Rules for Writers : Tabbed Version (9 SPI)

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Rules for Writers : Tabbed Version (9 SPI)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 621 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9781319102739
  • DDC分類 420

Table of Contents

Preface for Instructors                            xxi
Scavenger Hunt: Learning to use Rules for xxx
Writers
A Process For Writing 1 (54)
1 Exploring, planning, and drafting 2 (19)
a Assess the writing situation 2 (4)
b Explore your subject 6 (1)
c Draft and revise a working thesis 7 (3)
statement
How to solve five common problems with 10 (2)
thesis statements
d Draft a plan 12 (3)
e Draft an introduction 15 (1)
f Draft the body 16 (4)
g Draft a conclusion 20 (1)
2 Revising, editing, and reflecting 21 (19)
a See revising as a social process 21 (1)
b Use peer review: Revise with comments 22 (1)
c Use peer review: Give constructive 23 (1)
comments
How to write helpful peer review comments 23 (2)
d Highlights of one student's peer 25 (3)
review process
Sample Rough Draft With Peer Comments 25 (3)
e Approach global revision in cycles 28 (5)
f Revise and edit sentences 33 (1)
g Proofread the final manuscript 33 (1)
How to improve your writing with an editing 34 (1)
log
h Format the final manuscript 35 (1)
i Sample student revision 35 (3)
Sample Student Revision 36 (2)
j Prepare a portfolio; reflect on your 38 (2)
writing
3 Building effective paragraphs 40 (15)
a Focus on a main point 40 (2)
b Develop the main point 42 (1)
c Choose a suitable pattern of organization 43 (6)
d Make paragraphs coherent 49 (5)
e If necessary, adjust paragraph length 54 (1)
Academic Reading And Writing 55 (52)
4 Reading and writing critically 56 (15)
a Read actively 56 (5)
Sample Annotated Article 57 (4)
How to read like a writer 61 (1)
b Outline a text to identify main ideas 61 (2)
c Summarize to deepen your understanding 63 (1)
d Analyze to demonstrate your critical 64 (2)
reading
How to draft an analytical thesis statement 66 (1)
e Sample student writing: Analysis of an 67 (3)
article
Sample Analysis Paper 67 (3)
Writing guide: How to write an analytical 70 (1)
essay
5 Reading and writing about multimodal texts 71 (7)
a Read actively 71 (2)
Sample Annotated Advertisement 72 (1)
b Summarize to deepen your understanding 73 (1)
c Analyze to demonstrate your critical 73 (1)
reading
How to write a summary of a multimodal text 73 (1)
d Sample student writing: Analysis of an 74 (4)
advertisement
Sample Analysis Of An Advertisement 75 (3)
6 Reading arguments 78 (11)
a Distinguish between reasonable and 79 (5)
fallacious argumentative tactics
b Distinguish between legitimate and unfair 84 (3)
emotional appeals
c Judge how fairly a writer handles 87 (2)
opposing views
7 Writing arguments 89 (18)
a When writing arguments, identify your 90 (1)
purpose and context
b View your audience as a panel of jurors 90 (2)
c In your introduction, establish 92 (1)
credibility and state your position
How to draft a thesis statement for an 93 (1)
argument
d Back up your thesis with persuasive lines 94 (1)
of argument
e Support your claims with specific evidence 94 (3)
f Anticipate objections; counter opposing 97 (1)
arguments
g Build common ground 98 (1)
h Sample student writing: Argument 99 (6)
Sample Argument Paper 99 (6)
Writing guide: How to write an argument 105(2)
essay
Clarity 107(58)
8 Prefer active verbs 108(3)
a Active versus passive verbs 108(1)
b Active versus be verbs 109(1)
c Subject that names the actor 110(1)
9 Balance parallel ideas 111(4)
a Parallel ideas in a series 112(1)
b Parallel ideas presented as pairs 112(2)
c Repetition of function words 114(1)
10 Add needed words 115(3)
a In compound structures 115(1)
b that 116(1)
c In comparisons 116(2)
d a, an, and the 118(1)
11 Untangle mixed constructions 118(4)
a Mixed grammar 119(1)
b Illogical connections 120(1)
