21世紀米国の公共政策(第3版)<br>Public Policy in the United States : At the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century (3TH)

21世紀米国の公共政策(第3版)
Public Policy in the United States : At the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century (3TH)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 524 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780765606471
  • DDC分類 320.60973

基本説明

Each chapter includes a case study of a major policy issue (e.g., the 1996 welfare reform; school choice), as well as a list of key concepts and questions.

Table of Contents

        List of Tables                             xii
List of Figures xiv
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xviii
Process, Structure, and Ideology 3 (50)
The Policy Process 5 (22)
Problem Identification 6 (2)
Agenda Building 8 (4)
Policy Formulation 12 (3)
Policy Adoption 15 (4)
Budgeting 19 (2)
Implementation 21 (3)
Evaluation 24 (1)
Policy Succession 25 (2)
Characteristics of the American Political 27 (14)
System
Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances 27 (2)
Federalism 29 (3)
Pluralism, Elitism, and the Policy Elite 32 (3)
Fragmentation 35 (2)
Incrementalism 37 (1)
Public Opinion, the Media, and Trust 38 (3)
Is Government a Failure? 41 (1)
Ideology: From Value Positions to Issue 42 (4)
Positions
Key Concepts 46 (3)
Reflections 49 (1)
Notes 50 (3)
Economic Policy: To Promote the General 53 (68)
Welfare
Problem Identification 55 (8)
The Economic Policy Toolbox 55 (8)
How Have We Done? 63 (4)
1947 to 1960 64 (2)
1961 to 1968 66 (1)
Agenda Building and Economic Policy 67 (9)
1969 to 1980 67 (2)
The Policies Stream: Supply-Side Economics 69 (2)
Adoption 71 (2)
1981 to 1992 73 (2)
1993 to Present 75 (1)
Comparing the Decades 76 (1)
Policy Issues 76 (15)
From Budget Deficit to Budget Surplus 76 (9)
The Surplus Appears 85 (1)
Budget Surplus Policy Making 86 (5)
Economic Inequality 91 (5)
Globalization and International Trade 96 (4)
Problems with Globalization 99 (1)
The Bottom Line 99 (1)
Case Study: Social Security in Crisis? 100 (14)
Background 100 (2)
Social Security in the Twenty-first 102 (1)
Century
Problem Identification 103 (2)
Defending Social Security 105 (3)
Policy Proposals 108 (5)
Evaluating the Proposals 113 (1)
Conclusion 114 (1)
Key Concepts 115 (1)
Reflections 116 (1)
Notes 117 (4)
Foreign and Defense Policy: To Provide for 121 (48)
the Common Defense
Problem Identification 123 (3)
Goals of American Foreign Policy 123 (1)
Tools of American Foreign Policy 123 (3)
Formulation, Adoption, and Implementation: 126 (5)
Changing Direction
Postwar Priorities 126 (1)
Changes in Europe 126 (2)
The Persian Gulf War 128 (2)
A New World Order? 130 (1)
Problem Identification: Current Foreign 131 (7)
Policy Issues
Resolving an Identity Crisis 131 (6)
Europe 137 (1)
Case Study: The New World Order and the 138 (5)
Balkans
Bosnia 139 (1)
Kosovo 140 (2)
Lessons Learned? 142 (1)
The Middle East 143 (3)
Asia 146 (3)
Africa 149 (3)
Problem Identification: National Defense 152 (6)
Case Study: Missile Defense 158 (4)
Controversy over Missile Defense 161 (1)
Conclusion 162 (3)
Key Concepts 165 (1)
Reflections 166 (1)
Notes 166 (3)
Poverty and Welfare: The Poor Ye Always Have 169 (39)
with You?
Problem Identification 170 (2)
Policy Goals 170 (1)
Policy Solutions 171 (1)
Defining Poverty 171 (1)
Who Are the Poor? 172 (2)
Formulation, Adoption, and Implementation: 174 (13)
Antipoverty Strategies
Punitive Strategy: The Poor Laws 174 (1)
Preventive Strategies: Social Insurance 175 (2)
Alleviative Strategy: Welfare 177 (2)
Evaluation: Comparing the Preventive and 179 (2)
Alleviative Strategies
Curative Strategy: The War on Poverty 181 (1)
Political Strategy: The Community Action 182 (1)
Program
Incomes Strategy: The Negative Income Tax 182 (1)
The Return of the Punitive Strategy: The 183 (3)
Reagan Administration
Evaluation of the Reagan Program 186 (1)
The Family Support Act of 1988 187 (1)
Case Study: The End of Welfare as We Know It 187 (16)
Problem Identification and Agenda Building 187 (5)
Policy Formulation and Adoption 192 (2)
Provisions of PRWORA 194 (3)
Implementation of Welfare Reform 197 (3)
Evaluation 200 (3)
Conclusion 203 (1)
Key Concepts 204 (1)
Reflections 205 (1)
Notes 206 (2)
Health Policy: The Problems of Cost and Access 208 (42)
Problem Identification 209 (2)
Policy Goals 209 (1)
Policy Tools 210 (1)
Medical Care in the United States 211 (1)
The Federal Role in Medical Care 212 (2)
Capacity Development 212 (1)
Expanding Financial Access 213 (1)
Cost Control 214 (1)
Medicare 214 (3)
Medicaid 217 (1)
Formulation, Adoption, and Implementation: 218 (8)
Cost Control
Regulatory Response 220 (1)
Utilization Review 221 (5)
Policy Succession 226 (2)
