Rules for Writers 9th Ed. + a Student's Companion to Hacker Handbooks (9 PCK SPI)

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Rules for Writers 9th Ed. + a Student's Companion to Hacker Handbooks (9 PCK SPI)

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Table of Contents

PART 1 Succeeding in College                     1  (28)
1 Becoming a college writer 1 (6)
a Be open minded about the "rules" of 1 (2)
good writing
b Adopt good habits of mind 3 (4)
2 Time management 7 (10)
a The case for time management 7 (1)
b Taking charge of your time 8 (5)
c Four time-wasting habits to avoid 13 (1)
d Two tools to keep you on track 14 (3)
3 College ethics and personal responsibility 17 (6)
a What is cheating? 17 (1)
b The case for integrity 18 (1)
c Tools teachers use when they suspect 19 (1)
cheating
d How to be a responsible student: Ten 19 (2)
tips
e How to paraphrase (to avoid plagiarism) 21 (2)
4 College etiquette 23 (6)
a Four truths 23 (1)
b Starting out 23 (1)
c Classroom rules 24 (1)
d Collaborating with others: The group 25 (1)
project
e Communicating with your professor 25 (4)
PART 2 Succeeding in Your Writing Course 29 (94)
5 Developing active reading strategies 29 (8)
a On-ramps for reading assignments 29 (1)
b Pay attention to titles 30 (1)
c Read for patterns 31 (2)
d Understand vocabulary 33 (1)
e Identify main ideas 34 (1)
f Outline what you read 34 (1)
g One additional strategy: Converse with 35 (2)
a reading
6 Strengthening peer review and 37 (6)
collaboration skills
a What is peer review? 37 (1)
b Tips for offering feedback to a peer 38 (2)
c Tips for working with feedback from a 40 (1)
peer
d What is collaboration? 40 (1)
e Tips for collaborating effectively 41 (2)
7 Outlining and planning your writing 43 (8)
a Using an informal outline to plan 43 (2)
b Using a formal outline to plan 45 (4)
c Using headings to plan 49 (1)
d Using a map to plan 50 (1)
8 Writing for an audience 51 (8)
a The link between audience and purpose 51 (1)
b Specific and specialized audiences 52 (1)
c Thinking about content, tone, 52 (2)
vocabulary, and exigence
d Questions to help identify audience 54 (1)
characteristics
e Comparing sample paragraphs 55 (4)
9 Graphic organizers for common types of 59 (20)
writing
a A basic essay 60 (3)
b An analytical essay 63 (2)
c A compare-and-contrast essay 65 (4)
d An argument essay 69 (5)
e An annotated bibliography 74 (2)
f A proposal 76 (3)
10 Graphic organizers for common types of 79 (16)
paragraphs
a Example 80 (1)
b Illustration 81 (1)
c Narration 82 (1)
d Description 83 (1)
e Process 84 (1)
f Comparison and contrast 85 (3)
g Analogy 88 (1)
h Cause and effect 89 (2)
i Classification and division 91 (2)
j Definition 93 (2)
11 Using sentence guides to develop 95 (10)
academic writing skills
a Presenting information and others' views 96 (2)
b Presenting your own views 98 (3)
c Persuading by putting it all together 101(4)
12 Integrating sources: Quotation 105(12)
sandwiching (MLA style)
a Integrating a single source 105(4)
b Integrating more than one source 109(8)
(synthesizing)
13 Revising paragraphs and essays 117(6)
a Tips for revising globally 118(2)
b Tips for revising sentences 120(3)
PART 3 Practicing Reading, Writing, and 123(52)
Research Skills
14 Reading exercises 123(10)
Exercise 14-a Using titles as on-ramps 123(1)
for reading
Exercise 14-b Using patterns of 124(2)
organization as on-ramps for reading
Exercise 14-c Using vocabulary as an 126(1)
on-ramp for reading
Exercise 14-d Examining a reader's 127(2)
annotations
Exercise 14-e Using on-ramps to annotate 129(2)
and understand a reading
Exercise 14-f Talking back to a reading 131(2)
15 Thesis statement exercises 133(8)
Exercise 15-a Choosing effective thesis 133(3)
statements
Exercise 15-b Writing a thesis statement 136(2)
for an argument essay
