Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of the Brain (2004. XII, 229 p. w. 661 figs. (some col.). 27,5 cm)

Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of the Brain (2004. XII, 229 p. w. 661 figs. (some col.). 27,5 cm)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 229 p., 661 illus.
  • 商品コード 9783540034391

基本説明

The expert authors have presented over 30 exhibits and scientific reports on diffusion-weighted imaging at the RSNA and the American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR). More than 10 of these exhibits and presentations have been recognized by specific awards.

Full Description


Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is widely accepted as a means to identify stroke, thus enabling rapid and effective treatment. Over the past four years, these expert authors have presented over 30 exhibits and scientific reports on diffusion-weighted imaging at the RSNA and the American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR), and more than 10 of these presentations have been recognized by specific awards. Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of the Brains chapters range from basic principles to interpretation of diffusion-weighted MR imaging and specific disease. This is a valuable reference for radiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons as well as residents, fellows, radiology technologists.

Table of Contents

    Basics of Diffusion Measurements by MRI        1  (6)
Diffusion Imaging in MR 1 (1)
Diffusion Imaging of the Brain 1 (1)
Magnetic Resonance Principles of 1 (1)
Diffusion Imaging
Apparent Diffusion Coefficient 2 (1)
Diffusion Represents a Molecular Event 3 (1)
Requirements in Clinical Diffusion Imaging 4 (1)
Setting the b-Value in Clinical DW Imaging 4 (1)
Future Trends in Clinical DW Imaging 5 (2)
References 5 (2)
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Normal 7 (4)
Brain
Introduction 7 (1)
Adult Brain 7 (2)
Low Signal in Basal Ganglia 7 (1)
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Gray and 7 (1)
White Matter
Choroid Plexus 7 (2)
Pediatric Brain 9 (1)
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and ADC of 9 (1)
the Pediatric Brain
Conclusion 10 (1)
References 10 (1)
Pitfalls and Artifacts of DW Imaging 11 (14)
Introduction 11 (1)
Influence of ADC and T2 on the DW 11 (1)
Appearance
Concepts 11 (1)
Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Maps 11 (1)
Exponential Images 11 (1)
Clinical Conditions 12 (6)
T2 Shine-through 12 (3)
T2 Washout 15 (1)
T2 Blackout 16 (2)
Artifacts 18 (5)
Eddy Current Artifacts 18 (1)
Susceptibility Artifacts 18 (2)
N/2 Ghosting Artifact (Nyquist Ghost) 20 (1)
Chemical Shift 20 (1)
Motion Artifacts 20 (3)
Conclusion 23 (2)
References 23 (2)
Brain Edema 25 (14)
Characterization and Classification of 25 (1)
Brain Edema
Definition and Classification of 25 (1)
Cytotoxic Edema
Pathophysiology of Cytotoxic Edema 25 (3)
Energy Failure 25 (2)
Excitotoxic Brain Injury 27 (1)
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Cytotoxic 28 (7)
Edema
Conditions that Cause Cytotoxic Edema, 29 (6)
and Reversibility
Vasogenic or Interstitial Edema 35 (2)
Conditions that Cause Vasogenic Edema 36 (1)
Conclusion 37 (2)
Cytotoxic or Cellular Edema 37 (1)
Vasogenic Edema 37 (1)
References 37 (2)
Infarction 39 (16)
Clinical Significance and Therapeutic 39 (1)
Considerations for Brain Infarcts
Stroke Mimickers 39 (1)
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging 39 (1)
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and 39 (1)
