to Interpretation of
Proterozoic Stromatolites
Beverly K. Pierson
7 Proterozoic and Earliest Cambrian 343 (82)
Carbonaceous Remains, Trace and Body Fossils
Kenneth M. Towe
Stefan Bengtson
Mikhail A. Fedonkin
Hans J. Hofmann
Carol Mankiewicz
Bruce N. Runnegar
7.1 Introduction 345 (2)
Kenneth M. Towe
7.2 Criteria for Acceptance of Reported 347 (2)
Proterozoic Megafossils
Kenneth M. Towe
7.3 Proterozoic Carbonaceous Films 349 (10)
Hans J. Hofmann
7.3.1 Introduction 349 (1)
7.3.2 Informal Categories of Megascopic 349 (5)
Carbonaceous Films
7.3.3 Morphological Characteristics, 354 (3)
Distributions, and Possible Affinities
7.3.4 Summary 357 (2)
7.4 Proterozoic and Early Cambrian 359 (10)
Calcareous Algae
Carol Mankiewicz
7.4.1 Introduction 359 (1)
7.4.2 Classification 359 (2)
7.4.3 Diversity 361 (2)
7.4.4 Paleoecology 363 (1)
7.4.5 Stratigraphic Range 363 (4)
7.4.6 Summary 367 (2)
7.5 Proterozoic Metazoan Body Fossils 369 (20)
Bruce N. Runnegar
Mikhail A. Fedonkin
7.5.1 Introduction 369 (1)
7.5.2 The Ediacara Faunas 369 (19)
7.5.3 Conclusions 388 (1)
7.6 Proterozoic Metazoan Trace Fossils 389 (8)
Mikhail A. Fedonkin
Bruce N. Runnegar
7.6.1 Introduction 389 (1)
7.6.2 Reported Pre-Vendian Trace Fossils 389 (1)
7.6.3 Biostratigraphy of Vendian Trace 390 (5)
Fossils
7.6.4 Conclusions 395 (2)
7.7 Proterozoic and Earliest Cambrian 397 (16)
Skeletal Metazoans
Stefan Bengtson
7.7.1 Introduction 397 (1)
7.7.2 Representativity of the Skeletal 397 (1)
Fossil Record
7.7.3 Geographical Distribution of 398 (1)
Early Skeletal Fossils
7.7.4 Appearances of Skeletal Types 399 (3)
7.7.5 Phylum-level Taxa in the Latest 402 (11)
Proterozoic and Early Cambrian
7.8 Megascopic Dubiofossils 413 (8)
Hans J. Hofmann
7.8.1 Introduction 413 (1)
7.8.2 Horizontal Spindles and Ropes 414 (2)
7.8.3 Vertical Cylindrical Structures 416 (1)
7.8.4 Discoidal Structures 416 (2)
7.8.5 Other Megascopic Dubiofossils 418 (1)
7.8.6 Conclusions 419 (2)
7.9 Unsolved Problems and Future Research 421 (2)
Directions
Kenneth M. Towe
7.10 Summary and Conclusions 423 (2)
Kenneth M. Towe
8 The Proterozoic-Early Cambrian Evolution 425
of Metaphytes and Metazoans
Stefan Bengtson
Jack D. Farmer
Mikhail A. Fedonkin
Jere H. Lipps
Bruce N. Runnegar
8.1 Introduction 427 (2)
Stefan Bengtson
Jere H. Lipps
8.2 Origins of Multicellular Individuality 429 (4)
Jack D. Farmer
8.2.1 Introduction 429 (1)
8.2.2 The Concept of Individuality 429 (1)
8.2.3 The Nature of Multicellularity 429 (2)
8.2.4 The Evolution of Multicellularity 431 (2)
8.3 The Major Biotas of Proterozoic to 433 (4)
Early Cambrian Multicellular Organisms
Stefan Bengtson
Mikhail A. Fedonkin
Jere H. Lipps
8.3.1 Introduction 433 (1)
8.3.2 Evolutionary Relationships of the 433 (1)
Three Biotas
8.3.3 Environmental and Taphonomic 433 (4)
Settings of the Biotas
8.4 Ecology and Biogeography 437 (6)
Jere H. Lipps
Stefan Bengtson
Mikhail A. Fedonkin
8.4.1 Trophic Relationships and Life 437 (1)
Modes
8.4.2 Paleobiogeography 438 (5)
8.5 The Evolution of Metazoan Body Plans 443 (4)
Stefan Bengtson
Jack D. Farmer
8.5.1 Introduction 443 (1)
8.5.2 Genealogies and Body Plans-Two 443 (1)
Perspectives on Phyla
8.5.3 The Evolution of Body Plans 444 (1)
8.5.4 Recognizing Body Plans in the 445 (2)
Fossil Record
8.6 Origins of Biomineralization in 447 (6)
Metaphytes and Metazoans
Stefan Bengtson
Bruce N. Runnegar
8.6.1 Introduction 447 (1)
8.6.2 Carbonates 447 (1)
8.6.3 Phosphates 448 (1)
8.6.4 Opal 449 (1)
8.6.5 Origin of Phosphate Versus 449 (1)
Carbonate
8.6.6 Origins of Skeletal 450 (3)
Biomineralization
8.7 The Precambrian-Cambrian Evolutionary 453 (6)
Transition
Jere H. Lipps
Stefan Bengtson
Jack D. Farmer
8.7.1 Introduction 453 (1)
8.7.2 Hypotheses on the Origin and 453 (1)
Early Evolution of Metazoans and
Metaphytes
8.7.3 Evaluating the Hypotheses 454 (3)
8.7.4 What Type of Hypothesis are We 457 (2)
Looking For?
