Elevator Traffic Handbook : Theory and Practice

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Elevator Traffic Handbook : Theory and Practice

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 488 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780415274760
  • DDC分類 621.877

Full Description


Vertical transportation systems (elevators, lifts, escalators and passenger conveyors) are used in almost all buildings of more than a few stories high. Traffic design and control, namely the movement of people by natural and mechanical means, need to be planned carefully as the costs of under- or over-provision are considerable and changes are not always possible. The subject is covered in four sections. The basic principles of circulation and an introduction to lifts are set out at the beginning, and then traffic design methods are outlined, followed by an examination of analysis and control. The sections are complete in themselves and are presented in depth, with worked examples and case studies as appropriate. The latest analysis techniques are set out, and the book is up-to-date with current technology. The mathematics is simplified wherever possible and copious references are given for further study and examples. The practising vertical transportation engineer involved with the sizing of a vertical transportation installation will find this an excellent and authoritative resource.Other members of the design teams: architects, developers and owners, will find the book a useful reference, and the needs of researchers, lecturers and students of the subject will also be satisfied by this simple presentation of the underlying theory. The engineering aspects, which fall into the areas of manufacturing and production, are not covered, but the practical constraints and considerations are indicated.

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           xv
Preface xvii
Principles of interior circulation
General 1 (2)
Human factors 3 (5)
Interpersonal distances 3 (2)
Human personal space and human 5 (3)
dimensions
Circulation factors 8 (9)
Corridor (handling) capacity 8 (2)
Portal (handling) capacities 10 (1)
Stairway (handling) capacity 11 (1)
Escalator (handling) capacity 12 (3)
Passenger conveyors (moving walkways 15 (1)
and ramps)
Handling capacity of lifts 16 (1)
Comparison of ``handling'' capacities 17 (1)
Location of facilities 17 (4)
General 17 (1)
Stairs and escalators 18 (1)
Lifts 18 (2)
Stairs, escalators and lifts 20 (1)
Facilities for persons with disabilities 21 (2)
Circulation in shopping centres
Introduction 23 (1)
Theoretical aspects of horizontal 24 (2)
movements
Mall (handling) capacity (reprise) 24 (1)
Entrance capacity 24 (2)
Theoretical aspects of vertical movements 26 (1)
Stairway capacity 26 (1)
Escalator (handling) capacity 26 (1)
Lift handling capacity 26 (1)
Practical levels of shopper movements 26 (4)
Malls and entrances 26 (1)
Stairs 27 (1)
Escalators 28 (1)
Moving ramps (passenger conveyors) 29 (1)
Handling capacity of lifts 30 (1)
Example 2.1 30 (1)
Summary 31 (1)
Factors affecting circulation - good 31 (2)
practice
Example 2.2 33 (2)
Circulation on escalator landings with
passenger conveyors
Introduction 35 (1)
Sizing of escalator landings 36 (2)
Mathematical analysis 38 (1)
Considerations for a design density 39 (2)
Arrangement of escalators: specific case 41 (4)
Arrangement 1: single escalator 41 (1)
Arrangement 2: pair of escalators side 41 (1)
by side
Arrangement 3: successive escalators 42 (1)
without an intermediate exit
Arrangement 4: successive escalators 43 (1)
with one intermediate exit
Arrangement 5: successive escalators 43 (1)
with two intermediate exits
Arrangement 6: pair of successive 43 (1)
escalators side by side with one exit
Arrangement 7: pair of successive 44 (1)
escalators side by side with two exits
Arrangement of escalators: all types 45 (1)
Another interpretation of EN115, Clause 45 (1)
5.2.1
Passenger conveyors 45 (1)
Disadvantaged circulation 46 (3)
Circulation case studies
Points of conflict: Speculative merchant 49 (4)
bank headquarters with congested
circulation area
