A Guide to the 2002 Revision of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code

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A Guide to the 2002 Revision of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 226 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9781568870793
  • DDC分類 174.915

Table of Contents

Dedication                                         iii
Background on the Ethics Code 1 (20)
The Regulation of Psychology 1 (3)
Before-the-Fact Controls 3 (1)
After-the-Fact Controls 3 (1)
Purpose of Ethics Codes 4 (4)
Aspirational Ethics, Enforceable 5 (2)
Standards, Guidelines, and Policy
Statements
Limitations of Ethics Codes 7 (1)
APA Ethics Code Revision Process 8 (5)
Climate of the Revision Process 8 (1)
Sources of Data 8 (2)
Criteria for Changing the Code 10 (1)
Format for the Standards 10 (1)
Brevity 10 (1)
Clarity 11 (1)
Use of Modifiers 11 (1)
Obligatory Verbs 11 (1)
Definitions 12 (1)
Objectivity of Obligations 12 (1)
Ethical Issues That Are Not in the Ethics 13 (8)
Code
Procedures of the APA Ethics Office 13 (1)
Personal Conduct 13 (1)
Policy Issues 14 (1)
Specialty Areas 15 (1)
Decision-Making Models 16 (1)
Consider Emotional and Situational 17 (2)
Factors
Consider the Need for an Immediate 19 (1)
Response
Consider Supererogatory Goals 19 (2)
Introduction and Applicability 21 (4)
Preamble and General Principles 25 (10)
Preamble 25 (1)
General Principles 25 (4)
Beneficence and Nonmaleficence 29 (2)
Conflicts of Interests 30 (1)
Self-Care 30 (1)
Fidelity and Responsibility 31 (1)
Collegial Concern 31 (1)
Integrity 32 (1)
Deception 32 (1)
Justice 33 (1)
Respect for People's Rights and Dignity 33 (2)
Respect for Autonomy 33 (2)
Considerations When Reading the Ethical 35 (4)
Standards
Disciplinary Grounds Against Psychologists 35 (1)
Strategy for Implementing Ethical Ideals 36 (2)
Insensitivity and Impulsivity 36 (1)
Ignorance 37 (1)
Incomplete Documentation 37 (1)
Aspirational Ethics and Supererogatory 38 (1)
Obligations
Enforceable Ethical Standards 39 (124)
Resolving Ethical Issues 39 (8)
Misuse of Psychologists ' Work 40 (1)
Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, 41 (1)
Regulations, or Other Governing Legal
Authority
Conflicts Between Ethics and 42 (2)
Organizational Demands
Informal Resolution of Ethical 44 (1)
Violations
Reporting Ethical Violations 44 (2)
Cooperating With Ethics Committees 46 (1)
Improper Complaints 46 (1)
Unfair Discrimination Against 47 (1)
Complainants and Respondents
Competence 47 (15)
Boundaries of Competence 49 (1)
General Rule of Competence 49 (1)
Competence With Special Populations 50 (2)
Moving Into New Areas 52 (1)
When Services Are Not Available 53 (1)
Emerging Areas 54 (3)
Assuming Forensic Roles 57 (1)
Providing Services in Emergencies 57 (1)
Maintaining Competence 58 (1)
Bases for Scientific and Professional 59 (1)
Judgments
Delegation of Work to Others 59 (2)
Personal Problems and Conflicts 61 (1)
Refraining From Practice When Impaired 61 (1)
Seeking Assistance When Impaired 61 (1)
Human Relations 62 (29)
Unfair Discrimination 63 (1)
Sexual Harassment 63 (1)
Other Harassment 63 (1)
Avoiding Harm 64 (1)
Multiple Relationships 65 (1)
General Rule on Multiple Relationships 65 (1)
Definition of Multiple Relationships 66 (1)
Handling Multiple Relationships 67 (1)
Concurrent or Consecutive Multiple 67 (1)
Relationships
Overt or Subtle Multiple Relationships 68 (2)
Unavoidable Multiple Relationships 70 (3)
Forensic Multiple Relationships 73 (1)
Court Ordered Treatment 73 (1)
Small Communities 74 (1)
Therapy Clients/Patients Who Need 74 (1)
Forensic Services
General Principles Relevant to Multiple 75 (1)
Relationships
Conflict of Interest 75 (1)
Third-Party Requests for Services 75 (1)
Exploitative Relationships 76 (1)
Cooperation With Other Professionals 77 (1)
Informed Consent 78 (1)
General Rule for Informed Consent 78 (8)
General Rule for Assent 86 (1)
Forensic Informed Consent 87 (1)
Documentation of Informed Consent 88 (1)
