科学技術者のためのよりよい文章の書き方(新版)<br>Scientists Must Write : A Guide to Better Writing for Scientists, Engineers and Students (2ND)

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科学技術者のためのよりよい文章の書き方(新版)
Scientists Must Write : A Guide to Better Writing for Scientists, Engineers and Students (2ND)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 204 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780415269964
  • DDC分類 808.0665

基本説明

Written by a scientist for scientists, the book is much more than a textbook of English grammar. Includes word processing and information storage and retrieval, new appendices on punctuation, spelling and computers, and useful exercises to improve your writing.

Full Description


Good writing and communication skills are essential in many areas of science and engineering, to help observation, thinking and remembering, to organize work and to avoid stress. Written by a scientist for scientists, this book is much more than a textbook of English grammar - it is a valuable source of information for all aspects of writing in scientific and technical situations.The only book focusing on the ways in which writing is important to the scientific community, this book assists readers on:* how to write and choice of words* using numbers and illustrations* writing project reports, theses and papers for publication* giving a short talk or presentation.The new edition of Scientists Must Write has been fully revised and updated to take account of the changes in information and communications technology including word processing and information storage and retrieval; new appendices on punctuation, spelling and computers; and useful exercises to improve writing.This popular guide will be of great use to undergraduates, postgraduates, professional scientists and engineers.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xv
Acknowledgements xvii
Scientists must write 1 (7)
Writing as part of science 2 (4)
The scientific method 2 (1)
The publication of research 3 (1)
The popularisation of science 4 (1)
Developing essential skills 5 (1)
Improve your writing 6 (2)
What scientists and engineers write 6 (1)
Consider any comments on your written work 7 (1)
Write a set of instructions 7 (1)
Personal records 8 (10)
Writing helps you to remember 8 (1)
Making good notes 8 (1)
Writing helps you to observe 9 (4)
Keeping a record of practical work 10 (3)
Writing helps you to think 13 (2)
Essay writing as an aid to thinking 14 (1)
Writing a progress report as an aid to 14 (1)
thinking
Capturing your thoughts 14 (1)
Being well organised 15 (1)
Improve your writing 15 (3)
Use wide-lined A4 paper for all your 15 (1)
written work
Date everything you write 15 (1)
Write as part of each investigation 16 (1)
Use writing as an aid to thinking and 16 (1)
planning
Use writing and drawing as aids to 16 (1)
observation
Consider how writing helps you with your 16 (2)
work
Routine communications 18 (12)
Letters 18 (3)
Memoranda 21 (2)
Electronic mail 23 (2)
Improve your writing 25 (5)
Put it in writing 25 (1)
Ensure each communication is well 25 (1)
presented
Keep a copy 25 (1)
Prepare an application for employment or 26 (4)
for promotion
How scientists should write 30 (10)
Characteristics of scientific writing 30 (5)
Explanation 30 (1)
Clarity 30 (1)
Completeness 30 (1)
Impartiality 31 (1)
Order 31 (1)
Accuracy 32 (1)
Objectivity 32 (2)
Simplicity 34 (1)
Scientific writing 35 (1)
Improve your writing 35 (5)
Criticise other people's writing 35 (2)
Criticise your own writing 37 (3)
Think -- plan -- write -- revise 40 (14)
Thinking and planning 40 (4)
Collecting information and ideas 40 (1)
Preparing a topic outline 41 (1)
Putting your paragraphs in order 42 (2)
Writing 44 (2)
Revising 46 (2)
Improve your writing 48 (6)
Practise essay writing 50 (1)
Study the technique of successful 50 (1)
essayists
Prepare a topic outline 51 (1)
Consider how examination papers are set 51 (1)
and marked
In examinations make things easy for the 52 (1)
assessors
Make good use of your time in examinations 53 (1)
Choosing words 54 (13)
The meaning of words 54 (6)