Commuter railway station concourse: 53 (4)
Improving the concourse area of a
commuter railway station concourse
Sizing doorways: Providing adequate 57 (4)
access to a concert hall complex
Restaurant access: Improving access to a 61 (6)
staff restaurant with multiple entry
routes
Escalator landing in a office building: 67 (4)
Guidance for sizing an escalator landing
where escalators are successive
Escalator landing in a court building: 71 (2)
Guidance for sizing an escalator landing
where escalators are successive
Terminal railway station: Provision of 73 (4)
sufficient escalators and their location
Lifts versus escalators: Comparison of 77 (2)
time to travel a small number of floors
by escalator or lift
Circulation data tables 79 (158)
Principles of lift traffic design
The need for lifts 83 (1)
Fundamental design constraints 83 (1)
Human constraints 84 (2)
Physiological constraints 84 (1)
Psychological constraints 85 (1)
Traffic patterns 86 (7)
Uppeak traffic 87 (2)
Down peak traffic 89 (2)
Two way and mid day (lunch time) traffic 91 (1)
Random interfloor traffic 91 (1)
Other traffic situations 92 (1)
Summary of traffic conditions 93 (1)
Traffic design 93 (5)
Introduction 93 (1)
Some definitions 94 (4)
Derivation of the round trip time of a 98 (5)
single car
Evaluating the round trip time equation
Data sets 103 (1)
Building data set 103 (1)
Lift system data set 103 (1)
Passenger data set 104 (1)
Numerical values 104 (1)
Determination of P 104 (1)
Determination of S 105 (1)
Determination of H 106 (1)
Example 5.1 107 (2)
Effect of passenger arrival process 109 (3)
General 109 (1)
Formulae for S and H using the Poisson 110 (1)
probability distribution function
Comparison between the rectangular and 111 (1)
Poisson pdfs
Example 5.2 112 (1)
Single floor transit time tv 112 (3)
Interfloor distance 112 (1)
Rated speed 113 (1)
Example 5.3 114 (1)
Time consumed when stopping (ts) 115 (5)
Cycle time (Definition 4.24) and other 116 (1)
times
The single floor flight time 116 (1)
Door operating times 117 (1)
General 117 (1)
Door closing time (tc) 118 (1)
Door opening time (to) 118 (1)
Door weight 119 (1)
Example 5.4 120 (1)
Passenger transfer times (tp) 120 (1)
Example 5.5 121 (1)
Other times 121 (2)
Example 5.6 122 (1)
Factors affecting the value of the round 123 (2)
trip time equation
The time independent variables 124 (1)
The time dependent variables 124 (1)
Five lift systems 124 (1)
Summary 125 (2)
Determination of passenger demand
Introduction 127 (1)
Quality and Quantity of Service 127 (1)
Reprise 128 (1)
Estimation of population 128 (3)
Passenger data sets 128 (1)
Purpose of a building 129 (1)
Main terminal population 130 (1)
Usable area 130 (1)
Example 6.1 131 (1)
Practical population estimations 131 (1)
Estimation of arrival rate 131 (1)
Quality of Service 132 (5)
Passenger average waiting time 132 (1)
Example 6.2 133 (1)
Uppeak performance 134 (1)
Example 6.3 135 (1)
Average (lift) system response time 135 (2)
(ASRT)
Other useful design parameters 137 (2)
Passenger average travel time to 137 (1)
destination (ATT)
Passenger average journey time (AJT) 138 (1)
Summary of AWT, ATT and AJT 138 (1)
Example 6.4 139 (2)
Given data 139 (1)
Initial sizing 140 (1)
Calculation 140 (1)
Example 6.5 141 (1)
An improved design procedure 141 (6)
The iterative balance method 141 (2)
Example 6.6 143 (3)
Example 6.7 146 (1)
Epilogue 147 (2)
Uppeak traffic calculations: limitations
and assumptions
Some assumptions in the derivation of the 149 (1)
round trip time equation
The traffic profile is ideal 149 (1)
Unequal floor populations or demand 149 (6)
Number of stops (S) for unequal demand 150 (1)
Examples 7.1 and 7.2 151 (1)
Highest reversal floor (H) for unequal 152 (1)
demand
Example 7.3 and 7.4 153 (2)
Interfloor flight times and unequal floor 155 (3)
heights
Interfloor flight times 155 (2)
Unequal interfloor distances 157 (1)
Taking account of both interfloor 157 (1)
flight time variations and unequal
floor distances
Example 7.5 158 (1)
Effect of traffic supervisory system 158 (1)
Various lost times 159 (1)
Passengers arrive uniformly in time 160 (4)
Passenger arrival process 160 (1)
