英語会話の韻律パターン<br>Prosodic Patterns of English Conversation

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英語会話の韻律パターン
Prosodic Patterns of English Conversation

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 253 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9781316633618
  • DDC分類 421.6

Full Description


Language is more than wordspatterns that we use, subconsciously, to frame meanings and achieve our goals in our interaction with others. Here, Nigel G. Ward explains how we do this, going beyond intonation to show how pitch, timing, intensity and voicing properties combine to form meaningful temporal configurations: prosodic constructions. Bringing together new findings and hitherto-scattered observations from phonetic and pragmatic studies, this book describes over twenty common prosodic patterns in English conversation. Using examples from real conversations, it illustrates how prosodic constructions serve essential functions such as inviting, showing approval, taking turns, organizing ideas, reaching agreement, and evoking action. Prosody helps us establish rapport and nurture relationships, but subtle differences in prosody across languages and subcultures can be damagingly misunderstood. The findings presented here will enable both native speakers of English and learners to listen more sensitively and communicate more effectively.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            ix
1 Introduction 1 (4)
2 Bookended Narrow Pitch Regions 5 (20)
2.1 Marking Contrast 5 (2)
2.2 Stronger and Weaker Forms 7 (2)
2.3 The Narrow Pitch Region and the 9 (3)
Bookends
2.4 Uses in Contradictions 12 (2)
2.5 Other Meanings 14 (3)
2.6 The Core Meaning: Consider This 17 (3)
2.7 A Family of Constructions 20 (1)
2.8 Prosodic Bandwidth and Cultural Values 21 (2)
2.9 Summary 23 (2)
3 Downstep Constructions 25 (21)
3.1 Two Long, Flat, Downstepped Syllables 25 (1)
3.2 The Core Meaning: Cueing Action 26 (3)
3.3 Conditions and Contexts of Use 29 (3)
3.4 Stronger, Weaker, and Mangled Forms 32 (2)
3.5 A Configuration of Fifteen Prosodic 34 (6)
Properties
3.6 Another Downstep Construction 40 (2)
3.7 Language Learning and Socialization 42 (2)
3.8 Cueing and Apologizing across Cultures 44 (1)
3.9 Summary 45 (1)
4 Creaky Voice and Its Functions 46 (16)
4.1 Pitch and the Glottis 46 (2)
4.2 The Production and Perception of 48 (2)
Creaky Voice
4.3 General Uses of Creaky Voice 50 (2)
4.4 Conflicting Judgments 52 (1)
4.5 Paralinguistic versus Linguistic 53 (4)
Communication
4.6 The Primordial Roots of Prosodic 57 (1)
Meanings
4.7 Minor Constructions 57 (3)
4.8 Summary 60 (2)
5 Perspectives on Prosody 62 (13)
5.1 The Historical Roots of Prosodic 62 (2)
Descriptions
5.2 From Prescriptive to Descriptive 64 (1)
5.3 From Grammar to Functions 65 (1)
5.4 From Monologue to Dialog 66 (1)
5.5 From Intonation to Prosody 67 (2)
5.6 From Symbolic to Quantitative 69 (3)
5.7 Teaching Prosody: Techniques and 72 (1)
Trends
5.8 Implications 73 (2)
6 Late Pitch Peak and Its Functions 75 (21)
6.1 Pitch and Intensity Alignment and 75 (3)
Disalignment
6.2 Making Suggestions 78 (1)
6.3 Offering, Inviting, Requesting, and 79 (4)
Threatening
6.4 Grounding 83 (1)
6.5 Reaching Agreement 84 (1)
6.6 Imagining and Reminiscing 85 (2)
6.7 Assessing and Judging 87 (1)
6.8 A Digression on Sarcasm 87 (2)
6.9 A Systematic Survey 89 (2)
6.10 A Family of Meanings and a Possible 91 (2)
Core
6.11 Distinguishing among the Meanings 93 (1)
6.12 Late Peaks in Other Languages 94 (2)
7 Expressing Positive Assessments 96 (6)
7.1 The Positive Assessment Construction 96 (2)
7.2 Uses in Conversation 98 (2)
7.3 Considerations of Culture 100(1)
7.4 Significance 100(2)
8 Superposition 102(7)
8.1 Examples with Downsteps 102(2)
8.2 Another Minor Construction: I'm Good 104(1)
8.3 Examples with Bookended Narrow Pitch 105(2)
8.4 Implications 107(2)
9 A Big-Data Approach 109(20)
9.1 A Parable 109(4)
9.2 Principal Component Analysis 113(1)
9.3 A Case Study 114(5)
9.4 PC A and Prosodic Constructions 119(1)
9.5 A Couple-Hundred Prosodic Features 120(6)
9.6 Data Selection 126(1)
9.7 Summary 127(2)
10 From Patterns to Meanings 129(13)
10.1 The Minor Third Construction, 129(3)
Revisited
10.2 Attributing Meanings to Patterns 132(3)
10.3 Three Patterns Revisited 135(4)
10.4 Disentangling Declination 139(2)
10.5 Implications 141(1)
11 Turn-Taking Constructions 142(28)
11.1 The Basic Turn-Switch Construction 142(3)
11.2 Fast, Slow, and Disrupted Turn-Taking 145(1)
11.3 Delayed Turn Starts 146(2)
11.4 Particle-Assisted Turn-Switches 148(2)
11.5 Turn Metaphors and Myths 150(4)
11.6 Overlap 154(2)
11.7 Turn Holding with Lengthening 156(3)
11.8 Pausing without Yielding 159(1)
11.9 Turn Holding with Rhythm 160(2)
11.10 Backchanneling 162(4)
11.11 Multiparty and Regulated Turn-Taking 166(1)
11.12 Polite Turn-Taking across Cultures 167(1)
11.13 Summary 168(2)
12 Topic Management Constructions 170(10)
12.1 Topic Closing 170(2)
12.2 Topic Starting and Continuation 172(1)
12.3 Topic Development 173(2)
12.4 Digressions 175(1)
12.5 Interpolated, Meta-, and 176(4)
High-Priority Utterances
13 Stance-Related Constructions 180(9)
13.1 Seeking Empathy and Agreement 180(3)
13.2 Expressing Independence and 183(2)
Indifference
13.3 Appealing to Shared Knowledge with 185(1)
Nasal Voice
13.4 Explaining 186(3)
14 The Rest of English Prosody 189(4)
14.1 Other Functions 189(1)
14.2 Fluency and Self-Presentation 190(1)
14.3 Individual Variation in Prosodic 191(2)
Skills
15 Envoi 193(6)
15.1 Summary 193(1)
15.2 The Advantages of Imperfect 194(2)
Understanding
15.3 Dialog Prosody for Fun and Profit 196(3)
Notes 199(16)
Bibliography 215(27)
Author Index 242(5)
Subject Index 247