Exercise 15-c Building strong thesis 138(3)
statements
16 Topic sentence exercises 141(6)
Exercise 16-a Choosing suitable topic 142(2)
sentences
Exercise 16-b Writing topic sentences 144(1)
Exercise 16-c Writing unified paragraphs 145(2)
17 MLA research exercises 147(18)
Exercise 17-a Avoiding plagiarism in MLA 147(2)
papers
Exercise 17-b Avoiding plagiarism in MLA 149(2)
papers
Exercise 17-c Recognizing common 151(2)
knowledge in MLA papers
Exercise 17-d Integrating sources in MLA 153(2)
papers
Exercise 17-e Integrating sources in MLA 155(2)
papers
Exercise 17-f MLA documentation: In-text 157(3)
citations
Exercise 17-g MLA documentation: Works 160(3)
cited
Exercise 17-h MLA documentation 163(2)
18 Plagiarism exercises 165(4)
Exercise 18-a Is this plagiarism? 165(2)
Exercise 18-b Developing responsibility 167(2)
19 Paraphrase and summary exercises 169(6)
Exercise 19-a Building understanding 169(2)
(writing a summary)
Exercise 19-b Using your own words and 171(2)
structure (writing a paraphrase)
Exercise 19-c Writing paraphrases and 173(2)
summaries
PART 4 Practicing Sentence-Level Skills 175(1)
20 Active verbs 175(4)
Exercise 20-a Active verbs 175(2)
Exercise 20-b Active verbs 177(2)
21 Parallelism 179(4)
Exercise 21-a Parallelism 179(2)
Exercise 21-b Parallelism 181(2)
22 Misplaced and dangling modifiers 183(4)
Exercise 22-a Misplaced and dangling 183(2)
modifiers
Exercise 22-b Misplaced and dangling 185(2)
modifiers
23 Sentence variety 187(4)
Exercise 23-a Sentence variety 187(2)
Exercise 23-b Sentence variety 189(2)
24 Sentence fragments 191(4)
Exercise 24-a Sentence fragments 191(2)
Exercise 24-b Sentence fragments 193(2)
25 Run-on sentences 195(4)
Exercise 25-a Run-on sentences 195(2)
Exercise 25-b Run-on sentences 197(2)
26 Subject-verb agreement 199(4)
Exercise 26-a Subject-verb agreement 199(2)
Exercise 26-b Subject-verb agreement 201(2)
27 Pronoun reference 203(4)
Exercise 27-a Pronoun reference 203(2)
Exercise 27-b Pronoun reference 205(2)
28 Pronoun and noun case 207(4)
Exercise 28-a Pronoun and noun case 207(2)
Exercise 28-b Pronoun and noun case 209(2)
29 Verbs 211(4)
Exercise 29-a Verbs 211(2)
Exercise 29-b Verbs 213(1)
Exercise 29-c Verbs 214(1)
30 Articles 215(2)
Exercise 30-a Articles 215(1)
Exercise 30-b Articles 216(1)
31 Commas and unnecessary commas 217(6)
Exercise 31-a Commas and unnecessary 217(2)
commas
Exercise 31-b Commas and unnecessary 219(2)
commas
Exercise 31-c Commas and unnecessary 221(2)
commas
32 Apostrophes 223(4)
Exercise 32-a Apostrophes 223(1)
Exercise 32-b Apostrophes 224(1)
Exercise 32-c Apostrophes 225(2)
33 Quotation marks 227(1)
Exercise 33-a Quotation marks 227(2)
Exercise 33-b Quotation marks 229(2)
Answers to exercises 231(314)
Preface for Instructors xxi
Scavenger Hunt: Learning to use Rules for xxx
Writers
A PROCESS FOR WRITING 1 (54)
1 Exploring, planning, and drafting 2 (19)
a Assess the writing situation 2 (4)
b Explore your subject 6 (1)
c Draft and revise a working thesis 7 (5)
statement
How to solve five common problems with 10 (2)
thesis statements
d Draft a plan 12 (3)
e Draft an introduction 15 (1)
f Draft the body 16 (4)
g Draft a conclusion 20 (1)
2 Revising, editing, and reflecting 21 (19)
a See revising as a social process 21 (1)
b Use peer review: Revise with comments 22 (1)
c Use peer review: Give constructive 23 (2)
comments
How to write helpful peer review 23 (2)
comments
d Highlights of one student's peer review 25 (3)
process
Sample Rough Draft With Peer Comments 25 (3)
e Approach global revision in cycles 28 (5)
f Revise and edit sentences 33 (1)
g Proofread the final manuscript 33 (2)
How to improve your writing with an 34 (1)
editing log
h Format the final manuscript 35 (1)
i Sample student revision 35 (3)
Sample Student Revision 36 (2)
j Prepare a portfolio; reflect on your 38 (2)
writing
