アフリカにおける人権<br>Human Rights in Africa : Enhancing Human Rights through the African Regional Human Rights System

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アフリカにおける人権
Human Rights in Africa : Enhancing Human Rights through the African Regional Human Rights System

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 500 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9781571052933
  • DDC分類 342.6085

基本説明

Using case studies from South Africa and Uganda.

Full Description


The author argues that although the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the role the United Nations plays in promoting global awareness of human rights has had a positive influence in Africa, their institutional, financial and political impediments undercut the ability of a global system to address adequately the crisis in human rights violations occurring in Africa today.Using case studies from South Africa and Uganda, past difficulties in addressing human rights problems are analyzed and recommendations made for future methodologies including the creation of an African Court of Human and Peoples' Rights.Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.

Table of Contents

About the Author                                   v
Acknowledgments xiii
Preface xv
Abbreviations and Acronyms xix
Chapter 1: General Introduction 1 (14)
A. Introduction 1 (5)
B. Overview 6 (6)
C. Research Methodology 12 (1)
D. Delimitations of the Study 13 (2)
Chapter 2: The Human Rights Revolution and the 15 (38)
Theoretical Promise of Regional Human Rights
Systems
A. Introduction 15 (1)
B. The Human Rights Revolution 16 (6)
C. Africa's Participation in the Human Rights 22 (10)
Revolution
1. Africa Prior to the United Nations 22 (4)
2. Africa in the United Nations 26 (6)
D. The Promise of Regional Human Rights 32 (19)
Systems
1. The European System 36 (5)
2. The Inter-American System 41 (4)
3. The African System 45 (4)
4. The Middle East and Asia 49 (2)
E. Conclusion 51 (2)
Chapter 3: Human Rights in Africa 53 (48)
A. Introduction 53 (1)
B. The Human Rights Crisis in Africa 54 (4)
1. Dictatorial and Abusive Governments 54 (1)
2. Genocide 55 (1)
3. Non-State Abuses 55 (1)
4. Breakdown of the State 56 (1)
5. Refugee Problem and Internally Displaced 56 (1)
6. Other Factors 57 (1)
C. Human Rights in "Democracies": Case 58 (47)
Studies of Uganda and South Africa
1. Past Abuses and "New Dispensations" 58 (8)
2. Human Rights in Uganda and South Africa 66 (43)
a. Uganda 67 (26)
i. The Movement-No-Parry System: 67 (4)
Democracy and Human Rights
ii. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 71 (3)
iii. The Death Penalty 74 (1)
iv. Separation of Powers 74 (4)
v. The Performance of the Judiciary 78 (5)
vi. Lack of Institutional Changes 83 (5)
vii. Accountability for Human Rights 88 (1)
Violations
viii. Other Human Rights Violations 89 (4)
b. South Africa 93 (17)
i. Failure to Redress Apartheid 93 (1)
Injustices
ii. The Performance of the Judiciary 94 (5)
iii. South Africa's Consociational 99 (2)
System of Governance, Accountability
and Impunity
iv. Other Human Rights Violations 101 (4)
D. Conclusion 105
Chapter 4: Efforts to Realize Human Rights in 101 (70)
Africa Through the Global System
A. Introduction 107 (2)
B. U.N. Charter Institutions and Human Rights 109 (42)
in South Africa and Uganda
1. South Africa 110 (20)
a. The Role of the U.N. General Assembly 110 (11)
b. The U.N. Security Council 121 (5)
c. ECOSOC 1235 and 1503 Procedures 126 (3)
d. Conclusion 129 (1)
2. United Nation's Failures in Uganda 130 (3)
3. U.N. Action in Response to Other Human 133 (18)
Rights Violations in Africa
a. Peace-Keeping and Enforcement 133 (5)
b. Promotional and Protective Roles in 138 (67)
Africa
i. Human Rights Commission 139 (7)
ii. The Sub-Commission on Prevention of 146 (2)
Discrimination and Protection of
Minorities
iii. The High Commissioner for Human 148 (3)
Rights
C. U.N. Human Rights Treaty-Based 151 (7)
Institutions and Mechanisms
1. State Reporting 152 (3)
2. Inter-State Communications and 155 (1)
Individual Complaints
3. Confidential Inquiry Under the CAT 156 (2)
D. Follow-Ups and Interim Measure 158 (1)
E. The Global Human Rights System: Appraisal 159 (11)
and Conclusions
F. Conclusion 170 (1)
Chapter 5: The OAU and Human Rights Before 1981 171 (16)
A. Introduction 171 (1)
B. The OAU Charter and Human Rights 171 (2)
C. Success of the OAU 173 (8)
1. The Eradication of Colonialism and the 174 (1)
Realization of the Right to
Self-Determination
2 The Struggle Against Apartheid in South 175 (4)
Africa
3. Other Human Rights Initiatives 179 (2)
D. Evaluation 181 (4)
E. Conclusion 185 (2)
Chapter 6: The Origins And Content Of The 187 (52)
African Charter On Human And Rights
A. Introduction 187 (2)
B. The African Charter and Philosophy 189 (2)
C. The Charter's Provisions on Human and 191 (37)
Peoples' Rights: A Comparative Survey
1. Civil and Political Rights 191 (14)
2 Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 205 (5)
a. Commentary 209 (1)
3. Group or Solidarity Rights 210 (21)
a. Commentary on the Charters Rights 215 (13)