8.8 Unsolved Problems and Future Research 459 (2)
Directions
Stefan Bengtson
8.9 Summary and Conclusions 461
Jere H. Lipps
Stefan Bengtson
9 Molecular Phylogenetics, Molecular 403 (84)
Paleontology, and the Proterozoic Fossil
Record
Bruce N. Runnegar
David J. Chapman
Walter M. Fitch
9.1 Introduction 465 (2)
Bruce N. Runnegar
9.2 Methods of Molecular Phylogenetics 467 (4)
Walter M. Fitch
9.2.1 Introduction 467 (1)
9.2.2 Sequence Alignment of Homologous 467 (1)
Amino Acids or Nucleotides
9.2.3 Methods for Inferring the 468 (1)
Ancestral Relationships Between
Sequences
9.2.4 Use of Molecular Information for 469 (2)
Dating Biological Events in Geological
Time
9.3 The Tree of Life 471 (6)
Bruce N. Runnegar
9.3.1 Life's Deepest Branches 471 (1)
9.3.2 Endosymbiosis and the Origin of 471 (1)
Organelled Eukaryotes
9.3.3 Rooting the Tree of Life in the 472 (2)
Fossil Record
9.3.4 Radiation of the Eubacteria and 474 (1)
Archaebacteria
9.3.5 Origin of the Eukaryotic Kingdoms 475 (2)
9.4 Origin and Divergence of Protists 477 (8)
David J. Chapman
9.4.1 What is a "Protist"? 477 (1)
9.4.2 The Ancestral Host for 477 (1)
Organelle-Generating Endosymbioses
9.4.3 The Endosymbiotic Origin of 478 (2)
Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
9.4.4 The Evolutionary Radiation of 480 (5)
Protists
9.5 Origin and Diversification of the 485 (2)
Metazoa
Bruce N. Runnegar
10 Biostratigraphy and Paleobiogeography of 487 (34)
the Proterozoic
Hans J. Hofmann
Stefan Bengtson
J.M. Hayes
Jere H. Lipps
J. William Schopf
Harald Strauss
Roger E. Summons
Malcolm R. Walter
10.1 Introduction 489 (2)
Hans J. Hofmann
10.2 Proterozoic Biostratigraphy: 491 (6)
Problems and Perspectives
Hans J. Hofmann
10.2.1 Introduction 491 (1)
10.2.2 Major Problems 491 (6)
10.3 Stratigraphic Distribution of 497 (2)
Prokaryotes and Acritarchs
J. William Schopf
10.3.1 Proterozoic Prokaryotes 497 (1)
10.3.2 Proterozoic Acritarchs 497 (2)
10.4 Stratigraphic Distribution of 499 (2)
Skeletonized Protists
Jere H. Lipps
10.5 Stratigraphic Distribution of 501 (6)
Megafossils
Hans J. Hofmann
Stefan Bengtson
10.5.1 Carbonaceous Compressions 501 (3)
10.5.2 Soft-Bodied Metazoans 504 (1)
10.5.3 Trace Fossils 504 (1)
10.5.4 Early Skeletonized Metazoans 505 (1)
10.5.5 Camasid Dubiofossils 506 (1)
10.6 Stratigraphic Distribution of 507 (4)
Stromatolites and Allied Structures
Malcolm R. Walter
10.7 Proterozoic Distribution of 511 (2)
Biogeochemical Fossils
Harald Strauss
J.M. Hayes
Roger E. Summons
10.7.1 Stable Isotope Records 511 (1)
10.7.2 Molecular Fossils 512 (1)
10.8 Summary: Current Status of 513 (2)
Proterozoic Biostratigraphy
Hans J. Hofmann
10.9 Proterozoic Paleobiogeography 515 (2)
Hans J. Hofmann
10.10 Unsolved Problems and Future 517 (2)
Research Directions
Hans J. Hofmann
10.11 Summary and Conclusions 519 (2)
Hans J. Hofmann
11 Biotic Diversity and Rates of Evolution 521 (46)