Pathophysiology of Cerebral Infarction
Apparent Diffusion Coefficient 40 (1)
Explanation for Restricted Diffusion 40 (1)
Time Course of Infarction 40 (5)
Hyperacute (<6 Hours) 40 (2)
Acute (6 Hours to 3 Days) 42 (1)
Subacute (3 Days to 3 Weeks) 43 (1)
Chronic (3 Weeks to 3 Months) 44 (1)
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and ADC 45 (1)
Characteristics of Gray and White Matter
Ischemia
Relative ADC 45 (1)
Reversibility and Treatment 45 (2)
Watershed Infarction 47 (1)
Perfusion Versus Diffusion Imaging 48 (1)
Venous Infarction 48 (2)
Predisposing Factors 48 (1)
Pathophysiology 48 (2)
Small Vessel Infarcts 50 (1)
Brain Stem and Cerebellar Infarcts 51 (1)
Corpus Callosum Infarcts 52 (1)
Hemorrhagic Infarcts 53 (2)
References 54 (1)
Intracranial Hemorrhage 55 (18)
Introduction 55 (1)
Intraparenchymal Hemorrhages: Appearance 55 (7)
and Evolution
Hyperacute Hematoma 55 (4)
Acute Hematoma 59 (1)
Early Subacute Hematoma 59 (3)
Late Subacute Hematomas 62 (1)
Chronic Hematomas 62 (1)
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 62 (2)
Subdural and Epidural Hemorrhages 64 (1)
Intraventricular Hemorrhage 65 (1)
Intra-tumoral Hemorrhage 66 (1)
Hemorrhage Related to Vascular 67 (1)
Malformation
Hemorrhage Related to Trauma 68 (1)
Conclusions 68 (5)
References 69 (4)
Vasculopathy and Vasculitis 73 (22)
Definition 73 (1)
Clinical Presentation 73 (1)
Treatment 73 (1)
Vasculitis of the CNS 73 (11)
Characterization of CNS Vasculitis 73 (1)
Primary Angitis of the Central Nervous 74 (1)
System
Giant Cell (Temporal) Arteritis 75 (3)
Takayasu's Arteritis (Aortitis Syndrome) 78 (2)
Polyarteritis Nodosa 80 (1)
Churg-Strauss Disease 80 (1)
Other Small Vessel Vasculitis 80 (1)
Collagen Vascular Diseases 80 (2)
Infectious Vasculitis 82 (1)
Drug-Induced Vasculitis, Including 83 (1)
Illicit Drugs
Vasculopathy of the CNS 84 (8)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 84 (2)
Moyamoya Disease 86 (1)
Sickle Cell Disease 86 (1)
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy 86 (1)
Syndrome
Hypertensive Encephalopathy 87 (1)
Preeclampsia/Eclampsia 88 (1)
Immunosuppressive Drug-Induced 89 (2)
Vasculopathy
Uremic Encephalopathy and Hemolytic 91 (1)
Uremic Syndrome
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura 92 (1)
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy 92 (1)
Conclusion 92 (3)
References 93 (2)
Epilepsy 95 (12)
Definition 95 (1)
Classification 95 (1)
Mechanisms and Pathophysiology of Epilepsy 95 (1)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Epilepsy 96 (7)
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Epilepsy 97 (1)
Magnetic Resonance Signal Alterations 98 (1)
in Epilepsy
Ictal Stage to Periictal Stage 99 (1)
Status Epilepticus 100(1)
Cytotoxic Edema in Status Epilepticus 101(2)
Other Imaging Techniques for Epilepsy 103(1)
Hemiconvulsion-Hemiplegia Epilepsy 103(1)
Syndrome
Focal Lesion in the Splenium of the 103(1)
Corpus Callosum in Epileptic Patients
Conclusion 103(4)
References 105(2)
Demyelinating and Degenerative Disease 107(12)
Demyelinating Disease 107(6)
Multiple Sclerosis 107(5)
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis 112(1)
Progressive Multifocal 112(1)
Leukoencephalopathy
Degenerative Disease 113(3)
Wallerian or Transneuronal Degeneration 113(1)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease 114(2)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 116(1)
Conclusion 116(3)
References 117(2)
Toxic and Metabolic Disease 119(12)
Toxic Disease 119(6)
Chemotherapy-Induced Leukoencephalopathy 119(1)
Heroin-Induced Spongiform 119(1)