3 Building effective paragraphs 40 (15)
a Focus on a main point 40 (2)
b Develop the main point 42 (1)
c Choose a suitable pattern of 43 (6)
organization
d Make paragraphs coherent 49 (5)
e If necessary, adjust paragraph length 54 (1)
ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING 55 (52)
4 Reading and writing critically 56 (15)
a Read actively 56 (5)
Sample Annotated Article 57 (4)
How to read like a writer 61 (1)
b Outline a text to identify main ideas 61 (2)
c Summarize to deepen your understanding 63 (1)
d Analyze to demonstrate your critical 64 (3)
reading
How to draft an analytical thesis 66 (1)
statement
e Sample student writing: Analysis of an 67 (4)
article
Sample Analysis Paper 67 (3)
Writing guide: How to write an 70 (1)
analytical essay
5 Reading and writing about multimodal texts 71 (7)
a Read actively 71 (2)
SAMPLE ANNOTATED ADVERTISEMENT 72 (1)
b Summarize to deepen your understanding 73 (1)
c Analyze to demonstrate your critical 73 (1)
reading
How to write a summary of a multimodal 73 (1)
text
d Sample student writing: Analysis of an 74 (4)
advertisement
SAMPLE ANALYSIS OF AN ADVERTISEMENT 75 (3)
6 Reading arguments 78 (11)
a Distinguish between reasonable and 79 (5)
fallacious argumentative tactics
b Distinguish between legitimate and 84 (3)
unfair emotional appeals
c Judge how fairly a writer handles 87 (2)
opposing views
7 Writing arguments 89 (18)
a When writing arguments, identify your 90 (1)
purpose and context
b View your audience as a panel of jurors 90 (2)
c In your introduction, establish 92 (2)
credibility and state your position
How to draft a thesis statement for an 93 (1)
argument
d Back up your thesis with persuasive 94 (1)
lines of argument
e Support your claims with specific 94 (3)
evidence
f Anticipate objections; counter opposing 97 (1)
arguments
g Build common ground 98 (1)
h Sample student writing: Argument 99 (8)
SAMPLE ARGUMENT PAPER 99 (6)
Writing guide: How to write an argument 105(2)
essay
CLARITY 107(58)
8 Prefer active verbs 108(3)
a Active versus passive verbs 108(1)
b Active versus be verbs 109(1)
c Subject that names the actor 110(1)
9 Balance parallel ideas 111(4)
a Parallel ideas in a series 112(1)
b Parallel ideas presented as pairs 112(2)
c Repetition of function words 114(1)
10 Add needed words 115(3)
a In compound structures 115(1)
b that 116(1)
c In comparisons 116(2)
d a, an, and the 118(1)
11 Untangle mixed constructions 118(4)
a Mixed grammar 119(1)
b Illogical connections 120(1)
c Is when, is where, and reason ... is 120(2)
because
12 Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers 122(6)
a Limiting modifiers 122(1)
b Misplaced phrases and clauses 122(1)
c Awkwardly placed modifiers 123(1)
d Split infinitives 124(1)
e Dangling modifiers 125(3)
13 Eliminate distracting shifts 128(5)
a Point of view (person, number) 128(1)
b Verb tense 129(2)
c Verb mood, voice 131(1)
d Indirect to direct questions or 131(2)
quotations
14 Emphasize key ideas 133(9)
a Coordination and subordination 134(3)
b Choppy sentences 137(2)
c Ineffective or excessive coordination 139(1)
d Ineffective subordination 140(1)
e Excessive subordination 140(1)
f Other techniques 141(1)
15 Provide some variety 142(3)
a Sentence openings 142(1)
b Sentence structures 143(1)
c Inverted order 144(1)
16 Tighten wordy sentences 145(5)
a Redundancies 146(1)
b Unnecessary repetition 146(1)
c Empty or inflated phrases 146(1)
d Simplifying the structure 147(1)
e Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to 148(2)
single words
17 Choose appropriate language 150(8)
a Jargon 150(1)
b Pretentious language, euphemisms, 151(2)
"doublespeak"
c Slang, regional expressions, 153(1)
nonstandard English
d Levels of formality 154(1)
e Sexist language 155(3)
f Offensive language 158(1)
18 Find the exact words 158(7)
