相互行為における権力とポライトネス:口頭コミュニケーションにおける不同意の表明<br>Power and Politeness in Action : Disagreements in Oral Communication (Language, Power and Social Process Vol.12) (2004. XVI, 365 S. 18 schw.-w. Abb., 29 schw.-w. Tab. 23 cm)

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相互行為における権力とポライトネス:口頭コミュニケーションにおける不同意の表明
Power and Politeness in Action : Disagreements in Oral Communication (Language, Power and Social Process Vol.12) (2004. XVI, 365 S. 18 schw.-w. Abb., 29 schw.-w. Tab. 23 cm)

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基本説明

The material for analysis comes from (1) a sociable argument in an informal, supportive, and interactive family setting; (2) a business meeting among colleagues at a research institution; and (3) examples from public discourse collected during the US Election in 2000.

Full Description


This study investigates the interface of power and politeness in the realization of disagreements in naturalistic language data. Power and politeness are important phenomena in face-to-face interaction. Disagreement is an arena in which these two key concepts are likely to be observed together: both disagreement and the exercise of power entail a conflict, and, at the same time, conflict will often be softened by the display of politeness (defined as marked relational work).The concept of power is of special interest to the field of linguistics in that language is one of the primary means to exercise power. Often correlated with status and regarded as an influential aspect of situated speech, the workings of the exercise of power, however, have rarely been formally articulated. This study provides a theoretical framework within which to analyze the observed instances of disagreement and their co-occurrence with the exercise of power and display of politeness. In this framework, a checklist of propositions that allow us to operationalize the concept of power and identify its exercise in naturalistic linguistic data is combined with a view of language as socially constructed.A qualitative approach is used to analyze the concepts of power and politeness. The material for analysis comes from three different contexts: (1) a sociable argument in an informal, supportive and interactive family setting, (2) a business meeting among colleagues within a research institution, and (3) examples from public discourse collected during the US Election 2000.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements                                   v
Transcription conventions vii
Figures and tables xi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1 (8)
Part I Theory I
Chapter 2 Power 9 (36)
1. Introduction 9 (3)
2. Food for thought: An example to start 12 (3)
with
3. Dahl's one-dimensional approach to 15 (1)
power: Power in observable change of
behavior only
4. Bachrach and Baratz's two-dimensional 16 (1)
approach to power: Conflict and
non-decisions
5. Lukes' three-dimensional approach to 17 (1)
power: The notion of interest
6. Watts: Freedom of action and the 18 (2)
exercise of power
7. The relational and dynamic dimension 20 (1)
of power
8. Wartenberg: Action-alternatives and 21 (6)
action-restriction
9. Power and social networks: The place 27 (3)
where power is negotiated
10. Power and status 30 (4)
11. Power and language 34 (2)
12. Summary: A checklist for the nature and 36 (4)
the exercise of power
13. Example (6) revisited 40 (5)
Chapter 3 Communication and relational work 45 (14)
1. Introduction 45 (1)
2. The notion of context and frame 45 (5)
3. Transactional and interactional 50 (2)
discourse: The content and relational
aspects of an utterance
4. Face 52 (3)
5. Face-threatening acts in example (6) 55 (2)
6. Summary 57 (2)
Chapter 4 Politeness 59 (34)
1. Introduction 59 (1)
2. Overview of politeness research 60 (18)