During Proterozoic and Earliest Phanerozoic
Time
J. John Sepkoski, Jr.
J. William Schopf
11.1 Introduction 523 (2)
J. John Sepkoski, Jr.
11.2 The Proterozoic Fossil Record: 525 (4)
Special Problems in Analyzing Diversity
Patterns
J. John Sepkoski, Jr.
J. William Schopf
11.2.1 General Considerations 525 (1)
11.2.2 Taxonomic Problems 525 (1)
11.2.3 Problems of Correlation and 526 (1)
Dating
11.2.4 Problems of Biased Sampling 526 (1)
11.2.5 A Note of Optimism 527 (2)
11.3 Patterns of Proterozoic Microfossil 529 (24)
Diversity: An Initial, Tentative, Analysis
J. William Schopf
11.3.1 Introduction 529 (1)
11.3.2 Methods of Analyses 529 (1)
11.3.3 Assessment of the Components of 530 (7)
the Analyses
11.3.4 Analyses of Diversity 537 (11)
11.3.5 Evaluation of Detected Diversity 548 (2)
Patterns
11.3.6 Interpretive Summary 550 (2)
11.3.7 Overview 552 (1)
11.4 Proterozoic-Early Cambrian 553 (10)
Diversification of Metazoans and
Metaphytes
J. John Sepkoski, Jr.
11.4.1 Introduction 553 (1)
11.4.2 Data 553 (1)
11.4.3 General Patterns of Early 554 (3)
Metazoan Diversification
11.4.4 Faunal Heterogeneity in the 557 (2)
Vendian-Cambrian Diversification
11.4.5 Exponential Diversification in 559 (1)
the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic Transition
11.4.6 Diversification of Metaphytes 559 (4)
11.5 Proterozoic and Earliest Phanerozoic 563 (2)
Biotic Diversity: Unsolved Problems and
Future Research Directions
J. John Sepkoski, Jr.
J. William Schopf
11.6 Biotic Diversity During Proterozoic 565 (2)
and Earliest Phanerozoic Time: Summary
and Conclusions
J. John Sepkoski, Jr.
J. William Schopf
12 A Paleogeographic Model for Vendian and 567 (16)
Cambrian Time
Joseph L. Kirschvink
12.1 A Paleogeographic Model for Vendian 569 (14)
and Cambrian Time
12.1.1 Introduction 569 (1)
12.1.2 Paleomagnetic Data 570 (4)
12.1.3 Tectonic Reconstructions 574 (6)
12.1.4 Configuration and Breakup of 580 (3)
Late Proterozoic Super(?) Continents
13 Evolution of the Proterozoic Biosphere: 583 (20)
Benchmarks, Tempo, and Mode
J. William Schopf
13.1 Prologue 585 (2)
13.2 Times of Origin and Earliest 587 (8)
Evidence of Major Biologic Groups
13.2.1 Prokaryotes 587 (4)
13.2.2 Eukaryotes 591 (4)
13.3 Tempo and Mode of Proterozoic 595 (4)
Evolution
13.3.1 Introduction 595 (1)
13.3.2 Hypobradytely and the Evolution 595 (4)
of Proterozoic Life
13.4 A Synoptic Comparison of Phanerozoic 599 (4)
and Proterozoic Evolution
Glossary of Technical Terms
J. William Schopf
Cornelis Klein
References Cited
Subject Index
Index to Geologic Units
Taxonomic Index
PART TWO
List of Contributors xix
Preface xxi
14 Geographic and Geologic Data for PPRG 603 (92)
Rock Samples
Toby B. Moore
J. William Schopf
14.1 Introduction and Numerical Listing 605 (9)
of Geologic Samples Included in the PRRG
Collections
14.2 Geographic and Geologic Data for 614 (81)
