Magnetic Resonance Imaging : Theory and Practice. Introduction by A. Luitenne (Physics and Astronomy Online Library) (3rd)

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging : Theory and Practice. Introduction by A. Luitenne (Physics and Astronomy Online Library) (3rd)

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Description


(Short description)
With a Historical Introduction by André Luiten
(Text)


(Table of content)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Historical Introduction.- 1. MRI and Its Hardware.- 2.Conventional Imaging Methods.- 3. Imaging Methods with Advanced % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaagCart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGabm4Aayaala% aaaa!36F6!$$\vec k$$-Space Trajectories.- 4. Steady-State Gradient-Echo Imaging.- 5. Transient-State Gradient-Echo Imaging.- 6. Contrast and Signal-to-Noise Ratio.- 7. Motion and Flow.- 8. Partitioning of the Magnetization into Configurations.- References.- Index of Abbreviated Terms.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Historical Introduction.- 1. MRI and Its Hardware.- 2.Conventional Imaging Methods.- 3. Imaging Methods with Advanced % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaagCart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq-Jc9% vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0-yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr-x% fr-xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGabm4Aayaala% aaaa!36F6!$$vec k$$-Space Trajectories.- 4. Steady-State Gradient-Echo Imaging.- 5. Transient-State Gradient-Echo Imaging.- 6. Contrast and Signal-to-Noise Ratio.- 7. Motion and Flow.- 8. Partitioning of the Magnetization into Configurations.- References.- Index of Abbreviated Terms.