Solidarity
D. Duties: The Rights-Duties Conception 228 (3)
E. Obligations of Member States 231
1. Obligation to Implement the Charter in 232 (3)
Good Faith
2. The Obligation to Give Effect to Right 235 (2)
Inscribed in the Charter
3. Obligation to Address Inter-State 237
Communications
F. Conclusion 230 (9)
Chapter 7: Functioning of the AFCHPR and Its 239 (104)
Relevance to Uganda and South Africa
A. Introduction 239 (1)
B. The African Commission on Human and 240 (3)
Peoples' Rights and Its Secretariat
C. Commission's Mandate 243 (2)
D. Functioning of the Commission 245 (70)
1. Activism 245 (30)
a. Enhancing Publicity 247 (2)
b. Interaction With Non-Governmental 249 (3)
Organizations
c. State Reports 252 (1)
d. Augmenting Its Protective Mandate 252 (1)
e. Dealing With Massive and Serious 253 (1)
Violations
f. Retroactivity 254 (1)
g. Flexibility in Admissibility 255 (10)
Requirements
h. Issues-Analysis and Deepening 265 (1)
Normative Understanding Through
Elaboration of Rights
i. Drawing Upon International Human 266 (2)
Rights Law
j. Claw-Back Clauses 268 (1)
k. Appointment of Special Rapporteurs and 269 (3)
On-Site Missions to States Parties
l. Remedies 272 (2)
m. Follow-Up 274 (1)
2. Jurisprudence of the Commission 275 (40)
a. Individual 275
b. Decisions on the Merit 270 (32)
i. Right to Equality and Freedom from 278 (1)
Discrimination
ii. Right to Life and Integrity of 279 (1)
Persons
iii. Human Dignity, Prohibition of All 280 (2)
Forms of Exploitation, Inhuman or
Degrading Punishment, Slavery and Slave
Trade
iv. Right to Liberty and Security of 282 (1)
the Person
v. Right to Fair Trial or Due Process 283
vi. Freedom of Conscience and Religion 209 (81)
vii. Freedom of Speech and Information 290 (1)
viii. Freedom of Association and 291 (3)
Assembly
ix. Freedom of Movement and Residence 294 (2)
x. The Right to Political Participation 296 (2)
and Democratic Governance
xi. Protection of the Family 298 (1)
xii. Right to Property 298 (1)
xiii. Economic, Social and Cultural 299 (2)
Rights
xiv. Group or Solidarity Rights 301 (1)
c. Examination of State Reports and 302 (6)
Guidelines for Reporting: Any Emerging
Jurisprudence7
d. Resolutions and General Comments 308 (4)
e. Promotional Activities 312 (3)
E. The Proposed African Court on Human and 315 (21)
Peoples' Rights: A Critical and Comparative
Survey
1. Introduction 315 (1)
2. Election, Composition and Structure 316 (6)
3. Mandate and Jurisdiction 322 (7)
a. Contentious Jurisdiction, Locus Standi 322
and Access
b. Advisory Jurisdiction 321 (7)
c. Conciliatory Jurisdiction 328 (1)
4. Admissibility of Communications, Hearing 329 (3)
on Merit, Evidence and Law Applicable
5. Provisional Measures, Judgments and 332 (4)
Their Execution
F. The Constitutive Act of the African Union 336 (3)
G. Conclusion 339 (4)
Chapter 8: Improving the African Regional Human 343 (70)
Rights System: Appraisal, Recommendations and
Conclusions
A. Introduction 343 (1)
B. Normative Provisions: Appraisal and 344 (12)
Suggested Reforms
1. Additional Protocols 344 (4)
2. Claw-Back Clauses: A Case for Their 348 (4)
Removal
3. Addition of a Derogation or Suspension 352 (4)
Clause
C. Procedural Reforms and Increasing the 356
Commission's Sessions
D. Structure and Functioning of the Commission 351 (36)
1. Definition of the Power of the 351 (8)
Commission and Its Decisions
2. Strengthening the Commission's Mandate 359 (1)
3. Increasing the Funding of the Commission 360 (1)
4. Regional, Legal and Gender Balance in 361 (1)
the Composition of the Commission
5. Independence and Impartiality of the 362 (3)
Commission
6. Maintaining and Enhancing Activism in 365 (25)
Enforcing the Charter
a. Admissibility, Determination of 365 (6)
Communications and Award of Remedies
i. Flexibility in Admissibility 365 (3)
Requirements
ii. Reasoned and Supported Decisions 368 (1)
iii. Remedying Violations of Human 369 (2)
Rights and Avoiding Unwarranted Closure
of Cases
iv. Taking Strong Action in Response to 371 (2)
Serious and Massive Violations
v. Consistency and Clarity in Awarding 373 (1)
Remedies
vi. Competence to Award Remedies 374 (2)
vii. Follow-Ups of Findings 376 (1)
viii. Enhancing Interim Measures 376
b. Commitment and Internal Policing 371 (8)
c. Expunging Vestiges of Secrecy and 379 (1)
Inconsistency
d. Early Warning and Action 380 (3)
e. Invigorating State Reporting 383 (4)
f. Improving the Reports of the Commission 387 (1)
E. Institutional Developments: The African 387 (3)
Court
F. The Role of the Political Organs and Their 390 (23)
Relationship With the Commission and the
Future Court
1. Assembly of Heads of State and Government 392 (8)
2. The OAU Secretary-General 400 (3)
3. The Committee of Ambassadors 403 (1)
4. The Council of Ministers 404 (3)
5. The Legal Division: Creating a 407 (3)
Specialized Human Rights Department
6. New Organs Created by the Constitutive 410 (3)
Act of the Union
General Conclusion 413 (4)
Appendix 417 (6)
References 423 (48)
Table of Cases 471 (12)
Table of Legislation, Treaties and Other 483 (10)
International Documents
Index 493