Rock Samples Included in the PPRG
Collections
14.2.1 Africa 614 (6)
14.2.2 Asia 620 (8)
14.2.3 Australia 628 (24)
14.2.4 Europe 652 (3)
14.2.5 North America 655 (32)
14.2.6 South America 687 (1)
Table 14.5 Estimated Ages of Geologic 688 (7)
Units Represented in the PPRG
Collections
15 Flow Chart and Processing Procedures for 695 (4)
Rock Samples
Harald Strauss
David J. Des Marais
J.M. Hayes
Toby B. Moore
J. William Schopf
15.1 Summary of Processing Procedures 697 (2)
16 Procedures of Whole Rock and Kerogen 699 (10)
Analysis
Harald Strauss
David J. Des Marais
J.M. Hayes
Ian B. Lambert
Roger E. Summons
16.1 Carbon: Whole Rock Analysis 701 (2)
16.1.1 Organic Carbon 701 (1)
16.1.2 Rock-Eval Analysis 701 (1)
16.1.3 Carbonate Carbon 702 (1)
16.2 Sulfur: Whole Rock Analysis 703 (2)
16.2.1 Sulfide Sulfur 703 (1)
16.2.2 Sulfate Sulfur 703 (2)
16.3 Notation and Precision of Isotopic 705 (2)
Measurements
16.4 Kerogen 707 (2)
16.4.1 Kerogen Isolation 707 (1)
16.4.2 Elemental Analysis of Carbon, 707 (1)
Hydrogen, and Nitrogen
16.4.3 Kerogen Color 707 (2)
17 Abundances and Isotopic Compositions of 709 (90)
Carbon and Sulfur Species in Whole Rock and
Kerogen Samples
Harald Strauss
Toby B. Moore
17.1 Introduction 711 (1)
17.1 Explanation of Symbols 711 (88)
Table 17.1 New Analyses of the 712 (9)
Abundance and Isotopic Composition of
Organic Carbon in Whole Rock Samples
Table 17.2 New Analyses of the Isotopic 721 (1)
Composition of Carbonates
Table 17.3 Previously Published 721 (27)
Analyses of the Abundance and Isotopic
Composition of Carbon in Whole Rock
Samples
Table 17.4 Summary of All Results for 748 (11)
Abundance and Isotopic Composition of
Carbon in Whole Rock Samples
Table 17.5 New Analyses of the 759 (3)
Elemental and Carbon Isotopic
Composition of Kerogen Samples
Table 17.6 New Analyses of Sulfur 762 (2)
Abundance and Isotopic Composition of
Sulfides and Sulfates
Table 17.7 Previously Published 764 (23)
Analyses of the Isotopic Composition of
Sulfides and Sulfates
Table 17.8 Summary of All Results for 787 (4)
Isotopic Composition of Sulfides and
Sulfates
Table 17.9 Previously Published 791 (5)
Analyses of Elemental and Carbon
Isotopic Composition of Kerogen Samples
Table 17.10 Summary of Elemental and 796 (3)
Carbon Isotopic Composition of Kerogen
Samples
18 Procedures for Analysis of Extactable 799 (12)
Organic Matter
Roger E. Summons
Harald Strauss
18.1 Sample Selection and Handling 801 (2)
18.2 Extraction Procedures 803 (2)
18.2.1 Extraction and Chromatographic 803 (1)
Separation of Bitumens
18.2.2 Extraction and Fractionation of 803 (2)
Signature Lipids from Extant Microbes
and Modern Sediments
18.3 Analyses of Extracts 805 (2)
18.3.1 Gas Chromatographic Analysis of 805 (1)
Hydrocarbons and Other Lipids
18.3.2 Gas Chromatography-Mass 805 (2)
Spectrometry
18.4 Kerogen Analyses 807 (2)