Leukoencephalopathy
Cocaine, Phencyclidine Hydrochloride, 119(3)
Amphetamines and Related
Catecholaminergics
Central Pontine Myelinolysis and 122(1)
Extrapontine Myelinolysis
Wernicke Encephalopathy 123(1)
Marchiafava--Bignami Disease 124(1)
Metabolic Disease 125(6)
Mitochondrial Encephalopathy 125(1)
Phenylketonuria 126(1)
Other Metabolic Diseases and 126(3)
Leukodystrophies
References 129(2)
Infectious Diseases 131(18)
Overview of Brain Infections 131(1)
Bacterial Brain Abscess 131(1)
Septic Emboli 132(1)
Brain Abscess Caused by Unusual Bacteria 133(4)
Differential Diagnosis 133(4)
Bacterial Abscess in the Extra-Axial Space 137(4)
Differential Diagnosis 137(4)
Bacterial Vasculitis 141(1)
Toxoplasmosis 141(4)
Differential Diagnosis 143(2)
Disseminated Aspergillosis 145(1)
Herpes Encephalitis 145(1)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection 146(3)
References 147(2)
Trauma 149(12)
Introduction 149(1)
Diffuse Axonal Injury 149(5)
Location 149(5)
Computed Tomography and MR Imaging 154(1)
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging 154(1)
Brain Contusion 154(2)
Location 154(2)
Computed Tomography and MR Imaging 156(1)
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Findings 156(1)
Hemorrhage Related to Trauma 156(3)
Computed Tomography and MR Imaging 157(1)
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging 157(2)
Vascular Injuries 159(2)
References 160(1)
Brain Neoplasms 161(20)
Introduction 161(1)
Gliomas 161(8)
High-Grade Tumors 161(7)
Peritumoral Infiltration 168(1)
Treatment Response 168(1)
Epidermoid Tumors and Arachnoid Cysts 169(2)
Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors 171(1)
Meningiomas 172(2)
Malignant Lymphomas 174(1)
Craniopharyngiomas 175(1)
Metastases 176(2)
Conclusion 178(3)
References 178(3)
Pediatrics 181(20)
Water Content of the Pediatric Brain 181(1)
Normal Structures 181(1)
Anisotropy 182(1)
Infarction and Ischemia 182(4)
Moyamoya Disease 184(1)
Sickle Cell Disease 184(1)
Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy 184(2)
Trauma 186(3)
Battered Child Syndrome 186(3)
Diffuse Axonal Injury and Brain 189(1)
Contusion
Encephalopathies 189(2)
Mitochondrial Encephalopathy 189(1)
Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy 190(1)
Hypertensive Encephalopathy 190(1)
Infections 191(3)
Encephalitis 191(2)
Brain Abscess 193(1)
Brain Tumor 194(1)
Dysmyelination and Demyelination 195(4)
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease 195(1)
Vanishing White Matter Disease 196(1)
Metabolic or Toxic Leukoencephalopathies 196(1)
Multiple Sclerosis 197(1)
Osmotic Myelinolysis 197(2)
Conclusion 199(2)
References 199(2)
How to Use This Book 201(24)
Table 1 Differential diagnoses for 202(1)
lesions with a high diffusion signal
associated with low ADC and iso intense
T2 signal
Table 2 Differential diagnoses for 203(5)
lesions with a high diffusion signal
associated with iso-high ADC and a high
intense T2 signal
Table 3 Differential diagnoses for 208(10)
lesions with a high diffusion signal
associated with a low ADC and high
intense T2 signal
Table 4 Differential diagnoses for 218(1)
lesions with an iso diffusion signal
associated with a high ADC and high
intense T2 signal
Table 5 Differential diagnoses for 219(2)
lesions with a low diffusion signal
associated with a high ADC and high
intense T2 signal
Table 6 Differential diagnoses for 221(1)
lesions with a low diffusion signal
associated with a high ADC and iso
intense T2 signal
Table 7 Differential diagnoses for 222(3)
lesions with artifacts
Subject Index 225