Problem Identification 228 (3)
The Uninsured 228 (3)
Long-Term Care and an Aging Population 231 (4)
Reforming Medicare 235 (7)
Prescription Drug Benefit 235 (3)
Reforming Medicare 238 (4)
Case Study: Managed Care---Revolution and 242 (4)
Reaction
Problem Identification 242 (2)
Agenda Building 244 (1)
Policy Formulation 245 (1)
Policy Adoption 245 (1)
Conclusion 246 (1)
Key Concepts 247 (1)
Reflections 248 (1)
Notes 249 (1)
Environmental Policy: Challenges and 250 (44)
Opportunities
Problem Identification 251 (5)
Policy Goals 251 (1)
Policy Tools 252 (2)
Regulatory Strategy 254 (1)
Market Reform 255 (1)
Adoption and Implementation 256 (7)
The Rise of the Environmental Movement 256 (3)
The Environmental Decade 259 (1)
Evaluation 260 (3)
Policy Succession: The Reagan, Bush, and 263 (6)
Clinton Administrations
The Reagan Administration 263 (3)
The Bush Administration 266 (2)
The Clinton Administration 268 (1)
Environmental Issues 269 (9)
Acid Deposition 269 (2)
Ozone Depletion 271 (2)
Hazardous Wastes 273 (2)
Risk Control Policy 275 (3)
Case Study: Global Climate Warming 278 (5)
Problem Identification and Agenda Building 278 (3)
Policy Formulation 281 (1)
Policy Adoption 281 (2)
Challenges 283 (6)
The Conservative Challenge 284 (3)
The Liberal Challenge 287 (1)
Environmental Moderation 288 (1)
Conclusion: Opportunities 289 (2)
Key Concepts 291 (1)
Reflections 292 (1)
Notes 293 (1)
Criminal Justice: To Ensure Domestic 294 (56)
Tranquility
Problem Identification 296 (11)
Policy Goals 296 (1)
Policy Tools 297 (1)
A Statistical Portrait of Crime 297 (7)
Ideological Perspectives 304 (1)
The Federal Government's Role in Criminal 305 (1)
Justice
Local Governments and the Problem of 306 (1)
Fragmentation
Evaluating Criminal Justice Policy: Why Has 307 (5)
the Crime Rate Dropped?
Imprisonment 307 (2)
The Drug Cycle 309 (1)
Was It the Police? 310 (1)
It's the Economy, Stupid! 311 (1)
Demography 311 (1)
Abortion and Crime 312 (1)
Criminal Justice Issues 312 (18)
Guns 312 (9)
Crime and Equality 321 (4)
The New Debate over the Death Penalty 325 (5)
Case Study: The War over the War on Drugs 330 (13)
Problem Identification and Agenda Building 331 (3)
Policy Formulation 334 (3)
Adoption and Budgeting 337 (1)
Evaluation 338 (1)
Policy Succession: Legalizing Drugs? 339 (4)
Conclusion: Solutions to the Crime Problem? 343 (3)
Key Concepts 346 (1)
Reflections 347 (1)
Notes 347 (3)
Education: The Promise of America 350 (56)
Problem Identification 351 (5)
Policy Goals 351 (1)
Policy Tools 352 (1)
Education and Government 352 (2)
Private Schools 354 (2)
How Have We Done? 356 (10)
The Educational Achievement Gap 358 (5)
Public- Versus Private-School Student 363 (1)
Achievement
International Comparisons 363 (3)
Agenda Building and Policy Adoption 366 (9)
The Policy Stream 366 (3)
The Politics Stream 369 (1)
Adoption 370 (2)
Implementation 372 (1)
Evaluation 372 (3)
Equality and Education Policy 375 (5)
Desegregating the Schools 375 (3)
Evaluating the Impact of Desegregation 378 (2)
Efforts
The Federal Government and Educational 380 (3)
Reform
Case Study: The Question of Choice 383 (16)
Arguments for Choice 383 (1)
Public- and Private-School Achievement 384 (3)
Compared
Arguments Against Choice 387 (3)
The Experience with Choice 390 (5)
Vouchers from an Equality Perspective 395 (1)
Alternatives to Vouchers 395 (1)
Vouchers and Initiative Elections 396 (1)
Charter Schools 397 (2)
Conclusion 399 (3)
Key Concepts 402 (1)
Reflections 403 (1)
Notes 403 (3)
Equality: The Second American Revolution 406 (37)
Problem Identification: Equality Defined 408 (1)
Political Equality 408 (5)
Equality of Opportunity 413 (2)
Equality of Outcome 415 (1)
A Statistical Portrait of America: Now and 416 (5)
in the Future
The Civil Rights Movement 421 (2)
Narrowing the Gap 423 (1)
Race Relations as a Wedge Issue 424 (2)
Attitudes About Race 426 (3)
Case Study: Affirmative Action 429 (9)
Policy Adoption 429 (1)
Arguments in Favor of Affirmative Action 430 (1)
Arguments Against Affirmative Action 431 (2)
Impact of Affirmative Action 433 (1)
Moving Away from Affirmative Action 434 (3)
Policy Alternatives 437 (1)
Conclusion 438 (1)
Key Concepts 439 (1)
Reflections 440 (1)
Notes 441 (2)
At the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century 443 (12)
Themes 444 (1)
The Government Issue 444 (1)
Federalism 445 (1)
Public Opinion 445 (1)
Divided Government 446 (1)
Challenges and Opportunities 447 (5)
The Economy 447 (1)
Foreign and Defense Policy 448 (1)
Welfare and Poverty Policy 449 (1)
Health Policy 449 (1)
Environmental Policy 450 (1)
Criminal Justice 451 (1)
Education 451 (1)
Equality 452 (1)
Some Concluding Thoughts 452 (2)
Reflections 454 (1)
Notes 454 (1)
References 455 (52)
Index 507