The Catholic Church has always been a major player in European and world history. Whether it has enjoyed a religious dominance or existed as a minority religion, Catholicism has never been diverted from political life. "Priests, Prelates and People" records the Church struggling to adapt to the new political landscape ushered in by the French Revolution, and shows how the formation of nation states and identities was both helped and hindered by the Catholic establishment. It portrays the Vatican increasingly out of step in the wake of world war, Cold War and the massive expansion of the developing world, with its problems of population growth and under-development.
Preface |vii Abbreviations |ix Introduction 1 1 Catholicism in Retrenchment:the Eighteenth Century 5 The religious geography of Europe |6 Established churches and Erastianism |8 The Latin theocracy |16 The sociology of the Church: the secular clergy |22 The sociology of the Church: the regulars |31 Belief and practice |35 Conclusion:Catholicism in rupture |45 2 Catholicism in Revolution: 1789-1815 47 The rupture, 1787-90 |47 Catholicism and counter-revolution |53 War and dechristianisation |56 The revolution abroad |62 Rome and revolution:the last Pope?|69 Napoleon and religion |71 Napoleon and Europe |77 Conclusion:revolution in retrospect |83 3 Catholicism Restored: 1815-50 85 A new religious geography of Europe |86 The age of con- cordats?|89 Catholics under non-Catholic rule |92 Reaction in theory and practice |101 A religious revival?|110 Pius IX and the revolutions of 1848|120 Conclusion: restoration reviewed |128 4 Catholicism Retuned: 1850-1914 129 Ultramontanism and the papacy |130 Identity and nationalism: the anti-Catholic onslaught |141 The Catholic intellectual world: modernism versus integralism |159 Secularisation |167 Catholicism overseas |188 Conclusion:a Church in the Pope 's image |193 5 Catholicism and Reaction: 1914-45 195 The First World War and its aftermath |196 Catholics and dictators |203 Catholics and the liberal democracies |222 Catholics and belief during the inter-war years |232 The Second World War |244 Conclusion:change and continuity |263 6 Catholicism Revised: 1945-2002 265 Catholics and Cold War: Eastern Europe |266 Catholics and Cold War: Western Europe |273 The Second Vatican Council |289 The challenge of a new secularisation |299 John Paul II: 'a living cult'|313 Conclusion |320 7 Conclusion:Catholicism Reviewed 222 Notes 234 Bibliographical Essay 244 Index 265