18.4.1 Kerogen Hydrogen Pyrolysis 807 (1)
18.4.2 Kerogen Pyrolysis-Gas 807 (2)
Chromatography
18.5 Urea Adduction 809 (2)
19 Composition of Extractable Organic Matter 811 (10)
Roger E. Summons
Harald Strauss
19.1 Explanation of Tables Summarizing 813 (2)
the Bitumen Content and Composition of
the Analyzed Samples
19.2 Discussion of the Data 815 (6)
Table 19.1 Rock-Eval Data for PPRG 815 (1)
Samples
Table 19.2 Organic Geochemical Data for 816 (1)
PPRG Samples
Table 19.3 Extract Data for BMR Samples 817 (1)
Table 19.4 Organic Geochemical Data for 817 (4)
BMR Samples
20 Modern Mat-Building Microbial 821 (34)
Communities: Methods of Investigation and
Supporting Data
Richard W. Castenholz
Elisa D'Amelio
Jack D. Farmer
Bo Barker Jørgensen
Anna C. Palmisano
Beverly K. Pierson
David M. Ward
20.1 Methods of Light Microscopy 823 (2)
Jack D. Farmer
Beverly K. Pierson
20.1.1 Preserved and Sectioned Material 823 (1)
of Whole Mat
20.1.2 Living Material and Wet Mounts 823 (2)
20.2 Methods of Electron Microscopy 825 (2)
Elisa D'Amelio
Beverly K. Pierson
20.2.1 Stereoscopic Electron Microscopy 825 (1)
(SEM)
20.2.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy 825 (2)
(TEM): Special Techniques for Mats
20.3 Culture Methods 827 (2)
Richard W. Castenholz
Beverly K. Pierson
20.3.1 Filamentous Anoxygenic 827 (1)
Phototrophs
20.3.2 Purple Bacteria and Green Sulfur 827 (1)
Bacteria
20.3.3 Cyanobacteria 827 (1)
20.3.4 Other Conspicuous Bacteria of 827 (2)
Microbial Mats
20.4 Methods of Pigment Study 829 (4)
Anna C. Palmisano
Richard W. Castenholtz
Beverly K. Pierson
20.4.1 Organic Extracts of Chlorophyll 829 (1)
a and Bacteriochlorophylls a, b, c, d,
e, g
20.4.2 Analysis of Lipophilic Pigements 829 (2)
from Phototrophic Microbial Mats by
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
20.4.3 "In Vivo" Analysis of Pigments 831 (2)
by Ultrasonic Disruption in Buffer
20.5 Methods of Light Measurement 833 (4)
Bo Barker Jørgensen
Beverly K. Pierson
Richard W. Castenholz
20.5.1 Definitions 833 (1)
20.5.2 Total Irradiance Within Mats 833 (1)
20.5.3 Spectral Distribution of 833 (2)
Radiation Within Mats
20.5.4 Photoacoustic Methods 835 (2)
20.6 Microelectrode Measurements 837 (2)
Bo Barker Jørgensen
20.7 Meiofauna: Strategies for Field 839 (2)
Studies
Jack D. Farmer
20.8 Rate Measurements of Anaerobic 841 (2)
Processes in Hot Spring Mats
David M. Ward
20.9 Chemical Analyses 843 (12)
Bo Barker Jørgensen
21 Construction and Use of Geological, 855 (10)
Geochemical, and Paleobiological Databases
J.M. Hayes
Stefan Bengtson
Hans J. Hofmann
Jere H. Lipps
Donald R. Lowe
Carol Mankiewicz
Carl V. Mendelson
Toby B. Moore
Bruce N. Runnegar
Harald Strauss
21.1 Sample Inventory and Curation 857 (2)
21.2 Results and Correlative Information 859 (2)
21.2.1 Geochemistry and Lithology 859 (1)
21.2.2 Paleontology 859 (2)
21.3 Bibliographic System 861 (2)
21.4 Summary 863 (2)
