燃焼(第4版)<br>Combustion : Physical and Chemical Fundamentals, Modeling and Simulation, Experiments, Pollutant Formation (4TH)

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燃焼(第4版)
Combustion : Physical and Chemical Fundamentals, Modeling and Simulation, Experiments, Pollutant Formation (4TH)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 378 p./サイズ 191 illus.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9783540259923

基本説明

Advanced textbook treating fundamentals and modern experimental and particularly numerical methods. Based upon recent research results of physics, chemistry, and fluid dynamics.

Description


(Text)
Combustion is an old technology, which at present provides about 90% of our worldwide energy support. Combustion research in the past used fluid mechanics with global heat release by chemical reactions described with thermodynamics, assuming infinitely fast reactions. This approach was usefulfor stationary combustion processes, but it is not sufficient for transient processes like ignition and quenching or for pollutant formation. Yet pollutant formation during combustion of fossil fuels is a central topic and will continue to be so in the future. This book provides a detailed and rigorous treatment of the coupling of chemical reactions and fluid flow. Also, combustion-specific topics of chemistry and fluid mechanics are considered and tools described for the simulation of combustion processes.The actual fourth edition presents a completely restructured book: Mathematical Formulae and derivations as well as the space-consuming reaction mechanisms have been replaced from the text to appendix. A new chapter discusses the impact of combustion processes on the earth s atmosphere, the chapter on auto-ignition is extended to combustion in Otto- and Diesel-engines, and the chapters on heterogeneous combustion and on soot formation appear heavily revised.
(Table of content)
Introduction, Fundamental Definitions and Phenomena.
- Experimental Investigation of Flames.
- Mathematical Description of Premixed Laminar Flat Flames.
- Thermodynamics of Combustion Processes.
- Transport Phenomena.
- Chemical Kinetics.
- Reaction Mechanisms.
- Laminar Premixed Flames.
- Laminar Nonpremixed Flames.
- Ignition Processes.
- Low-Temperature Oxidation, Engine Knock.
- The Navier-Stokes-Equations for Three-Dimensional Reacting Flow.
- Turbulent Reacting Flows.
- Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames.
- Turbulent Premixed Flames.
- Combustion of Liquid and Solid Fuels.
- Formation of Nitric Oxides.
- Formation of Hydrocarbons and Soot.
- Effects of Combustion Processes on the Atmosphere.