Table of Contents

        List of Image Sets                         xix
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Historical 1 (8)
Introduction
MRI and Its Hardware 9 (46)
Introduction 9 (7)
Spin and Magnetization 9 (1)
Precession: Rotating System of Reference 10 (1)
Rotation: Excitation by RF Pulses 11 (2)
Excitation of a Selected Slice: Gradient 13 (2)
Field
Free Induction Decay (FID) 15 (1)
Spin Echo 16 (5)
Determination of Position in the Read-Out 18 (1)
Direction
Determination of Position in the 19 (1)
Phase-Encode Direction
Measuring Sequence 19 (1)
Object Slice: Voxels and Image Pixels 20 (1)
System Architecture 21 (34)
Magnets 25 (2)
Superconducting Magnets 27 (2)
Other Magnet Types 29 (3)
Deviations from the Homogeneous Magnetic 32 (3)
Field
The Gradient Chain 35 (3)
Gradient Power Supply and Rise Time 38 (1)
Eddy Currents 39 (2)
The RF Chain 41 (1)
RF Coils 42 (6)
The Receiver 48 (3)
Physiological Signals 51 (2)
The Back End 53 (2)
Conventional Imaging Methods 55 (80)
Introduction 55 (1)
The Bloch Equation 55 (3)
Precession 58 (1)
Excitation 58 (6)
Non-selective Pulse 59 (1)
Slice-Selective RF Pulses 59 (3)
Other RF Pulses 62 (1)
Power Dissipation in an RF Pulse 63 (1)
The Spin-Echo Imaging Sequence 64 (18)
The k Plane 68 (1)
Discrete Sampling 69 (3)
Sampling Point-Spread Function 72 (1)
Thinking in Terms of k Space 72 (5)
Contrast in Spin-Echo Sequences 77 (1)
Scan Parameters and System Design 77 (2)
Practical Example 79 (1)
Multiple-Slice Acquisition 80 (1)
Imaging with Three-Dimensional Encoding 81 (1)
The Field-Echo Imaging Sequence 82 (2)
Artifacts 84 (4)
Ghosting 87 (1)
Magnetization Preparation 88 (47)
A T1 Preparation Pulse: Inversion Recovery 89 (2)
Other Types of Magnetization Preparation 91 (44)
Imaging Methods with Advanced k-Space 135(58)
Trajectories
Introduction 135(2)
Turbo Spin Echo 137(7)
Profile Order 139(2)
Sources of Artifacts in TSE Images 141(3)
Echo Planar Imaging 144(10)
Practical Example 146(1)
Artifacts Due to T*2 Decay and Field 147(1)
Inhomogeneities
Artifacts Due to T*2 Decay 148(2)
Artifacts Due to Resonance Offset 150(1)
Artifacts Due to Gradient Field 151(3)
Properties and Errors
Combination of TSE and EPI: GRASE 154(2)
Square Spiral Imaging 156(1)
Joyriding in k Space 156(11)
Spiral Imaging 158(2)
A Practical Example 160(1)
Reconstruction 161(2)
Artifacts in Spiral Imaging 163(2)
``Rosette'' Trajectory 165(1)
Radial Imaging 165(1)
Some Remarks on the Reconstruction of 166(1)
Exotic Scans
Two-Dimensional Excitation Pulses 167(26)
Steady-State Gradient-Echo Imaging 193(54)
Introduction 193(2)
On FIDs and ECHOs 195(15)
Spin Echo 197(1)
``Eight-Ball'' Echo 198(1)
Stimulated Echo 199(2)
RF Phase 201(1)
Response to RF Pulses with α < 202(1)
90°
Echoes as a Result of Many Excitations 203(1)
ECHO Components and RF Phase Cycling 204(3)
Suppressing the Spatial Variation of the 207(1)
Signal
Conclusions of the Qualitative Description 208(1)
N-FFE and T2-FFE 209(1)
T1-FFE 209(1)
R-FFE 209(1)
Mathematical Model 210(2)
Rotation and Precession Matrix 211(1)
Relaxation Matrix 212(1)
Steady State 212(7)
Steady-State Gradient-Echo Methods (FE and 219(14)
FFE)
Sequences with Very Long TR 219(1)
Sequences with T1 > TR > T2 220(1)
Sequences with Small TR (TR ‾ T2) 220(1)
Large Net-Gradient Surface 220(4)
Rephased FFE 224(3)
FID Measurement with Spoiling of M-T: 227(1)
T1-FFE (FLASH)
FFE with Short TR in Steady State 228(1)
N-FFE, T2-FFE, and R-FFE with TR <lt; 229(2)
T2
T1-FFE with TR <lt; T2 231(1)
Slice Profile 232(1)
Survey of FFE methods 233(14)
Transient-State Gradient-Echo Imaging 247(24)
Introduction 247(2)
Signal Level During Transient State 249(6)
Approach to Steady State by Assuming RF 250(2)
Spoiling
Approach to Steady State Without Spoiling 252(3)
Magnetization Preparation 255(3)
Pre-pulse to Avoid the Transient State in 256(1)
T1-FFE
Balanced-TFE Sequences 257(1)
Profile Order 258(1)
Survey of Transient Gradient Echo Methods 259(12)
Contrast and Signal-to-Noise Ratio 271(50)
Introduction 271(1)
Contrast in MR Images 271(2)
The Physical Mechanism of Relaxation in 273(10)
Tissue
The BPP Theory of Relaxation in 274(2)
Homogeneous Matter
Relaxation Effects in Tissue 276(1)
Fast Exchange 276(1)
Compartments and Slow Exchange 276(1)
Magnetization Transfer 277(4)
Contrast Agents 281(2)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) 283(5)
Fundamental Expression for the SNR 284(1)
Patient Loading of the Receiving Circuit 285(2)
Low-Field and High-Field Systems 287(1)
Practical Expression for the SNR 288(4)
Introduction of the Scanning Parameters 289(1)
Influence of the Receiver on the SNR 290(1)
Influence of Relaxation on the SNR 291(1)
Application to Practical Situations 292(4)
SNR for Non-uniform Sampling of the k Plane 296(25)
One-Sided Partial Scans 296(3)
Non-uniform Sampling with Non-linear 299(1)
Trajectories
Reduced Matrix Acquisition 299(1)
Other Partial-Scan Methods 300(21)
Motion and Flow 321(102)
Introduction 321(1)
Moving Structures, Artifacts, and Imaging 322(6)
Methods
Cardiac Motion 322(2)
Respiratory Motion 324(1)
Ordering of Phase Encoding 324(1)
Breath Hold 325(1)
Respiratory Gating 325(1)
Correction of Respiratory Movement Using 325(2)
Navigator Echoes
Tagging 327(1)
Phase Shift Due to Flow in Gradient Fields 328(7)
Velocity Measurement Using a Bipolar 330(2)
Gradient
Velocity-Insensitive Gradient Waveform 332(1)
Flow with Acceleration 332(2)
Influence of Field Inhomogeneities and 334(1)
Eddy Currents
Flow Artifacts 335(4)
Ghosting Due to Pulsating Flow 335(1)
Flow Voids 335(1)
Shift in Phase-Encoding Direction Due to 336(1)
Flow
Velocity-Insensitive Imaging Sequences: 337(1)
Flow Compensation
Selection Direction 337(1)
Read-Out Direction 337(1)
Phase-Encoding Direction: Correction for 338(1)
Misregistration
Flow Imaging 339(19)
Phase-Contrast Methods 340(1)
Phase-Contrast Angiography 341(1)
Quantitative Flow Based on Phase Contrast 341(3)
Modulus Contrast Methods 344(1)
Inflow Angiography 344(2)
Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography 346(3)
MR Angiography Based on Magnetization 349(5)
Preparation
Black-Blood Angiography 354(1)
Artifacts in Modulus Contrast Angiography 355(2)
Modulus-Contrast Quantitative Flow 357(1)
Measurements
Perfusion 358(6)
MR Perfusion Imaging with Dynamic Bolus 358(3)
Studies
Arterial Spin Labelling 361(3)
Diffusion 364(59)
Measurement with Diffusion Sensitization 366(2)
in One Direction
Diffusion Imaging of the Brain 368(3)
Q-space Imaging 371(52)
Partitioning of the Magnetization into 423(50)
Configurations
Introduction 423(6)
Configurations and Phase Diagrams 423(6)
Theory of Configurations 429(12)
Magnetization Expressed in Discrete 430(1)
Fourier Series
Rotation 431(3)
Effect of Rotation and Precession on the 434(2)
Configurations
Precession Matrix Including (Free) 436(1)
Diffusion
Use of the Theory of Configurations to 437(1)
Describe the Examples in Sect. 8.1
Multiple Spin-Echo Example 438(2)
Eight-Ball Echo and Stimulated Echo 440(1)
Examples
Multi-excitation Pulse Sequences 441(14)
SE-Burst Imaging 443(3)
Excitation Profile for Burst with 446(2)
Single-Phase Excitation
Optimized Burst Excitation Using Phase 448(3)
Modulation
Combination of Burst with TSE 451(1)
Gradient Recalled Burst Sequences 452(2)
Quest and Preview 454(1)
Theory of Configurations and Well-Known 455(7)
Fast-Imaging Sequences
Application to TSE 455(3)
Application to FFE 458(4)
Rotation and Precession Matrices and RF 462(11)
Pulse Design
Shinnar--Le Roux (SLR) Transformation 463(2)
The Inverse Shinnar--Le Roux 465(8)
Transformation (ISLR Transformation)
Appendix 473(4)
References 477(16)
Index of Abbreviated Terms 493(2)
Index 495