22 Proterozoic and Selected Early Cambrian 865 (88)
Microfossils and Microfossil-Like Objects
Carl V. Mendelson
J. William Schopf
22.1 Introduction 867 (86)
22.1.1 Coverage 867 (1)
22.1.2 Content 867 (1)
22.1.3 Caveats 867 (1)
22.1.4 Conventions 868 (1)
22.1.5 Abbreviations 868 (1)
Table 22.1 Proterozoic and Selected 869 (7)
Early Cambrain Micrononfossils and
Micropseudofossils
Table 22.2 Proterozoic and Selected 876 (8)
Early Cambrian Microdubiofossils
Table 22.3 Proterozoic and Selected 884 (69)
Early Cambrain Microfossils
23 Described Taxa of Proterozoic and 953 (102)
Selected Earliest Cambrian Carbonaceous
Remains, Trace and Body Fossils
Kenneth M. Towe
Stefan Bengtson
Mikhail A. Fedonkin
Hans J. Hofmann
Carol Mankiewicz
Bruce N. Runnegar
23.1 Proterozoic and Selected Cambrian 957 (24)
Megascopic Carbonaceous Films
Hans J. Hofmann
23.2 Proterozoic and Early Cambrian 981 (18)
Calcareous Algae
Carol Mankiewicz
23.3 Proterozoic Fossils of Soft-Bodied 999 (10)
Metazoans (Ediacaran Faunas)
Bruce N. Runnegar
23.4 Proterozoic Metazoan Trace Fossils 1009(8)
Bruce N. Runnegar
23.5 Proterozoic and Earliest Cambrian 1017(18)
Skeletal Metazoans
Stefan Bengtson
23.6 Proterozoic and Selected Cambrian 1035(20)
Megascopic Dubiofossils and Pseudofossils
Hans J. Hofmann
24 Atlas of Representative Proterozoic 1055(64)
Microfossils
J. William Schopf
24.1 Introduction 1056(1)
24.2 Illustrated Type Specimens 1057(5)
24.3 Illustrated Specimens 1062(57)
25 Informal Revised Classification of 1119(50)
Proterozoic Microfossils
J. William Schopf
25.1 Introduction 1121(2)
25.2 Informal Revised Classification 1123(44)
25.2.1 Non-Septate Filaments 1123(1)
25.2.2 Septate Unbranched Filaments 1124(35)
25.2.3 Solitary Coccoidal Cells and 1159(2)
Sphaeromorph Acritarchs
25.2.4 Colonial Coccoidal and 1161(1)
Ellipsoidal Cells
25.2.5 Miscellaneous Prokaryotes 1162(1)
25.2.6 Miscellaneous Eukaryotes 1163(4)
25.3 Temporal Distribution of Benthic and 1167(2)
Planktonic Proterozoic Microfossils
26 Models for Vendian-Cambrian Biotic 1169(20)
Diversity and for Proterozoic Atmospheric
and Ocean Chemistry
J. John Sepkoski, Jr.
James F. Kasting
26.1 Stratigraphic Ranges of Vendian and 1171(14)
Cambrian Animal Families
J. John Sepkoski, Jr.
26.1.1 Taxonomy and Stratigraphic 1171(14)
Ranges of Animal Families in the
Vendian and Cambrian: Data and
Analytical Results for Section 11.4
26.2 Models Relating to Proterozoic 1185(4)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Chemistry
James F. Kasting
26.2.1 Box Models Relating to the Rise 1185(2)
in Atmospheric Oxygen (Section 4.6)
26.2.2 One-Dimensional Climate Modeling 1187(2)
of Past CO2 Concentrations (Section 4.7)
27 Glossary of Technical Terms 1189(16)
J. William Schopf
Cornelis Klein
References Cited 1205(82)
Subject Index 1287(10)
Index to Geologic Units 1297(12)
Taxonomic Index 1309