354003440.TOC3540034404



I Basic Concepts and Discretizations 1 (138)

1 Advection-Diffusion-Reaction Equations 1 (22)

1.1 Nonlinear Reaction Problems from Chemistry 3 (6)

1.2 Model Equations for Advection-Diffusion 9 (5)

1.3 Multi-dimensional Problems 14 (4)

1.4 Examples of Applications 18 (5)

2 Basic Discretizations for ODES 23 (25)

2.1 Initial Value Problems and Euler's Method 23 (4)

2.2 Norms and Matrices 27 (3)

2.3 Perturbations on ODE Systems 30 (5)

2.4 The 9-Method and Stiff Problems 35 (2)

2.5 Stability of the 0-Method 37 (5)

2.6 Consistency and Convergence of the 42 (2)

0-Method

2.7 Nonlinear Results for the 0-Method 44 (2)

2.8 Concluding Remarks 46 (2)

3 Basic Spatial Discretizations 48 (23)

3.1 Discrete Fourier Decompositions 49 (3)

3.2 The Advection Equation 52 (10)

3.3 The Diffusion Equation 62 (4)

3.4 The Advection-Diffusion Equation 66 (5)

4 Convergence of Spatial Discretizations 71 (13)

4.1 Stability, Consistency and Convergence 71 (3)

4.2 Advection-Diffusion with Constant 74 (3)

Coefficients

4.3 Advection with Variable Coefficients 77 (4)

4.4 Diffusion with Variable Coefficients 81 (2)

4.5 Variable Coefficients and Higher-Order 83 (1)

Schemes

5 Boundary Conditions and Spatial Accuracy 84 (10)

5.1 Refined Global Error Estimates 85 (1)

5.2 Outflow with Central Advection 86 (2)

Discretization

5.3 Boundary Conditions with the Heat Equation 88 (4)

5.4 Boundary Conditions and Higher-Order 92 (2)

Schemes

6 Time Stepping for PDEs 94 (22)

6.1 The Method of Lines and Direct 94 (5)

Discretizations

6.2 Stability, Consistency and Convergence 99 (4)

6.3 Stability for MOL - Stability Regions 103(8)

6.4 Von Neumann Stability Analysis 111(5)

7 Monotonicity Properties 116(11)

7.1 Positivity and Maximum Principle 116(2)

7.2 Positive Semi-discrete Systems 118(3)

7.3 Positive Time Stepping Methods 121(3)

7.4 Numerical Illustrations 124(3)

8 Numerical Test Examples 127(12)

8.1 The Nonlinear Schr inger Equation 128(6)

8.2 The Angiogenesis Model 134(5)

II Time Integration Methods 139(76)

1 Runge-Kutta Methods 139(16)

1.1 The Order Conditions 140(2)

1.2 Examples 142(2)

1.3 The Stability Function 144(5)

1.4 Step Size Restrictions for 149(2)

Advection-Diffusion

1.5 Rosenbrock Methods 151(4)

2 Convergence of Runge-Kutta Methods 155(15)

2.1 Order Reduction 155(3)

2.2 Local Error Analysis 158(3)

2.3 Global Error Analysis 161(5)

2.4 Concluding Notes 166(4)

3 Linear Multistep Methods 170(15)

3.1 The Order Conditions 171(2)

3.2 Examples 173(1)

3.3 Stability Analysis 174(7)

3.4 Step Size Restrictions for 181(1)

Advection-Diffusion

3.5 Convergence Analysis 182(3)

4 Monotone ODE Methods 185(12)

4.1 Linear Positivity for One-Step Methods 185(4)

4.2 Nonlinear Positivity for One-Step Methods 189(3)

4.3 Positivity for Multistep Methods 192(4)

4.4 Related Monotonicity Results 196(1)

5 Variable Step Size Control 197(9)

5.1 Step Size Selection 197(3)

5.2 An Explicit Runge-Kutta Example 200(3)

5.3 An Implicit Multistep Example 203(2)

5.4 General Purpose ODE Codes 205(1)

6 Numerical Examples 206(9)

6.1 A Model for Antibodies in Tumorous Tissue 206(3)

6.2 The Nonlinear Schr inger Equation 209(6)

III Advection-Diffusion Discretizations 215(110)