Some words commonly confused 55 (3)
Other words commonly misused 58 (1)
Grandiloquence 59 (1)
Superfluous words 60 (2)
Technical terms 62 (1)
Nomenclature 63 (1)
Trade names 64 (1)
Abbreviations, contractions and acronyms 64 (1)
Improve your writing 65 (2)
Take an interest in words 65 (1)
Use your dictionary 65 (1)
Choose words with care 65 (1)
Define technical terms 66 (1)
Using words 67 (13)
Words in context 67 (3)
The repetition of a word 67 (1)
The position of a word 68 (1)
Idiomatic expressions 69 (1)
Circumlocution 70 (5)
Verbosity 70 (1)
Reasons for verbosity 71 (3)
The need for comment words and connecting 74 (1)
words
Improve your writing 75 (5)
Be clear and concise 75 (1)
Edit the work of others 76 (1)
Write precis and summaries 77 (1)
Write a book review 78 (2)
Helping your readers 80 (11)
Writing for easy reading 80 (5)
How to begin 81 (1)
Control 81 (1)
Emphasis 82 (1)
Sentence length 83 (1)
Rhythm 84 (1)
Style 84 (1)
Capturing and holding your readers' interest 85 (1)
Using good English 86 (2)
Obstacles to effective communication 87 (1)
Rules for efficient communication 88 (1)
Improve your writing 88 (3)
Learn from people who write well 88 (1)
Learn by writing 89 (1)
Check your writing for readability 89 (2)
Numbers contribute to precision 91 (14)
Using numbers and SI units 91 (4)
Numbers 91 (2)
SI units 93 (2)
Preparing tables 95 (2)
Preparing graphs and charts 97 (8)
Line graphs 98 (1)
Histograms 99 (1)
Bar charts 100 (3)
Pie charts 103 (2)
Illustrations contribute to clarity 105 (12)
Using illustrations as aids to explanation 105 (5)
Photographs 107 (1)
Line drawings 107 (2)
Plans and maps 109 (1)
Diagrams that are not drawn to scale 109 (1)
Preparing illustrations 110 (5)
Dimensions 111 (2)
Drawing 113 (1)
Completed illustrations 114 (1)
Improve your writing 115 (2)
Writing legends to figures (captions) 115 (1)
Checking your illustrations and legends 116 (1)
Finding information 117 (15)
Reading as part of science 117 (2)
Other people's work 118 (1)
Sources of information 119 (7)
Dictionaries 119 (1)
Encyclopaedias 119 (1)
Handbooks 119 (1)
Standards 120 (1)
Directories 120 (1)
Books 120 (2)
Reviews 122 (1)
Specialist journals 122 (2)
The Internet (World Wide Web) 124 (2)
Intranets 126 (1)
Improve your writing 126 (6)
Reading to some purpose 126 (1)
Making notes as you read 127 (2)
Citing sources of information 129 (2)
Writing a book review 131 (1)
How to write a report on an investigation 132 (18)
Planning your report 132 (4)
Preparing a topic outline 132 (3)
Numbering the sections of your report 135 (1)
The parts of a research report 136 (10)
The Front Cover 136 (3)
The Title Page 139 (1)
The Abstract or Summary 140 (1)
The Table of Contents 141 (1)
The Introduction 141 (1)
The Materials and Methods (or Procedure) 141 (1)
The Results 142 (1)
The Discussion 142 (1)
The Conclusions 143 (1)
The Recommendations 143 (1)
The Acknowledgements 144 (1)
The Bibliography or List of References 145 (1)
The Appendices 145 (1)
The Index 146 (1)
The Distribution List 146 (1)
Theses and students' project reports 146 (4)
Theses 146 (1)
Students' project reports 147 (3)
Writing a report on your investigation 150 (13)
Write from the start 150 (1)
Preparing your manuscript (first draft) 150 (1)
Improve your writing 151 (9)
Checking your manuscript (first draft) 151 (2)
Preparing your typescript 153 (2)
Checking your typescript 155 (1)
Preparing the index 155 (1)
Marking the typescript for the printer 156 (1)
Corresponding with an editor 157 (1)
A check list for referees (and authors) 158 (1)
Checking the proofs 159 (1)
Summary 160 (3)
How to prepare a report on an 160 (3)
investigation or a paper for publication
Talking about science 163 (32)
Preparing your talk 163 (9)
Giving a poster presentation 164 (1)
Talking to an audience 164 (4)
Preparing visual aids 168 (1)
Using a blackboard, whiteboard or flip 169 (1)
chart
Using an overhead projector 170 (1)
Using slides 171 (1)
Delivering your talk 172 (2)
Appendices
A Punctuation 174 (7)
B Spelling 181 (6)
C Computer appreciation 187 (8)
References 195 (2)
Index 197