Psychological Services Delivered To or 89 (1)
Through Organizations
General Rule for Organizational 89 (1)
Informed Consent
Law on Organizational Roles Preclude 90 (1)
Informed Consent
Interruption of Psychological Services 90 (1)
Privacy and Confidentiality 91 (8)
Maintaining Confidentiality 91 (1)
Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality 92 (1)
General Rule Regarding Discussions of 92 (1)
Confidentiality
When to Discuss Limits of 92 (1)
Confidentiality
Confidentiality Risks With Electronic 93 (1)
Transmissions
Recording 94 (1)
Minimizing Intrusions on Privacy 94 (1)
Limiting Information 94 (1)
Discussion of Confidential Information 94 (1)
Disclosures 95 (1)
Consent for Disclosures 95 (1)
Disclosures Without Consent 95 (3)
Consultations 98 (1)
Use of Confidential Information for 98 (1)
Didactic or Other Purposes
Advertising and Other Public Statements 99 (7)
Avoidance of False or Deceptive 100(1)
Statements
Public Statements About Work Activities 100(1)
Public Statements About Credentials 100(2)
Representing Degrees 102(2)
Statements by Others 104(1)
Responsibility for Public Statements 104(1)
Compensation to Media Employees 104(1)
Identifying Advertising 104(1)
Descriptions of Workshops and 104(1)
Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs
Media Presentations 105(1)
Testimonials 105(1)
In-Person Solicitation 106(1)
Record Keeping and Fees 106(8)
Documentation of Professional and 108(1)
Scientific Work and Maintenance of
Records
Maintenance, Dissemination, and 109(1)
Disposal of Confidential Records of
Professional and Scientific Work
Confidentiality of Records 109(1)
Confidentiality and Databases 110(1)
Transfer of Confidential Records 110(1)
Withholding Records for Nonpayment 110(1)
Fees and Financial Arrangements 111(1)
Agreement on Fees 111(1)
Fees and Law 111(1)
Accurate Representation of Fees 111(1)
Limitations on Financing 111(1)
Collecting Delinquent Debts 111(1)
Barter With Clients/Patients 112(1)
Accuracy in Reports to Payors and 113(1)
Funding Sources
Referrals and Fees 113(1)
Education and Training 114(6)
Design of Education and Training 115(1)
Programs
Descriptions of Education and Training 115(1)
Programs
Accuracy in Teaching 116(1)
Accuracy in Syllabi 116(1)
Presenting Psychological Information 116(1)
Accurately
Student Disclosure of Personal 117(1)
Information
Mandatory Individual or Group Therapy 118(1)
Conditions on Mandating Individual or 118(1)
Group Therapy
Avoiding Multiple Relationships Among 118(1)
Faculty Who Provide Individual or Group
Therapy
Assessing Student and Supervisee 118(1)
Performance
Timely and Specific Feedback 118(1)
Evaluation Based on Performance 119(1)
Sexual Relationships With Students and 119(1)
Supervisees
Research and Publication 120(13)
Institutional Approval 121(1)
Informed Consent to Research 122(1)
General Rule on Informed Consent to 122(1)
Research
Informed Consent With Intervention 122(1)
Research
Informed Consent for Recording Voices 123(1)
and Images in Research
Client/Patient, Student, and 124(1)
Subordinate Research Participants
Protection of Subordinate Research 124(1)
Participants
Research Participation as Course 124(1)
Requirement
Dispensing With Informed Consent for 124(1)
Research
Offering Inducements for Research 125(1)
Participation
Excessive Inducements 125(1)
Clarifying Nature of Services as 125(1)
Inducement
Deception in Research 125(1)
General Rule on Deception in Research 125(1)
Deception About Pain or Distress 126(1)
Explanation of Deception to Participants 126(1)
Debriefing 127(1)
General Rule on Debriefing 127(1)
Denying or Withholding Debriefing 127(1)
Minimizing Harm 127(1)
Humane Care and Use of Animals in 127(1)
Research
Compliance With Laws and Standards 127(1)
Ultimate Responsibility of Psychologists 127(1)
Competence of Supervisees 127(1)
Minimize Discomfort 128(1)
Subjecting Animals to Pain 128(1)
Surgical Procedures 128(1)
Terminating an Animal's Life 128(1)
Reporting Research Results 128(1)