Effect of randomness of passenger 160 (1)
destinations
Effect of variations in arrival rate 161 (3)
Comparison of nonlinearities and their 164 (2)
total effect on the value of the RTT
Categories 164 (1)
Example 7.6 164 (2)
Number of passengers and car load 166 (5)
revisited
Preamble 166 (1)
Definitions 166 (1)
Example 7.7 167 (1)
Example 7.8 168 (1)
Other considerations: geographical 168 (1)
factors
Other considerations: intended use 169 (2)
Special situations and their effect on the
round trip time equation
Introduction 171 (1)
Consideration by lift function 171 (8)
Shuttle lifts (with sky lobbies) 171 (2)
Double decker lifts 173 (4)
Firefighting lifts 177 (1)
Goods lifts 177 (1)
Observation lifts 178 (1)
Platform lifts and lifts for the 179 (1)
disabled
Consideration by building form 179 (17)
Tall buildings 179 (1)
Stacked zones 180 (2)
Interleaved zones 182 (1)
Transfer floors 183 (1)
Very tall buildings 183 (1)
General 183 (1)
Double deck shuttles to double deck 184 (1)
locals
Double deck shuttles to single deck 185 (1)
locals
Single deck shuttles to single deck 186 (1)
locals
Top/down service 187 (1)
Traffic design considerations for very 188 (1)
tall buildings
Very tall buildings: a postscript 188 (1)
Basement service 188 (5)
Multiple entry levels and entrance bias 193 (1)
Lobby design 193 (1)
Effect of door width and car shape 194 (1)
Residential lifts 194 (1)
Health care lifts 195 (1)
General purpose lifts 195 (1)
Intensive traffic lifts 195 (1)
Unusual car shapes 195 (1)
Effect of large floor plates 196 (1)
Effect of building facilities 196 (1)
Considerations by building function 196 (5)
Shopping centres 196 (1)
Airports 197 (1)
Car parks 197 (1)
Hospitals 198 (1)
Hotels 198 (1)
Railway stations 199 (1)
Department stores 199 (1)
Universities and other education 199 (1)
buildings
Residential buildings 200 (1)
Residential care homes and nursing homes 201 (1)
Entertainment centres, cinemas, 201 (1)
theatres, sports centres and concert
halls
Summary 201 (2)
General philosophy of lift traffic design
by calculation
Introduction 203 (1)
Performance criteria 203 (1)
The building to be considered 204 (1)
Classical design of low zone by 205 (1)
calculation method
Classical design of mid zone by 206 (1)
calculation method
Classical design of upper zone by 207 (1)
calculation method
Discussion 208 (1)
Escalator service 208 (3)
Traffic case studies
Tall building with separated lift lobbies 211 (6)
Basement service in a low rise building 217 (2)
Tall building with total connectivity 219 (6)
Medium rise trader building 225 (6)
Multiple entrance modernisation 231 (4)
Double deck installation 235 (2)
Traffic design data tables 237 (188)
Classical traffic control
Background 245 (2)
History 245 (1)
Scheduled versus demand or ``on-call'' 246 (1)
traffic control
Single lift traffic control 247 (2)
Single call automatic control 247 (1)
Collective control 247 (1)
Non-directional collective 248 (1)
Down distributive (up-distributive, 248 (1)
down-collective)
Full collective (directional collective) 248 (1)
Important rules for passenger movements 249 (1)
Group traffic control 249 (4)
Some definitions 249 (1)
Call allocation 250 (1)
Static sectoring 251 (1)
Dynamic sectoring 252 (1)
Assignment of lifts to sectors 252 (1)
Information for passengers: signalling 253 (1)
Examples of classical group traffic 253 (10)
control
Simple control - ``Nearest car'' (NC) 254 (3)
A fixed sectoring common sector system 257 (1)
(FSO)
A fixed sectoring priority timed system 258 (3)
(FS4)
A dynamic sectoring system (DS) 261 (2)
Other features of group traffic control 263 (5)
systems
Uppeak service 264 (1)
Down peak service 265 (1)
Load bypass 265 (1)
Heavy demand floors 266 (1)
Lobby and preferential floor services 266 (1)
Parking policy 266 (1)
Basement service 267 (1)
Car preference 267 (1)
Automatic shut down 267 (1)
Other features 268 (1)
Summary 268 (1)
Computer traffic control
Digital computer control 269 (1)
An analysis of conventional control 269 (4)
systems
Four primary tasks and five rules 269 (1)
The nature of passenger demand 270 (1)
Characteristics of classical traffic 271 (1)