a Connotations 159(1)
b Specific, concrete nouns 159(1)
c Misused words 160(1)
d Standard idioms 161(1)
e Cliches 162(1)
f Figures of speech 163(2)
GRAMMAR 165(64)
19 Repair sentence fragments 166(7)
a Subordinate clauses 168(1)
b Phrases 169(1)
c Other fragmented word groups 170(1)
d Acceptable fragments 171(2)
20 Revise run-on sentences 173(7)
a Revision with coordinating conjunction 175(1)
b Revision with semicolon, colon, or dash 176(1)
c Revision by separating sentences 177(1)
d Revision by restructuring 177(3)
21 Make subjects and verbs agree 180(10)
a Standard subject-verb combinations 180(1)
b Words between subject and verb 180(1)
c Subjects joined with and 181(3)
d Subjects joined with or, nor, either. 184(1)
or, or neither. nor
e Indefinite pronouns 184(1)
f Collective nouns 185(2)
g Subject following verb 187(1)
h Subject, not subject complement 187(1)
i who, which, and that 188(1)
j Words with plural form, singular meaning 189(1)
k Titles of works, company names, words 189(1)
mentioned as words, gerund phrases
22 Make pronouns and antecedents agree 190(5)
a Singular with singular, plural with 191(2)
plural (indefinite pronouns, generic
nouns)
b Collective nouns 193(1)
c Antecedents joined with and 194(1)
d Antecedents joined with or, nor, either 194(1)
... or, or neither ... nor
23 Make pronoun references clear 195(4)
a Ambiguous or remote reference 195(1)
b Broad reference with this, that, which, 196(1)
and it
c Implied antecedents 197(1)
d Indefinite use of they, it, and you 197(1)
e Who for persons, which or that for 198(1)
things
24 Distinguish between pronouns such as I 199(5)
and me
a Subjective case for subjects and 200(1)
subject complements
b Objective case for objects 200(1)
c Appositives 201(1)
d Pronoun following than or as 201(1)
e Subjects and objects of infinitives 202(1)
f Pronoun modifying a gerund 202(2)
25 Distinguish between who and whom 204(2)
a In subordinate clauses 204(1)
b In questions 205(1)
c As subjects or objects of infinitives 205(1)
26 Choose adjectives and adverbs with care 206(6)
a Adjectives to modify nouns 207(1)
b Adverbs to modify verbs, adjectives, 208(1)
and other adverbs
c Good and well, bad and badly 209(1)
d Comparatives and superlatives 210(1)
e Double negatives 211(1)
27 Choose appropriate verb forms, tenses, 212(17)
and moods in Standard English
a Irregular verbs 213(4)
b Lie and lay 217(1)
c -s (or-es) endings 218(2)
d -ed endings 220(1)
e Omitted verbs 221(1)
f Verb tense 222(4)
g Subjunctive mood 226(3)
MULTILINGUAL WRITERS AND ESL TOPICS 229(38)
28 Verbs 230(14)
a Appropriate form and tense 230(3)
b Passive voice 233(2)
c Base form after a modal 235(3)
d Negative verb forms 238(1)
e Verbs in conditional sentences 238(3)
f Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives 241(3)
29 Articles (a, an, the) 244(9)
a Articles and other noun markers 244(1)
b When to use the 245(3)
c When to use a or an 248(2)
d When not to use a or an 250(1)
e No articles with general nouns 251(1)
f Articles with proper nouns 251(2)
30 Sentence structure 253(9)
a Linking verb between a subject and its 254(1)
complement
b A subject in every sentence 254(1)
c Repeated nouns or pronouns with the 255(1)
same grammatical function
d Repeated subjects, objects, and adverbs 256(1)
in adjective clauses
e Mixed constructions with although or 257(1)
because
f Placement of adverbs 258(1)
g Present participles and past 259(1)
participles as adjectives
h Order of cumulative adjectives 260(2)
31 Prepositions and idiomatic expressions 262(5)
a Prepositions showing time and place 262(1)
b Noun (including -ing form) after a 263(1)
preposition
c Common adjective + preposition 264(1)
combinations
d Common verb + preposition combinations 264(3)
PUNCTUATION 267(42)
32 The comma 268(13)
a Independent clauses joined with and, 268(1)
but, etc.