Table of Contents

  1 Introduction, Fundamental Definitions and      1  (8)
Phenomena
1.1 Introduction 1 (1)
1.2 Some Fundamental Definitions 1 (3)
1.3 Basic Flame Types 4 (4)
1.4 Exercises 8 (1)
2 Experimental Investigation of Flames 9 (20)
2.1 Velocity Measurements 10 (1)
2.2 Density Measurement 11 (2)
2.3 Concentration Measurements 13 (5)
2.4 Temperature Measurements 18 (2)
2.5 Pressure Measurements 20 (1)
2.6 Measurement of Particle Sizes 21 (1)
2.7 Simultaneous Diagnostics 22 (5)
2.8 Exercises 27 (2)
3 Mathematical Description of Premixed 29 (10)
Laminar Flat Flames
3.1 Conservation Equations for Laminar Flat 29 (4)
Premixed Flames
3.2 Heat and Mass Transport 33 (1)
3.3 The Description of a Laminar Premixed 33 (5)
Flat Flame Front
3.4 Exercises 38 (1)
4 Thermodynamics of Combustion Processes 39 (18)
4.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics 39 (2)
4.2 Standard Enthalpies of Formation 41 (2)
4.3 Heat Capacities 43 (1)
4.4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 44 (1)
4.5 The Third Law of Thermodynamics 45 (1)
4.6 Equilibrium Criteria and Thermodynamic 46 (1)
Variables
4.7 Equilibrium in Gas Mixtures; Chemical 47 (2)
Potential
4.8 Determination of Equilibrium 49 (2)
Compositions in Gases
4.9 Determination of Adiabatic Flame 51 (1)
Temperatures
4.10 Tabulation of Thermodynamic Data 52 (3)
4.11 Exercises 55 (2)
5 Transport Phenomena 57 (16)
5.1 A Simple Physical Model of Transport 57 (3)
Processes
5.2 Heat Conduction in Gases 60 (2)
5.3 Viscosity of Gases 62 (2)
5.4 Diffusion in Gases 64 (2)
5.5 Thermal Diffusion, Dufour Effect, and 66 (1)
Pressure Diffusion
5.6 Comparison with Experiments 67 (4)
5.7 Exercises 71 (2)
6 Chemical Kinetics 73 (18)
6.1 Rate Laws and Reaction Orders 73 (2)
6.2 Relation of Forward and Reverse 75 (1)
Reactions
6.3 Elementary Reactions, Reaction 75 (2)
Molecularity
6.4 Experimental Investigation of 77 (2)
Elementary Reactions
6.5 Temperature Dependence of Rate 79 (2)
Coefficients
6.6 Pressure Dependence of Rate Coefficients 81 (3)
6.7 Surface Reactions 84 (4)
6.8 Exercises 88 (3)
7. Reaction Mechanisms 91 (28)
7.1 Characteristics of Reaction Mechanisms 91 (6)
7.1.1 Quasi-Steady States 92 (2)
7.1.2 Partial Equilibrium 94 (3)
7.2 Analysis of Reaction Mechanisms 97 (10)
7.2.1 Sensitivity Analysis 97 (4)
7.2.2 Reaction Flow Analysis 101(2)
7.2.3 Eigenvalue Analyses of Chemical 103(4)
Reaction Systems
7.3 Stiffness of Ordinary Differential 107(1)
Equation Systems
7.4 Simplification of Reaction Mechanisms 107(8)
7.5 Radical Chain Reactions 115(2)
7.6 Exercises 117(2)
8 Laminar Premixed Flames 119(10)
8.1 Zeldovich's Analysis of Flame 119(2)
Propagation
8.2 Flame Structures 121(3)
8.3 Flame Velocities 124(3)
8.4 Sensitivity Analysis 127(1)
8.5 Exercises 128(1)
9 Laminar Nonpremixed Flames 129(12)
9.1 Counterflow Nonpremixed Flames 129(4)
9.2 Laminar Jet Nonpremixed Flames 133(2)
9.3 Nonpremixed Flames With Fast Chemistry 135(3)
9.4 Exercises 138(3)
10 Ignition Processes 141(24)
10.1 Semenov's Analysis of Thermal 142(1)
Explosions
10.2 Frank-Kamenetskii's Analysis of 143(2)
Thermal Explosions
10.3 Autoignition: Ignition Limits 145(3)
10.4 Autoignition: Ignition-Delay Time 148(1)
10.5 Induced Ignition, Minimum Ignition 149(4)
Energies
10.6 Spark Ignition 153(4)
10.7 Detonations 157(6)
10.8 Exercises 163(2)
11 Low-Temperature Oxidation, Engine Knock 165(14)
11.1 Fundamental Phenomena in Otto Engines 165(3)
11.2 Oxidation at Intermediate Temperatures 168(1)
11.3 Low-Temperature Oxidation 169(4)
11.4 Ignition Processes in Reciprocating 173(5)
Engines
11.4.1 Knock Damages in Otto Engines 173(1)
11.4.2 Ignition in Diesel Engines 174(1)
11.4.3 The HCCI Concept 175(2)
11.4.4 The DICI Concept 177(1)
11.5 Exercises 178(1)
12 The Navier-Stokes-Equations for 179(8)
Three-Dimensional Reacting Flow
12.1 The Conservation Equations 179(4)
12.1.1 Overall Mass Conservation 180(1)
12.1.2 Species Mass Conservation 181(1)
12.1.3 Momentum Conservation 181(1)
12.1.4 Energy Conservation 182(1)
12.2 The Empirical Laws 183(2)
12.2.1 Newton's Law 183(1)
12.2.2 Fourier's Law 184(1)
12.2.3 Fick's Law and Thermal Diffusion 184(1)
12.2.4 Calculation of the Transport 185(1)
Coefficients from Molecular Parameters
12.3 Exercises 185(2)
13 Turbulent Reacting Flows 187(26)
13.1 Some Fundamental Phenomena 187(2)
13.2 Direct Numerical Simulation 189(3)
13.3 Concepts for Turbulence Modeling: 192(2)
Time- and Favre-Averaging