control system
Improving a classical traffic control 271 (1)
algorithm
Summary 272 (1)
A new approach to computer lift traffic 272 (1)
control
Features to be included in a computer 273 (2)
based traffic control system
Computing car journey times 273 (1)
Unbalanced interfloor traffic 274 (1)
Reduction in the number of stops 275 (1)
Advanced control techniques 275 (7)
Fundamental limitations 275 (1)
Minimal cost functions 275 (1)
Stochastic traffic control systems 276 (2)
Other control techniques 278 (1)
New signalling methods 279 (2)
Hall call allocation 281 (1)
Conclusions on advanced control 282 (1)
techniques
The role of the computer 282 (5)
Computer hardware requirements 282 (1)
Computer software requirements 283 (4)
Control case studies
Estimated time of arrival (ETA) traffic 287 (4)
control system
Computer group control (CGC) traffic 291 (6)
control system
Adaptive hall call allocation (ACA) 297 (6)
traffic control system
Uppeak: dissection and paradigm
Introduction 303 (1)
Uppeak formulae 303 (1)
Low call express floor 304 (2)
The 80% car loading factor 306 (3)
Traffic analysis - the inverse S-P method 309 (1)
Bunching 309 (2)
More on uppeak passenger average waiting 311 (2)
time, travel time and journey time
Alternative and alternate definitions 311 (1)
Another formula for passenger average 312 (1)
waiting time
More on passenger average travel time 313 (1)
(ATT)
Improving uppeak handling capacity 313 (7)
Rationale 313 (1)
Conventional uppeak traffic control 313 (1)
By subzoning 314 (1)
By sectoring 315 (2)
By call allocation: single zone 317 (1)
By call allocation: subzoning 318 (1)
Some conclusions 319 (1)
Dealing with a group of lifts with 320 (1)
different specifications
A final important word 321 (2)
Down peak: dissertation and hypothesis
Early work 323 (3)
Background 323 (1)
Basic down peak analysis 323 (1)
Example 13.1 324 (1)
Effects of the traffic controller 325 (1)
Quality of Service 325 (1)
Finding values for Sd, DNPINT and DNPAWT 326 (3)
during down peak
Down peak demand 326 (1)
Down peak number of stops 327 (1)
Down peak interval 327 (1)
Down peak performance 328 (1)
Revisiting Equation (13.1) 329 (3)
Average number of stops (SD) 329 (1)
Average highest reversal floor (HD) 330 (1)
The average number of passengers 330 (1)
The down peak round trip equation 330 (1)
Quality of Service 331 (1)
Calculation program 332 (1)
Estimating the down peak handling 332 (1)
capacity and average passenger waiting
time
A warning 333 (1)
Conclusions 334 (1)
Interfloor traffic: debate and pragmatism
Introduction 335 (1)
Interfloor demand 336 (1)
Quality of Service: performance figure 336 (1)
Interfloor passenger demand 337 (2)
Actual passenger demand 339 (2)
Number of stops 341 (2)
Relating performance 343 (2)
Conclusions of balanced interfloor traffic 345 (1)
A warning 346 (1)
Review of traffic patterns (including mid
day traffic)
Preamble 347 (1)
Mid day or lunch time traffic 347 (6)
Background to the traffic condition 347 (1)
Calculation of mid day traffic 348 (2)
Mid day demand 350 (1)
Example 15.1 351 (1)
Observations on the mid day period 352 (1)
Review 353 (2)
Simulation and computer aided design
Simulation and CAD defined 355 (2)
About PC-LSD and Elevate 357 (1)
Underlying structure of a digital 358 (1)
computer simulation program for lift
traffic design
Time slices 358 (1)
Display updates 358 (1)
Random number generation: arrivals and 358 (1)
departures
Number of simulations 358 (1)
Simulation period 359 (1)
Simulation and design of lift systems 359 (9)
Input phase 359 (1)
Building data set 360 (1)
Lift data set 361 (1)
Passenger data set 362 (2)
Simulation phase 364 (1)
Output phase 365 (3)
Conclusions 368 (7)
Simulation case studies
Uppeak simulation for upper zone 375 (8)
Down peak simulation for upper zone 383 (8)
Interfloor simulation for upper zone 391 (6)
Mid day simulation for upper zone 397 (16)
Appendices
A1 Equations of motion of a lift drive 413 (4)
A2 Simple: suite of iterative balance 417 (6)
method and other programs for lift and
elevator design
A3 Measuring performance 423 (2)
References and principal citations 425 (6)
Index 431