c is when, is where, and reason...is because 120(2)
12 Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers 122(6)
a Limiting modifiers 122(1)
b Misplaced phrases and clauses 122(1)
c Awkwardly placed modifiers 123(1)
d Split infinitives 124(1)
e Dangling modifiers 125(3)
13 Eliminate distracting shifts 128(5)
a Point of view (person, number) 128(1)
b Verb tense 129(2)
c Verb mood, voice 131(1)
d Indirect to direct questions or quotations 131(2)
14 Emphasize key ideas 133(9)
a Coordination and subordination 134(3)
b Choppy sentences 137(2)
c Ineffective or excessive coordination 139(1)
d Ineffective subordination 140(1)
e Excessive subordination 140(1)
f Other techniques 141(1)
15 Provide some variety 142(3)
a Sentence openings 142(1)
b Sentence structures 143(1)
c Inverted order 144(1)
16 Tighten wordy sentences 145(5)
a Redundancies 146(1)
b Unnecessary repetition 146(1)
c Empty or inflated phrases 146(1)
d Simplifying the structure 147(1)
e Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to 148(2)
single words
17 Choose appropriate language 150(8)
a Jargon 150(1)
b Pretentious language, euphemisms, 151(2)
"doublespeak"
c Slang, regional expressions, nonstandard 153(1)
English
d Levels of formality 154(1)
e Sexist language 155(3)
f Offensive language 158(1)
18 Find the exact words 158(7)
a Connotations 159(1)
b Specific, concrete nouns 159(1)
c Misused words 160(1)
d Standard idioms 161(1)
e Clich駸 162(1)
f Figures of speech 163(2)
Grammar 165(64)
19 Repair sentence fragments 166(7)
a Subordinate clauses 168(1)
b Phrases 169(1)
c Other fragmented word groups 170(1)
d Acceptable fragments 171(2)
20 Revise run-on sentences 173(7)
a Revision with coordinating conjunction 175(1)
b Revision with semicolon, colon, or dash 176(1)
c Revision by separating sentences 177(1)
d Revision by restructuring 177(3)
21 Make subjects and verbs agree 180(10)
a Standard subject-verb combinations 180(1)
b Words between subject and verb 180(1)
c Subjects joined with and 181(3)
d Subjects joined with or, nor, 184(1)
either...or, or neither...nor
e Indefinite pronouns 184(1)
f Collective nouns 185(2)
g Subject following verb 187(1)
h Subject, not subject complement 187(1)
i who, which, and that 188(1)
j Words with plural form, singular meaning 189(1)
k Titles of works, company names, words 189(1)
mentioned as words, gerund phrases
22 Make pronouns and antecedents agree 190(5)
a Singular with singular, plural with 191(2)
plural (indefinite pronouns, generic nouns)
b Collective nouns 193(1)
c Antecedents joined with and 194(1)
d Antecedents joined with or, nor, 194(1)
either...or, or neither...nor
23 Make pronoun references clear 195(4)
a Ambiguous or remote reference 195(1)
b Broad reference with this, that, which, 196(1)
and it
c Implied antecedents 197(1)
d Indefinite use of they, it, and you 197(1)
e who for persons, which or that for things 198(1)
24 Distinguish between pronouns such as/and me 199(5)
a Subjective case for subjects and subject 200(1)
complements
b Objective case for objects 200(1)
c Appositives 201(1)
d Pronoun following than or as 201(1)
e Subjects and objects of infinitives 202(1)
f Pronoun modifying a gerund 202(2)
25 Distinguish between who and whom 204(2)
a In subordinate clauses 204(1)
b In questions 205(1)
c As subjects or objects of infinitives 205(1)
26 Choose adjectives and adverbs with care 206(6)
a Adjectives to modify nouns 207(1)
b Adverbs to modify verbs, adjectives, and 208(1)
other adverbs
c good and well, bad and badly 209(1)
d Comparatives and superlatives 210(1)
e Double negatives 211(1)
27 Choose appropriate verb forms, tenses, and 212(17)
moods in Standard English
a Irregular verbs 213(4)
b lie and lay 217(1)
c -s (or-es) endings 218(2)
d -ed endings 220(1)
e Omitted verbs 221(1)
f Verb tense 222(4)
g Subjunctive mood 226(3)
Multilingual Writers And ESL Topics 229(38)
28 Verbs 230(14)