b Introductory elements 269(2)
c Items in a series 271(1)
d Coordinate adjectives 271(2)
e Nonrestrictive and restrictive elements 273(3)
f Transitional expressions and other word 276(2)
groups
g Direct address, yes and no, 278(1)
interrogative tags, interjections
h He said etc. 278(1)
i Dates, addresses, titles, numbers 279(2)
33 Unnecessary commas 281(5)
a Between two words, phrases, or 281(1)
subordinate clauses
b Between a verb and its subject or object 282(1)
c Before the first or after the last item 282(1)
in a series
d Between cumulative adjectives, an 282(1)
adjective and a noun, or an adverb and an
adjective
e Before and after restrictive or 283(1)
parenthetical elements
f Before essential concluding adverbial 283(1)
elements
g After a phrase beginning an inverted 284(1)
sentence
h Other misuses 284(2)
34 The semicolon 286(4)
a Between independent clauses not joined 286(1)
with a coordinating conjunction
b Between independent clauses linked with 286(1)
a transitional expression
c In a series containing internal 287(1)
punctuation
d Misuses 288(2)
35 The colon 290(2)
a Before a list, an appositive, or a 290(1)
quotation
b Conventional uses 290(1)
c Misuses 291(1)
36 The apostrophe 292(4)
a Possessive nouns 292(1)
b Possessive indefinite pronouns 293(1)
c Contractions 293(1)
d Not for plural numbers, letters, 293(2)
abbreviations, words as words
e Misuses 295(1)
37 Quotation marks 296(6)
a Direct quotations 296(1)
b Quotation within a quotation 297(1)
c Titles of short works 298(1)
d Words as words 298(1)
e With other punctuation marks 298(3)
f Misuses 301(1)
38 End punctuation 302(2)
a The period 302(1)
b The question mark 303(1)
c The exclamation point 303(1)
39 Other punctuation marks 304(5)
a The dash 304(1)
b Parentheses 305(1)
c Brackets 306(1)
d The ellipsis mark 306(1)
e The slash 307(2)
MECHANICS 309(20)
40 Abbreviations 310(3)
a Titles with proper names 310(1)
b Familiar abbreviations 310(1)
c Conventional abbreviations 311(1)
d Units of measurement 311(1)
e Latin abbreviations 312(1)
f Plural of abbreviations 312(1)
g Misuses 312(1)
41 Numbers 313(2)
a Spelling out 313(1)
b Using numerals 314(1)
42 Italics 315(2)
a Titles of works 315(1)
b Names of ships, spacecraft, and aircraft 316(1)
c Foreign words 316(1)
d Words as words, letters as letters, 316(1)
numbers as numbers
43 Spelling 317(5)
a Spelling rules 317(3)
b Words that sound alike 320(1)
c Commonly misspelled words 320(2)
44 The hyphen 322(2)
a Compound words 322(1)
b Hyphenated adjectives 322(1)
c Fractions and compound numbers 323(1)
d With certain prefixes and suffixes 323(1)
e To avoid ambiguity or to separate 323(1)
awkward double or triple letters
f Word division 323(1)
45 Capitalization 324(5)
a Proper vs. common nouns 324(2)
b Titles with proper names 326(1)
c Titles and subtitles of works 326(1)
d First word of a sentence 327(1)
e First word of a quoted sentence 327(1)
f First word after a colon 327(2)
GRAMMAR BASICS 329(28)
46 Parts of speech 330(9)
a Nouns 330(1)
b Pronouns 331(2)
c Verbs 333(2)
d Adjectives 335(1)
e Adverbs 336(1)
f Prepositions 336(1)
g Conjunctions 337(1)
h Interjections 338(1)
47 Sentence patterns 339(5)
a Subjects 339(2)
b Verbs, objects, and complements 341(3)
48 Subordinate word groups 344(8)