157105295.TOC157105295X



Preface ix

Introduction 1 (6)

Chapter I The Concept of Sovereignty and the 7 (26)

Development of International Law

1.1 Introduction 7 (1)

1.2 The Birth of the Concept of Sovereignty 8 (7)

1.3 Sovereignty and the Development of 15 (14)

International law

1.3.1 The Rise of Modern International Law 16 (5)

and Ascendance of Sovereignty in Statehood

1.3.2 Developments in Codification of the 21 (8)

Laws of War in the 19th Century to Early

20th-Century Period

1.4 Conclusion 29 (4)

Chapter II World War I: Sowing the Seeds of 33 (38)

Challenge to State Sovereignty

2.1 Introduction 33 (3)

2.2 Blood on the Nation: German and Turkish 36 (6)

Wartime Atrocities

2.2.1 Germany and the Policy of Total War 36 (3)

2.2.2 Turkey and the Armenian Massacres 39 (3)

2.3 The Paris Peace Conference 42 (4)

2.4 The Allies' Failure to Establish an 46 (21)

International Penal Process

2.4.1 The Peace Treaty of Versailies and the 46 (11)

German National Trials (The Leipzig Trials)

2.4.2 The Peace Treaty of Sevres and the 57 (10)

Turkish National Trials (The Istanbul Trials)

2.5 Conclusion 67 (4)

Chapter III World War II: Reaping the Fruits of 71 (48)

the Challenge to State Sovereignty

3.1 Introduction 71 (5)

3.2 Germany and Japan: The Silencing of the 76 (9)

Laws of War Through Atrocity

3.2.1 Germany: The Holocaust and the Waging 76 (3)

of a War of Terror

3.2.2 The Japanese Imperial Army: Atrocity as 79 (2)

a Part of its Life in War

3.2.3 The United Nations War Crimes Commission 81 (4)

3.3 The London Conference on Military Tribunals 85 (20)

3.3.1 The International Military Tribunal at 92 (3)

Nuremberg

3.3.2 The International Military Tribunal for 95 (10)

the Far East at Tokyo

3.4 The World after Nuremberg and Tokyo 105(9)

3.4.1 Internationalisation of the Individual 106(2)

3.4.2 Externalising the State and Its 108(3)

Sovereignty

3.4.3 Supranational Jurisdiction for 111(3)

International Law Violations

3.5 Conclusion 114(5)

Chapter IV The Cold War: The 20th Century's 119(26)