1 Non-oscillatory MOL Advection Discretizations 215(24)

1.1 Spatial Discretization for Linear 215(7)

Advection

1.2 Numerical Examples 222(4)

1.3 Positivity and the TVD Property 226(7)

1.4 Nonlinear Scalar Conservation Laws 233(6)

2 Direct Space-Time Advection Discretizations 239(11)

2.1 Optimal-Order DST Schemes 239(4)

2.2 A Non-oscillatory Third-Order DST Scheme 243(5)

2.3 Explicit Schemes with Unconditional 248(2)

Stability

3 Implicit Spatial Discretizations 250(14)

3.1 Order Conditions 251(2)

3.2 Examples 253(5)

3.3 Stability and Convergence 258(3)

3.4 Monotonicity 261(2)

3.5 Time Integration Aspects 263(1)

4 Non-uniform Grids Finite Volumes (1D) 264(19)

4.1 Vertex Centered Schemes 265(7)

4.2 Cell Centered Schemes 272(6)

4.3 Numerical Illustrations 278(3)

4.4 Higher-Order Methods and Limiting 281(2)

5 Non-uniform Grids - Finite Elements (1D) 283(9)

5.1 The Basic Galerkin Method 283(5)

5.2 Standard Galerkin Error Estimates 288(3)

5.3 Upwinding 291(1)

6 Multi-dimensional Aspects 292(24)

6.1 Cartesian Grid Discretizations 293(2)

6.2 Diffusion on Cartesian Grids 295(8)

6.3 Advection on Cartesian Grids 303(5)

6.4 Transformed Cartesian Grids 308(3)

6.5 Unstructured Grids 311(5)

7 Notes on Moving Grids and Grid Refinement 316(9)

7.1 Dynamic Regridding 316(5)

7.2 Static Regridding 321(4)

IV Splitting Methods 325(94)

1 Operator Splitting 325(23)

1.1 First-Order Splitting 325(4)

1.2 Second-Order Symmetrical Splitting 329(1)

1.3 Higher-Order Splittings 330(1)

1.4 Abstract Initial Value Problems 331(4)

1.5 Advection-Diffusion-Reaction Splittings 335(2)

1.6 Dimension Splitting 337(7)

1.7 Boundary Values and Stiff Terms 344(4)

2 LOD Methods 348(21)

2.1 The LOD-Backward Euter Method 348(3)

2.2 LOD Crank-Nicolson Methods 351(8)

2.3 The Trapezoidal Splitting Method 359(6)

2.4 Boundary Correction Techniques 365(2)

2.5 Numerical Comparisons 367(2)

3 ADI Methods 369(14)

3.1 The Peaceman-Rachford Method 369(4)

3.2 The Douglas Method 373(10)

4 IMEX Methods 383(15)

4.1 The IMEX-8 Method 383(3)

4.2 IMEX Multistep Methods 386(5)

4.3 Notes on IMEX Runge-Kutta Methods 391(2)

4.4 Concluding Remarks and Tests 393(5)

5 Rosenbrock AMF Methods 398(11)

5.1 One-Stage Methods of Order One and Two 398(2)

5.2 Two-Stage Methods of Order Two and Three 400(3)

5.3 A Three-Stage Method of Order Two 403(2)

5.4 Concluding Remarks and Tests 405(4)

6 Numerical Examples 409(10)

6.1 Two Chemo-taxis Problems from Biology 409(2)

6.2 The Numerical Methods 411(1)

6.3 Numerical Experiments 412(7)

V Stabilized Explicit Runge-Kutta Methods 419(28)

1 The RKC Family 420(13)

1.1 Stability Polynomials 420(6)

1.2 Integration Formulas 426(4)

1.3 Internal Stability and Full Convergence 430(3)

Properties

2 The ROCK Family 433(5)

2.1 Stability Polynomials 433(2)

2.2 Integration Formulas 435(1)

2.3 Internal Stability and Convergence 436(2)

3 Numerical Examples 438(9)

3.1 A Combustion Model 439(2)

3.2 A Radiation-Diffusion Model 441(6)

Bibliography 447(18)

Index 465