a Appropriate form and tense 230(3)
b Passive voice 233(2)
c Base form after a modal 235(3)
d Negative verb forms 238(1)
e Verbs in conditional sentences 238(3)
f Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives 241(3)
29 Articles (a, an, the) 244(9)
a Articles and other noun markers 244(1)
b When to use the 245(3)
c When to use a or an 248(2)
d When not to use a or an 250(1)
e No articles with general nouns 251(1)
f Articles with proper nouns 251(2)
30 Sentence structure 253(9)
a Linking verb between a subject and its 254(1)
complement
b A subject in every sentence 254(1)
c Repeated nouns or pronouns with the same 255(1)
grammatical function
d Repeated subjects, objects, and adverbs 256(1)
in adjective clauses
e Mixed constructions with although or 257(1)
because
f Placement of adverbs 258(1)
g Present participles and past participles 259(1)
as adjectives
h Order of cumulative adjectives 260(2)
31 Prepositions and idiomatic expressions 262(5)
a Prepositions showing time and place 262(1)
b Noun (including-ing form) after a 263(1)
preposition
c Common adjective + preposition 264(1)
combinations
d Common verb + preposition combinations 264(3)
Punctuation 267(42)
32 The comma 268(13)
a Independent clauses joined with and, but, 268(1)
etc
b Introductory elements 269(2)
c Items in a series 271(1)
d Coordinate adjectives 271(2)
e Nonrestrictive and restrictive elements 273(3)
f Transitional expressions and other word 276(2)
groups
g Direct address, yes and no, interrogative 278(1)
tags, interjections
h he said etc 278(1)
i Dates, addresses, titles, numbers 279(2)
33 Unnecessary commas 281(5)
a Between two words, phrases, or 281(1)
subordinate clauses
b Between a verb and its subject or object 282(1)
c Before the first or after the last item 282(1)
in a series
d Between cumulative adjectives, an 282(1)
adjective and a noun, or an adverb and an
adjective
e Before and after restrictive or 283(1)
parenthetical elements
f Before essential concluding adverbial 283(1)
elements
g After a phrase beginning an inverted 284(1)
sentence
h Other misuses 284(2)
34 The semicolon 286(4)
a Between independent clauses not joined 286(1)
with a coordinating conjunction
b Between independent clauses linked with a 286(1)
transitional expression
c In a series containing internal 287(1)
punctuation
d Misuses 288(2)
35 The colon 290(2)
a Before a list, an appositive, or a 290(1)
quotation
b Conventional uses 290(1)
c Misuses 291(1)
36 The apostrophe 292(4)
a Possessive nouns 292(1)
b Possessive indefinite pronouns 293(1)
c Contractions 293(1)
d Not for plural numbers, letters, 293(2)
abbreviations, words as words
e Misuses 295(1)
37 Quotation marks 296(6)
a Direct quotations 296(1)
b Quotation within a quotation 297(1)
c Titles of short works 298(1)
d Words as words 298(1)
e With other punctuation marks 298(3)
f Misuses 301(1)
38 End punctuation 302(2)
a The period 302(1)
b The question mark 303(1)
c The exclamation point 303(1)
39 Other punctuation marks 304(5)
a The dash 304(1)
b Parentheses 305(1)
c Brackets 306(1)
d The ellipsis mark 306(1)
e The slash 307(2)
Mechanics 309(20)
40 Abbreviations 310(3)
a Titles with proper names 310(1)
b Familiar abbreviations 310(1)
c Conventional abbreviations 311(1)
d Units of measurement 311(1)
e Latin abbreviations 312(1)
f Plural of abbreviations 312(1)
g Misuses 312(1)
41 Numbers 313(2)
a Spelling out 313(1)
b Using numerals 314(1)
42 Italics 315(2)
a Titles of works 315(1)
b Names of ships, spacecraft, and aircraft 316(1)
c Foreign words 316(1)
d Words as words, letters as letters, 316(1)
numbers as numbers
43 Spelling 317(5)
a Spelling rules 317(3)
b Words that sound alike 320(1)
c Commonly misspelled words 320(2)
44 The hyphen 322(2)
a Compound words 322(1)
b Hyphenated adjectives 322(1)
c Fractions and compound numbers 323(1)
d With certain prefixes and suffixes 323(1)
e To avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward 323(1)
