Marine Biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America (Monographiae Biologicae) 〈Vol. 86〉


Marine Biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America (Monographiae Biologicae) 〈Vol. 86〉

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Full Description

Life began in the sea, and even today most of the deep diversity of the planet is marine. This is often forgotten, especially in tropical countries like Costa Rica, renowned for their rain forests and the multitude of life forms found therein. Thus this book focusing on marine diversity of Costa Rica is particularly welcome. How many marine species are there in Costa Rica? The authors report a total of 6,777 species, or 3. 5% of the world's total. Yet the vast majority of marine species have yet to be formally described. Recent estimates of the numbers of species on coral reefs range from 1–9 million, so that the true number of marine species in Costa Rica is certainly far higher. In some groups the numbers are likely to be vastly higher because to date they have been so little studied. Only one species of nematode is reported, despite the fact that it has been said that nematodes are the most diverse of all marine groups. In better studied groups such as mollusks and crustaceans, reported numbers are in the thousands, but even in these groups many species remain to be described. Indeed the task of describing marine species is daunting – if there really are about 9 million marine species and Costa Rica has 3. 5% of them, then the total number would be over 300,000. Clearly, so much remains to be done that new approaches are needed. Genetic methods have en- mous promise in this regard.


PART I The Marine Realm of Costa Rica – Diversity of Marine Habitats Jorge Cortés & Ingo S. Wehrtmann
PART II A history of marine biodiversity scientific research in Costa Rica Jorge Cortés
PART III Marine Fossils Teresita Aguilar

PART IV Taxonomic groups
Chapter 1. Phytoplankton - Roxana Víquez & Paul E. Hargraves
Chapter 2 Marine benthic algae - Andrea Bernecker
Chapter 3. Seagrasses -Jorge Cortés & Eva Salas
Chapter 4 Mangroves - Ana Margarita Silva-Benavides
Chapter 5 Foraminifera - Jorge Cortés, Claudia Mora-Baumgartner & Vanessa Nielsen
Chapter 6 Sponges - Jorge Cortés, Noam van der Hal, R.W.M. van Soest
Chapter 7 Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa (Medusozoa) - Karina Rodríguez & Lourdes Segura-Puertas
Chapter 8 Siphonophores - Karina Rodríguez & Rebeca Gasca
Chapter 9. Zoanthids, sea anemones and corallimorpharians - Jorge Cortés
Chapter 10 Octocorals - Odalisca Breedy
Chapter 11 Stony corals - Jorge Cortés
Chapter 12 Sipunculans - José A. Vargas & Harlan K. Dean
Chapter 13 Polychaetes and echiurans - Harlan K. Dean
Chapter 14 Stomatopods - Rita Vargas
Chapter 15 Euphausids - Iván Castellanos, Eduardo Suárez-Morales & Álvaro Morales-Ramírez
Chapter 16 Decapod crustaceans- Rita Vargas & Ingo S. Wehrtmann
Chapter 17 Shallow water mysids - W. Wayne Price, Richard W. Heard and Rita Vargas
Chapter 18 Cumaceans - Iorgu Petrescu, Richard W. Heard, Rita Vargas & Odalisca Breedy
Chapter 19 Tanaidaceans - Richard W. Heard, Odalisca Breedy & Rita Vargas
Chapter 20 Isopods - Richard Brusca & Ingo S. Wehrtmann
Chapter 21 Gammaridean amphipods - John M. Foster, Sara E. LeCroy, Richard W. Heard and Rita Vargas
Chapter 22 Hyperiid amphipods - Rebeca Gasca
Chapter 23 Barnacles - Robert von Syoc
Chapter 24 Copepods - Álvaro Morales-Ramírez & Eduardo Suárez-Morales
Chapter 25 Sea-spiders - Roger N.Bamber
Chapter 26 Marine insects - Monika Springer
Chapter 27 Chitons - Enrico Schwabe & Ingo S. Wehrtmann
Chapter 28 Benthic, shelled gastropods - Leonora Rodríguez, Rita Vargas & Jorge Cortés
Chapter 29 Pelagic gastropods - Eduardo Suárez-Morales, Rebeca Gasca & Iván Castellanos
Chapter 30 Benthic opisthobranchs - Yolanda E. Camacho-García
Chapter 31 Bivalves - Julio Magaña-Cubillo & José Espinosa
Chapter 32 Squids and octopuses - F.G. Hochberg & Yolanda E. Camacho-García
Chapter 33 Phoronids - Christian C. Emig
Chapter 34 Bryozoans - Jorge Cortés, Vanessa Nielsen & Amalia Herrera-Cubilla
Chapter 35 Brachiopods - Christian C. Emig
Chapter 36 Echinoderms - Juan José Alvarado & Jorge Cortés
Chapter 37 Chaetognaths or arrow worms - Eduardo Suárez-Morales, Rosa Ma. Hernández-Flores & Álvaro Morales-Ramírez
Chapter 38 Appendicularians (Urochordata) - Iván Castellanos, Álvaro Morales-Ramírez & Eduardo Suárez-Morales
Chapter 39 Marine fish - William A. Bussing & Myrna López
Chapter 40 Marine reptiles and amphibians - Mahmood Sasa, Gerardo A. Chaves & Lisa D. Patrick
Chapter 41 Birds in coastal and marine environments - Gilbert Barrantes & Johel Chaves-Campos
Chapter 42 Marine mammals - Laura May-Collado
Chapter 43 Other taxonomic groups Fungi, kinorhynchs, invertebrate chordates - Jorge Cortés
Chapter 44 Marine fish parasites - Jorge Cortés
Chapter 45 Sea turtle parasites - Mario Santero & Simonetta Mattiucci

PART V. Marine Biodiversity of Costa Rica: Perspectives and Conclusions - Ingo S. Wehrtmann, Jorge Cortés & Silvia Echeverría