2.1. Politeness expressed in maxims: 62 (4)
Leech's Politeness Principle
2.2. Brown and Levinson's "face-saving" 66 (4)
politeness theory
2.3. Politeness as norm 70 (3)
2.4. Politeness as marked surplus 73 (2)
2.5. The pro-social/involvement aspect 75 (2)
of politeness
2.6. Summary 77 (1)
3. Towards a definition of politeness 78 (15)
3.1. Relevance Theory 79 (6)
3.2. Markedness and norms 85 (2)
3.3. Markedness, formality and 87 (2)
friendliness
3.4. A definition of politeness 89 (4)
Part II Theory II
Chapter 5 Disagreement 93 (58)
1. Why disagreement? 93 (7)
2. Possibilities for the realization of 100(49)
disagreement, exemplified with The
Argument
2.1. Preliminary comments 100(1)
2.2. Material: The Dinner and The 101(9)
Argument
2.3. Content summary of The Argument 110(2)
2.4. How disagreement was expressed 112(1)
during The Argument
2.4.1. The use of hedges to mitigate 114(1)
disagreement
2.4.1.1. The use of well 117(1)
2.4.1.2. The occurrence ofjust 118(1)
2.4.1.3. The use of uhm and uh 120(1)
2.4.1.4. The function of I think 122(1)
2.4.1.5. The use of I don't know 124(3)
2.4.2. Giving personally or emotionally 127(2)
colored reasons for disagreeing
2.4.3. The use of the modal auxiliaries 129(1)
2.4.4. Shifting responsibility 130(3)
2.4.5. Objections in the form of a 133(2)
question
2.4.6. The use of but 135(2)
2.4.7. The function of repetition of an 137(6)
utterance by the next or the same
speaker
2.4.8. Non-mitigating disagreement 143(2)
strategies
2.4.9. Non-mitigating versus mitigating 145(4)
disagreement strategies: A summary
3. Conclusion: Possibilities for the 149(2)
realization of disagreement
Part III The interface of power and politeness 151(182)
in disagreements
Chapter 6 A sociable argument during a dinner 155(60)
among family and friends
1. Introduction 155(2)
2. The dynamics of The Argument 157(43)
2.1. EN 1: The basic question put 158(11)
forward
2.2. EN 2: The Study: First 169(6)
introduction and refusal
2.3. EN 3: The Study: Steven's point of 175(6)
view
2.4. EN 4: The Study: Further 181(9)
explanation
2.5. EN 5: The Study: Roy reveals his 190(3)
position
2.6. EN 6: The Study: The college adds 193(4)
value
2.7. EN 7: The Study: Roy makes 197(1)
concessions
2.8. EN 8: Kate concludes 198(2)
3. Three main driving forces: Committing 200(3)
FTAs, the audience, and Roy's behavior
4. "Two males, kind of fun isn't it?" 203(3)
5. Conclusion: The exercise of power 206(9)
during The Argument
Chapter 7 Managing disagreement during a 215(68)
business meeting at a research institution
1. Introduction and method 215(2)
2. The context of workplace interaction 217(3)
3. Material 220(11)
3.1. Description of the speech event 220(3)
3.2. The physical setting and the 223(5)
participants of The Pre-Schedule Meeting
3.3. A content summary of The 228(3)
Pre-Schedule Meeting
4. The interactants' participation and 231(25)
identity negotiation in the seven
emergent networks of The Pre-Schedule
Meeting
4.1. The Hall Leaders 238(1)
4.1.1. Karl 239(1)
4.1.2. Bill 245(1)
4.1.3. Ron 247(9)
4.2. The Associate Director(s) 256(9)
4.2.1. Lance 256(6)
4.2.2. Jack 262(3)
4.3. The Chair 265(3)
4.4. Less influential participants 268(9)
4.4.1. Rees 268(3)
4.4.2. Chad 271(6)
5. Conclusion 277(6)
Chapter 8 Examples of the exercise of power 283(38)
during the US Presidential Election 2000
1. Introduction and method 283(2)
2. Getting the people out to vote: 285(17)
President Clinton in an interview with
Democracy Now!'s Amy Goodman and Gonzalo
Aburto on Election Day
3. An example from the presidential debates 302(8)
4. Election Day and after 310(7)
5. Conclusion 317(4)
Chapter 9 Summary and conclusion: The 321(12)
checklist reviewed
Notes 333(8)
References 341(16)
Appendices 357(4)
A. Additional tables for the family data 357(1)
B. Brown and Levinson's charts of politeness 358(3)
strategies
Index 361