a Prepositional phrases 345(1)
b Verbal phrases 346(3)
c Appositive phrases 349(1)
d Absolute phrases 349(1)
e Subordinate clauses 349(3)
49 Sentence types 352(5)
a Sentence structures 353(1)
b Sentence purposes 354(3)
RESEARCH 357(34)
50 Thinking like a researcher; gathering 358(12)
sources
a Manage the project 358(2)
b Pose questions worth exploring 360(3)
How to enter a research conversation 361(2)
c Map out a search strategy 363(1)
d Search efficiently; master a few 364(4)
shortcuts to finding good sources
How to go beyond a Google search 365(3)
e Conduct field research, if appropriate 368(1)
f Write a research proposal 369(1)
51 Managing information; taking notes 370(7)
responsibly
a Maintain a working bibliography 370(2)
b Keep track of source materials 372(1)
c Take notes carefully to avoid 372(5)
unintentional plagiarism
How to take notes responsibly 373(3)
How to avoid plagiarizing from the web 376(1)
52 Evaluating sources 377(14)
a Think about how sources might 377(1)
contribute to your writing
b Select sources worth your time and 378(3)
attention
c Read with an open mind and a critical 381(5)
eye
How to detect fake news and misleading 382(4)
sources
d Construct an annotated bibliography 386(5)
Writing guide: Annotated bibliography 389(2)
WRITING PAPERS IN MLA STYLE 391(86)
53 Supporting a thesis 392(5)
a Form a working thesis 392(1)
b Organize your ideas 393(1)
c Draft an introduction for your thesis 394(1)
d Use sources to inform and support your 395(2)
argument
54 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism 397(6)
a Understand how the MLA system works 398(1)
b Understand what plagiarism is 399(1)
c Use quotation marks around borrowed 399(1)
language
d Put summaries and paraphrases in your 400(3)
own words
How to be a responsible research writer 402(1)
55 Integrating sources 403(15)
a Summarize and paraphrase effectively 403(1)
b Use quotations effectively 404(4)
How to paraphrase effectively 405(3)
c Use signal phrases to integrate sources 408(6)
d Synthesize sources 414(4)
56 Documenting sources in MLA style 418(46)
a MLA in-text citations 420(9)
b MLA list of works cited 429(34)
c MLA information notes 463(1)
57 MLA format; sample research paper 464(13)
a MLA format 464(3)
b Sample MLA research paper 467(10)
WRITING PAPERS IN APA STYLE 477(68)
58 Supporting a thesis 478(3)
a Form a working thesis 478(1)
b Organize your ideas 479(1)
c Use sources to inform and support your 479(2)
argument
59 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism 481(4)
a Understand how the APA system works 482(1)
b Understand what plagiarism is 482(1)
c Use quotation marks around borrowed 483(1)
language
d Put summaries and paraphrases in your 483(2)
own words
60 Integrating sources 485(8)
a Summarize and paraphrase effectively 485(1)
b Use quotations effectively 486(2)
c Use signal phrases to integrate sources 488(3)
d Synthesize sources 491(2)
61 Documenting sources in APA style 493(31)
a APA in-text citations 496(5)
b APA list of references 501(23)
62 APA format; sample research paper 524(21)
a APA format 524(5)
b Sample APA research paper 529(16)
APPENDIXES
Models of professional writing 545(5)
Glossary of usage 550(14)
Answers to lettered exercises 564(15)
Index 579