041526998.TOC0415269989



Acknowledgments viii

Introduction 1 (8)

Economizing, sociologizing, and praxis 3 (2)

Information processing 5 (1)

Industrial relations systems 6 (1)

History of technology 6 (2)

References 8 (1)

PART I The emerging virtual economy 9 (118)

1 Between utopia and dystopia 11 (9)

Virtual organizations 11 (8)

References 19 (1)

2 One, two, many industrial revolutions 20 (31)

A new industrial revolution? 21 (5)

The first industrial revolutions 26 (2)

End of the craft paradigm 28 (2)

Taylorism and organizational change 30 (1)

Airplanes, autos, and Fordisen 31 (4)

Electricity and automation 35 (6)

The digital revolution 41 (4)

Digital networks 45 (2)

References 47 (4)

3 The Wizard of Oz and the jobs dilemma 51 (28)

ICT and economic trends 55 (8)

Lean production 63 (4)

Lean and mean 67 (3)

The jobs dilemma 70 (6)

References 76 (3)

4 E-business and the virtual organization 79 (24)

The Internet advantage 81 (4)

E-commerce models 85 (4)

Lean and virtual 89 (11)

References 100 (3)

5 Jobs in the virtual economy 103 (24)

Employment impacts 104 (6)

Virtual jobs 110 (5)

Unions in a virtual world 115 (8)

References 123 (4)

PART II The Internet, social intelligence, and 127 (39)

labor

6 Labor problems 129 (12)

"Free markets" 133 (2)

Unionism and free association 135 (1)

Benefits of unionization 136 (1)

Many forms of labor organization 137 (1)

Region, nation, and globe 138 (1)

References 139 (2)

7 Social intelligence, open source, and craft 141 (11)

Open source software 144 (3)

Craft production 147 (2)

Action 149 (1)

Knowledge management 149 (1)

Total information awareness 150 (1)

References 150 (2)

8 Internet unionism and labor-friendly 152 (14)

enterprise

Distributivism 159 (3)

Conclusions about Internet unionism and labor 162 (1)

friendly enterprise

Toward social movement informatics 163 (1)

References 164 (2)

Notes 166 (6)

Index 172

041526999.TOC0415269997


Acknowledgments viii

Introduction 1 (8)

Economizing, sociologizing, and praxis 3 (2)

Information processing 5 (1)

Industrial relations systems 6 (1)

History of technology 6 (2)

References 8 (1)

PART I The emerging virtual economy 9 (118)

1 Between utopia and dystopia 11 (9)

Virtual organizations 11 (8)

References 19 (1)

2 One, two, many industrial revolutions 20 (31)

A new industrial revolution? 21 (5)

The first industrial revolutions 26 (2)

End of the craft paradigm 28 (2)

Taylorism and organizational change 30 (1)

Airplanes, autos, and Fordisen 31 (4)

Electricity and automation 35 (6)

The digital revolution 41 (4)

Digital networks 45 (2)

References 47 (4)

3 The Wizard of Oz and the jobs dilemma 51 (28)

ICT and economic trends 55 (8)

Lean production 63 (4)

Lean and mean 67 (3)

The jobs dilemma 70 (6)

References 76 (3)

4 E-business and the virtual organization 79 (24)

The Internet advantage 81 (4)

E-commerce models 85 (4)

Lean and virtual 89 (11)

References 100 (3)

5 Jobs in the virtual economy 103 (24)

Employment impacts 104 (6)

Virtual jobs 110 (5)

Unions in a virtual world 115 (8)

References 123 (4)

PART II The Internet, social intelligence, and 127 (39)

labor

6 Labor problems 129 (12)

"Free markets" 133 (2)

Unionism and free association 135 (1)

Benefits of unionization 136 (1)

Many forms of labor organization 137 (1)

Region, nation, and globe 138 (1)

References 139 (2)

7 Social intelligence, open source, and craft 141 (11)

Open source software 144 (3)

Craft production 147 (2)

Action 149 (1)

Knowledge management 149 (1)

Total information awareness 150 (1)

References 150 (2)

8 Internet unionism and labor-friendly 152 (14)

enterprise

Distributivism 159 (3)

Conclusions about Internet unionism and labor 162 (1)

friendly enterprise

Toward social movement informatics 163 (1)

References 164 (2)

Notes 166 (6)

Index 172