13.4 Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes 194(2)
(RANS) Equations
13.5 Turbulence Models 196(4)
13.6 Mean Reaction Rates 200(2)
13.7 Concepts for Turbulence Modeling: 202(4)
Probability Density Functions
13.8 Eddy-Break-Up Models 206(1)
13.9 Turbulent Scales 207(2)
13.10 Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) 209(2)
13.11 Exercises 211(2)
14 Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames 213(14)
14.1 Nonpremixed Flames with Equilibrium 214(3)
Chemistry
14.2 Finite-Rate Chemistry in Nonpremixed 217(4)
Flames
14.3 Flame Extinction 221(3)
14.4 PDF-Simulations of Turbulent 224(2)
Non-Premixed Flames Using a Monte-Carlo
Method
14.5 Exercises 226(1)
15 Turbulent Premixed Flames 227(12)
15.1 Classification of Turbulent Premixed 227(3)
Flames
15.2 Flamelet Models 230(3)
15.2.1 Flamelet Modelling Using a 231(1)
Reaction Progress Variable
15.2.2 Flamelet Modelling Using a 232(1)
Level-Set Method
15.3 Turbulent Flame Velocity 233(2)
15.4 Flame Extinction 235(2)
15.5 Other Models of Turbulent Premixed 237(1)
Combustion
15.6 Exercises 238(1)
16 Combustion of Liquid and Solid Fuels 239(20)
16.1 Droplet Combustion 239(7)
16.1.1 Combustion of Single Droplets 240(4)
16.1.2 Combustion of Droplet Groups 244(2)
16.2 Spray Combustion 246(9)
16.2.1 Formation of Sprays 246(1)
16.2.2 Spray Combustion Modes 247(2)
16.2.3 Statistical Description of Sprays 249(3)
16.2.4 Modeling of Turbulent Spray 252(1)
Combustion
16.2.5 Flamelet-Type Models for Spray 253(2)
Combustion
16.3 Coal Combustion 255(3)
16.3.1 Pyrolysis of Coal 255(1)
16.3.2 Burning of Volatile Compounds 256(1)
16.3.3 Burning of the Coke 256(1)
16.3.4 Coal Gasification 257(1)
16.4 Exercises 258(1)
17 Formation of Nitric Oxides 259(18)
17.1 Thermal NO (Zeldovich NO) 259(3)
17.2 Prompt NO (Fenimore NO) 262(3)
17.3 NO Generated via Nitrous Oxide 265(1)
17.4 Conversion of Fuel Nitrogen into NO 265(2)
17.5 NO Reduction by Combustion 267(4)
Modifications
17.6 Catalytic Combustion 271(1)
17.7 NO Reduction by Post-Combustion 272(3)
Processes
17.8 Exercises 275(2)
18 Formation of Hydrocarbons and Soot 277(20)
18.1 Unburnt Hydrocarbons 277(3)
18.1.1 Flame Extinction Due to Strain 278(1)
18.1.2 Flame Extinction at Walls and in 278(2)
Gaps
18.2 Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic 280(3)
Hydrocarbons (PAH)
18.3 The Phenomenology of Soot Formation 283(4)
18.4 Modelling and Simulation of Soot 287(9)
Formation
18.5 Exercises 296(1)
19 Effects of Combustion Processes on the 297(22)
Atmosphere
19.1 The Structure of the Atmosphere 297(3)
19.1.1 Pressure in the Atmosphere 297(2)
19.1.2 Temperature and Classification of 299(1)
Compartments in the Atmosphere
19.1.3 Composition of the Atmosphere 300(1)
19.2. The Atmosphere as a Photochemical 300(3)
System
19.2.1 Lambert-Beer Law 300(1)
19.2.2 Stern-Vollmer Equation 301(1)
19.2.3 Formation of Photochemical Layers 302(1)
19.3 Incoming Sun Radiation, Photochemical 303(2)
Primary Processes
19.4. Physical Processes in the Atmosphere 305(2)
19.4.1 Conservation of the Mass of Species 305(1)
19.4.2 Conservation of Energy 306(1)
19.4.3 Solution of the Conservation 307(1)
Equations
19.5 Chemistry of the Unpolluted Atmosphere 307(3)
19.5.1 Pure Oxygen Atmosphere 307(1)
19.5.2 Oxygen-Nitrogen-Hydrogen-Carbon 308(2)
Atmosphere
19.6 Chemistry of the Polluted Atmosphere 310(7)
19.6.1 Photochemical Smog 310(4)
19.6.2 Supersonic Transports 314(1)
19.6.3 Green-House Effect 315(1)
19.6.4 Acid rain 316(1)
19.7 The Role of Combustion Sources in 317(2)
Atmospheric Pollution
20 Appendix 1: Mathematics 319(14)
20.1 Some Definitions and Laws for Vectors 319(6)
and Tensors
20.2.1 Formulation of the Problem 320(1)
20.2.2 General Remarks on Solution 321(1)
Algorithms for ODE Systems
20.2.3 Euler Method 322(2)
20.2.4 Extrapolation Method 324(1)
20.3 Numerical Solution of Partial 325(8)
Differential Equation Systems
20.3.1 Spatial Discretization 326(2)
20.3.2 Initial Values, Boundary 328(1)
Conditions, Stationary Solution
20.3.3 Explicit Solution Methods 329(1)
20.3.4 Implicit Solution Methods 330(1)
20.3.5 Semi-implicit Solution of Partial 330(1)
Differential Equations
20.3.6 Implicit Solution of Partial 331(2)
Differential Equations
21 Appendix 2: Reaction Mechanisms 333(12)
21.1 Mechanism of the Oxidation of H2, CO, 333(7)
C1 and C2 Hydrocarbons
21.2 Reaction Mechanism of the Generation 340(5)
and Consumption of NOx
22 References 345(22)
23 Index 367