Fabrication of Data 128(1)
Correction of Errors 128(1)
Plagiarism 129(1)
Publication Credit 129(1)
General Rule on Authorship 129(1)
Awarding Credit for Authorship 129(1)
Authorship for Students 129(2)
Duplicate Publication of Data 131(1)
Sharing Research Data for Verification 131(1)
General Rule on Sharing Data 131(1)
Sharing Data for Purposes Other Than 132(1)
Reanalysis
Reviewers 132(1)
Assessment 133(12)
Bases for Assessments 133(1)
General Rule on Bases of Opinions 133(1)
Opinions Without a Direct Examination 134(1)
Opinions Based on Record Review 134(1)
Use of Assessments 134(1)
General Rule on Use of Assessments 134(1)
Relationship Between Assessment 135(1)
Instrument and Population Tested
Language Preference and Competence 135(1)
Informed Consent in Assessments 136(1)
General Rule on Informed Consent in 136(1)
Assessments
Informed Consent in Forensic Assessments 137(1)
Use of Interpreters in Assessments 137(1)
Release of Test Data 138(1)
Release of Test Data Pursuant to a 138(1)
Client/Patient Release
Release of Test Data Required by Law 138(1)
Test Construction 139(1)
Interpreting Assessment Results 140(1)
Assessment by Unqualified Persons 140(1)
Obsolete Tests and Outdated Test Results 141(1)
Outdated Test Results 141(1)
Obsolete Tests 141(1)
Test Scoring and Interpretation Services 142(1)
Accurate Description of Testing Service 142(1)
Considerations in Selecting Testing 142(1)
Services
Retention of Ultimate Responsibility 142(1)
Explaining Assessment Results 143(1)
Maintaining Test Security 144(1)
Therapy 145(18)
Informed Consent to Therapy 146(1)
General Rule on Informed Consent to 146(1)
Therapy
Informed Consent With Emerging Areas 146(1)
Informed Consent With Supervisees 147(1)
Therapy Involving Couples or Families 148(1)
Clarifying Roles 148(2)
Clarifying Potentially Conflicting Roles 150(1)
Group Therapy 150(1)
Providing Therapy to Those Served by 151(1)
Others
Sexual Intimacies With Current Therapy 152(1)
Clients/Patients
Protecting Clients/Patients From Sexual 153(1)
Exploitation
Sexual Intimacies With Relatives or 154(1)
Significant Others of Current Therapy
Clients/Patients
Therapy With Former Sexual Partners 155(1)
Sexual Intimacies With Former Therapy 155(1)
Clients/Patients
No Sexual Intimacies With Former 155(1)
Clients/Patients for Two Years
Sexual Intimacies With Former 155(1)
Clients/Patients After Two Years
Interruption of Therapy 156(1)
Terminating Therapy 156(1)
General Rule on Terminating Therapy 156(1)
Terminating Therapy When Threatened 157(1)
Pretermination Counseling 157(1)
When Treatment Will Not Benefit or May 158(2)
Harm the Client/Patient
When the Psychologist Is Not Available 160(3)
Summaries of Specific Topics 163(16)
General Themes 163(8)
Responsibilities to Others 164(1)
Competence 164(1)
Experimental Treatments 165(1)
Impairment 166(1)
Informed Consent 166(1)
Informed Consent in Therapy 167(1)
Informed Consent in Assessments 167(1)
Informed Consent in Teaching and 167(1)
Supervision
Informed Consent in Research 168(1)
Accuracy (Honesty) 168(1)
Confidentiality 169(1)
Confidentiality and Informed Consent 169(1)
Storing Confidential Information 170(1)
Disclosure of Confidential Information 170(1)
Confidentiality in Research 170(1)
Roles of Psychologists 171(5)
Therapists 171(1)
Sexual Contact 171(1)
Emergency Services 171(1)
Termination 172(1)
Group Therapy 172(1)
Assessment 172(1)
Supervision 172(1)
General Consultation 173(1)
Organizational Consultation 173(1)
Forensic Experts 174(1)
Research 174(1)
Teaching 175(1)
Other Issues 176(3)
Conflicts of Interests 176(1)
Electronic Transmissions 177(1)
Protecting Diverse Groups 177(1)
Fees 178(1)
Documentation 178(1)
References 179(10)
Appendices 189(34)
Appendix A: APA Guidelines 191(2)
Appendix B: Policy Statements From the 193(2)
APA Ethics Committee
Appendix C: Definitions in the Ethics Code 195(2)
Appendix D: Ethical Principles of 197(26)
Psychologists and Code of Conduct 2002
Subject Index 223