double or triple letters
f Word division 323(1)
45 Capitalization 324(5)
a Proper vs. common nouns 324(2)
b Titles with proper names 326(1)
c Titles and subtitles of works 326(1)
d First word of a sentence 327(1)
e First word of a quoted sentence 327(1)
f First word after a colon 327(2)
Grammar Basics 329(28)
46 Parts of speech 330(9)
a Nouns 330(1)
b Pronouns 331(2)
c Verbs 333(2)
d Adjectives 335(1)
e Adverbs 336(1)
f Prepositions 336(1)
g Conjunctions 337(1)
h Interjections 338(1)
47 Sentence patterns 339(5)
a Subjects 339(2)
b Verbs, objects, and complements 341(3)
48 Subordinate word groups 344(8)
a Prepositional phrases 345(1)
b Verbal phrases 346(3)
c Appositive phrases 349(1)
d Absolute phrases 349(1)
e Subordinate clauses 349(3)
49 Sentence types 352(5)
a Sentence structures 353(1)
b Sentence purposes 354(3)
Research 357(34)
50 Thinking like a researcher; gathering 358(12)
sources
a Manage the project 358(2)
b Pose questions worth exploring 360(1)
How to enter a research conversation 361(2)
c Map out a search strategy 363(1)
d Search efficiently; master a few 364(1)
shortcuts to finding good sources
How to go beyond a Google search 365(3)
e Conduct field research, if appropriate 368(1)
f Write a research proposal 369(1)
51 Managing information; taking notes 370(7)
responsibly
a Maintain a working bibliography 370(2)
b Keep track of source materials 372(1)
c Take notes carefully to avoid 372(1)
unintentional plagiarism
How to take notes responsibly 373(3)
How to avoid plagiarizing from the web 376(1)
52 Evaluating sources 377(14)
a Think about how sources might contribute 377(1)
to your writing
b Select sources worth your time and 378(3)
attention
c Read with an open mind and a critical eye 381(1)
How to detect fake news and misleading 382(4)
sources
d Construct an annotated bibliography 386(3)
Writing guide: Annotated bibliography 389(2)
Writing Papers In MLA Style 391(86)
53 Supporting a thesis 392(5)
a Form a working thesis 392(1)
b Organize your ideas 393(1)
c Draft an introduction for your thesis 394(1)
d Use sources to inform and support your 395(2)
argument
54 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism 397(6)
a Understand how the MLA system works 398(1)
b Understand what plagiarism is 399(1)
c Use quotation marks around borrowed 399(1)
language
d Put summaries and paraphrases in your own 400(2)
words
How to be a responsible research writer 402(1)
55 Integrating sources 403(15)
a Summarize and paraphrase effectively 403(1)
b Use quotations effectively 404(1)
How to paraphrase effectively 405(3)
c Use signal phrases to integrate sources 408(6)
d Synthesize sources 414(4)
56 Documenting sources in MLA style 418(46)
a MLA in-text citations 420(9)
b MLA list of works cited 429(34)
c MLA information notes 463(1)
57 MLA format; sample research paper 464(13)
a MLA format 464(3)
b Sample MLA research paper 467(10)
Writing Papers In APA Style 477(77)
58 Supporting a thesis 478(3)
a Form a working thesis 478(1)
b Organize your ideas 479(1)
c Use sources to inform and support your 479(2)
argument
59 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism 481(4)
a Understand how the APA system works 482(1)
b Understand what plagiarism is 482(1)
c Use quotation marks around borrowed 483(1)
language
d Put summaries and paraphrases in your own 483(2)
words
60 Integrating sources 485(8)
a Summarize and paraphrase effectively 485(1)
b Use quotations effectively 486(2)
c Use signal phrases to integrate sources 488(3)
d Synthesize sources 491(2)
61 Documenting sources in APA style 493(31)
a APA in-text citations 496(5)
b APA list of references 501(23)
62 APA format; sample research paper 524(30)
a APA format 524(5)
b Sample APA research paper 529(25)
Appendixes 554(25)
Models of professional writing 545(5)
Glossary of usage 550(14)
Answers to lettered exercises 564(15)
Index 579