This volume incorporates essays questioning the meta-analyses of computer-based instruction research, Robert Kozma's counterpoint theory of ""learning with media"", science-based technology verus experience-based craft and science-based ""authentic technologies"".
Introduction to the Debate: What are the Issues? Chapter 1: Media are ""Mere Vehicles"": The Opening Argument, Clark, R. E. (1983) Reconsidering research on learning from media. Chapter 2: Research on Learning from Computer-Based Instruction, Clark, R. E. (1985) Confounding in educational computing research. Chapter 3: Questioning the Meta-Analyses of Computer-Based Instruction Research, Clark, R. E. (1985) Evidence for confounding in computer-based instruction studies: Analyzing the meta-analyses. Chapter 4: Why Should We Expect Media to Teach Anyone Anything?, Clark, R. E. & Gavriel Salomon (1986) Media in teaching. Chapter 5: A Ten Year Survey of Learning From Media Studies, Clark, R. E. & Sugrue, B. M. (1988). Research on instructional media, 1978-1988. Chapter 6: A Summary of the Disagreement With the ""Mere Vehicles"" Argument, Clark, R. E. (February 1991). When researchers swim upstream: Reflections on an unpopular argument about learning from media. Chapter 7: Robert Kozma's Counterpoint Theory of ""Learning With Media"", Kozma, R. B. (1991). Learning with media. Chapter 8: Kozma's Reframing of the Issues, Kozma, R. B. (1994). Will media influence learning? Reframing the debate. Chapter 9: Gary Morrison Reviews Both Sides of the Debate, Morrison, G. R. (1994). The media effects question: ""Unresolvable"" or Asking the right question. Chapter 10: Clark's Recent Update of His Argument, Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning. Chapter 11: Clark's Reply to Critics in the ECTJ Special Issue Devoted to the Debate, Clark, R. E. (1994). Media and method. Chapter 12: Reframing the Issues: Science-based Technology versus Experience-based Craft, Clark R. E. & Estes, F. (1998) Technology or Craft: What are we doing? Chapter 13: A Call for Science-Based ""Authentic Technologies"", Clark, R. E. & Estes, F. (1999) The Development of Authentic Educational Technologies, Chapter 14: A Research Agenda: Multi-Media, Cognitive Overload and Learning, Clark, R. E. (1999), Yin and Yang Cognitive Motivational Processes Operating in Multimedia Learning Environments. Chapter 15: Distance Learning and the Media Debate, Clark, R. E. (2000) Evaluating distance education: Strategies and cautions. Chapter 16: Appendix A: Citations of Published and Unpublished Articles on the Debate. Chapter 17: Appendix B: URLs for web sites where the debate is discussed.