Restoring Function to the Injured Human Spinal Cord (Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology Vol.171) (2003. xvi, 161 S. XVI, 161 p. 61 illus., 30 illus. in color. 235 mm)

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Restoring Function to the Injured Human Spinal Cord (Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology Vol.171) (2003. xvi, 161 S. XVI, 161 p. 61 illus., 30 illus. in color. 235 mm)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 140 p.
  • 商品コード 9783540443674

Full Description


This book has two major themesof the biology of spinal cord injury (SCI) in ani mal models and their relationship to naturally occurring inju ry in man, and secondly, to review novel means to induce functional recovery from spinal cord injury based on develop mental biophysics and physiology. These are new innovations in the treatment of SCI, born of disciplines that have not re ceived much attention from investigators interested in the re pair and regeneration of the Central Nervous System (CNS). They include development of 4-Aminopyridine for chronic SCI; oscillating electrical fields and polymer infusion for acute SCI. Biochemistry, neurotransplantation techniques, and phar macological approaches have long dominated this literature. Curiously though, it is these former techniques that are more practical and are rapidly moving into human clinical studies, or have already begun then. All of these clinical therapies have been developed at the Center for Paralysis Research at Purdue University, mirroring the backgrounds and interests of the electrophysiologists and biophysicists of our Research Center's faculty. Two of the three experimental therapies for SCI devel oped at Purdue University are now in human clinical trials, and a third will soon begin. They frame the emphasis of this text.

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           xv
A Brief Primer on Spinal Cord Injury 1 (2)
Epidemiology 1 (2)
The Behavioral Catastrophe is Rooted in 3 (16)
Injury to White Matter
The Ground Plan of the Spinal Cord 3 (5)
Characteristics of SCI 8 (11)
The Biological Basis of the Injury 13 (2)
Secondary Injury 15 (2)
Acute and Chronic Phases of SCI Can Be 17 (2)
Considered Two Separate Injuries
The Scar As a Barrier To Regeneration 19 (6)
Inhibitory Molecules 20 (2)
Other Inhibitors 20 (2)
Other Cells Important to SCI 22 (3)
Treating the Acute and Chronic Injury: 25 (4)
Historical Perspective
Concerning Behavioral Models for Spinal 29 (12)
Cord Injury in Animals
When Walking is Not Walking 29 (10)
The BBB Evaluation 33 (3)
Novel Behavioral Indices of White 36 (3)
Matter Integrity
Injuring the Cord and Probing its Anatomy 39 (2)
Axonal Regeneration 41 (10)
Collateral Sprouting 42 (2)
Marking the Lesion 42 (2)
A Neurons Journey: Integrating Guidance 44 (7)
Cues
Roadways 45 (3)
Signposts 48 (1)
Growth Factors 49 (2)
Treatment Possibilities of the New Biology 51 (16)
Restoration 51 (3)
Reversing Physiological Conduction Block 51 (3)
Repair 54 (2)
Regeneration 56 (11)
Peripheral Nerve Bridges 56 (2)
Regeneration in Response to 58 (2)
Neurotransplantation
Stem Cells 60 (2)
Inhibiting the Inhibitors of Nerve 62 (2)
Regeneration
Do Macrophages Hurt or Help 64 (2)
Regeneration in the Spinal Cord
The Neural Growth Factors 66 (1)
Biologically Produced Electrical Fields: 67 (14)
Physiology Spoken Here
Concerning Naturally Produced DC Voltage 68 (2)
Gradients
The Skin Battery and Electric Embryos 70 (11)
Endogenous Voltages During Neurulation 72 (4)
Endogenous Voltages During Neural Tube 76 (5)
Formation
Endogenous Voltages and the Reaction of the 81 (2)
Neuron to Injury
The Responses of Isolated Nerve Fibers in 83 (8)
Culture to Applied DC Voltages
Historical Perspective 83 (2)
Galvanotaxis: Rules and Trends 85 (2)
Extracellular Voltages and the Choices 87 (4)
Neurons Make
Enhancing Spinal Cord Regeneration in situ 91 (14)
with Applied Electric Fields
The Control of Regeneration of Nerve 91 (4)
Fibers in the Fish Spinal Cord by Applied
Electric Fields
The Anatomy of Regeneration of Spinal 95 (4)
Cord Nerve Fibers in the Laboratory Rat
and Guinea Pig
Guiding Spinal Cord Axons into Rubber 99 (3)
Tubes with Applied Voltages
Anatomical Responses to Applied Voltages 102(3)
by Non-Neuronal Cells Important To Spinal
Cord Injury: The Macrophage
The Astrocyte 102(3)
Recovery of the CTM Reflex in Spinal 105(2)
Injured Guinea Pigs after Exposure To
Applied Extracellular Voltages
From a Laboratory Tool To a Clinical 107(2)
Application
Naturally Occurring Spinal Injury in the 109(10)
Dog as a Model for Man
Clinical Trials of OFS in the Paraplegic 111(4)
Dog
Recovery of Function in Paraplegic Dogs 115(1)
Combined Results of Both Clinical Trials 116(3)
of OFS
Sealing the Breach in Cell Membranes with 119(8)
Hydrophilic Polymers
Introduction 119(2)
Spinal Cord Fusion: Proof of Concept 121(2)
Repairing a Crush Injury with PEG 123(4)
Recovery of Behavioral and Physiological 127(6)
Function in vivo
Polymer Injection Into the Blood Supply 129(1)
Safety of Intravenous Polyethylene Glycol 130(3)
(PEG)
PEG Application in Clinical Cases of Canine 133(4)
Paraplegia
The Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymers 135(2)
Conclusion 137(4)
References 141(16)
Subject Index 157