Third Hegemonic Struggle

4.1 Introduction 119(4)

4.2 Taming the State: The Nuremberg Legacy 123(12)

Crosses the National Frontier

4.2.1 The American Cases: The State Endorses 126(2)

Individual Criminal Responsibility

4.2.2 Internalising the Gains of Nuremberg: 128(7)

Universal Jurisdiction Comes of Age

4.3 The Forgotten Villains 135(6)

4.4 Revival in the 1990's: Attempting to Redeem 141(2)

the World's Conscience

4.5 Conclusion 143(2)

Chapter V The Yugoslav Tribunal: State 145(54)

Sovereignty in the Shadow of International

Justice

5.1 Introduction 145(3)

5.2 Situational Background and Development of 148(6)

the Ad Hoc International Criminal Tribunal for

the Former Yugoslavia

5.3 Questioning the 'Perversion' of 154(3)

Sovereignty: Yugoslavia's Dissent

5.4 The ICTFY's Structure and Competence: 157(17)

Weakening the Principle of Sovereignty in

International Law

5.4.1 Primacy and the ICTFY: Subordinating 158(6)

the State's Criminal Jurisdiction Regime

5.4.1.1. A Bitter Pill to Swallow: Primacy 162(2)

Is Questioned

5.4.2 Cooperation and Judicial Assistance 164(10)

5.4.2.1 'Transfer' or 'Surrender': 167(4)

Circumventing Domestic Legal Constraints

5.4.2.2 Evidence Gathering 171(3)

5.5 The Consequences of Non-Compliance 174(15)

5.5.1 The Security Council: A Reluctant 174(3)

Enforcer

5.5.2 Breaking New Ground: Developing New 177(12)

Tools for Enforcement in the Face of State

Non-Cooperation

5.5.2.1 'Soft' and 'Indirect' Enforcement 181(2)

Methods

5.5.2.2 'Hard' and 'Direct' Enforcement: 183(6)

Extending the International Frontier

5.6 State Sovereignty on the Decline: Case 189(7)

Studies

5.6.1 The Tadic Case: The Tribunal on Trial 189(3)

5.6.2 The Blaskic Case: The State on Trial 192(4)

5.7 Conclusion 196(3)

Chapter VI The Rwandan Tribunal: Gaining Ground 199(26)

in the Diminution of State Sovereignty

6.1 Introduction 199(1)

6.2 Situational Background and Development of 200(6)

the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

6.3 The ICTR's Structure and Competence: 206(13)

Weakening the Principle of Sovereignty in

International Law

6.3.1 Primacy and the ICTR: Principle 206(3)

Re-Affirmed and Jurisdictional Scope Broadened

6.3.2 Subject Matter Jurisdiction: 209(2)

Internalising International Humanitarian Law

Norms

6.3.3 Encroaching on State Sovereignty: 211(8)

Cooperation and Judicial Assistance

6.3.3.1 Securing Custody of Indictees: The 215(2)

State Embraces the Cooperation Regime

6.3.3.2 Evidence Gathering 217(2)

6.4 The Decline of State Sovereignty: A Case 219(4)

Study

6.4.1 The Ntakirutimana Case: A Step Back and 219(4)

A Step Forward

6.5 Conclusion 223(2)

Chapter VII The International Criminal Court: 225(56)

Challenges and Concessions to the Westphalian

Model

7.1 Introduction 225(3)

7.2 The United Nations' Efforts to Establish an 228(5)

International Criminal Court

7.3 Structure and Competence of the 233(35)

International Criminal Court

7.3.1 The Office of the Prosecutor 234(3)

7.3.2 Scope of the Court's Jurisdiction 237(8)

7.3.2.1 Jurisdiction Ratione Materiae 238(2)

7.3.2.2 Jurisdiction Ratione Loci 240(2)

7.3.2.3 Jurisdiction Ratione Personae 242(3)

7.3.3 Foundations of the Court's Jurisdiction 245(5)

7.3.3.1 Complementarity with State Judicial 247(3)

Systems

7.3.4 The International Cooperation Regime 250(22)

7.3.4.1 Arrest and Surrender 254(8)

7.3.4.2 Investigation and Evidence Gathering 262(4)

7.3.4.3 Enforcement of Forfeiture Orders 266(2)

and ICC Fines

7.4 The United States' Position 268(4)

7.5 Reflections on the International Criminal 272(5)

Court: Merits and Demerits

7.5.1 The Case for the Court 272(2)

7.5.2 The Case Against the ICC 274(3)

7.6 Conclusion 277(4)

Conclusion 281(6)

Bibliography 287