誤審:本質、起源と解決策<br>Errors of Justice : Nature, Sources, and Remedies (Cambridge Studies in Criminology)

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誤審:本質、起源と解決策
Errors of Justice : Nature, Sources, and Remedies (Cambridge Studies in Criminology)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 254 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521821308
  • DDC分類 364.973

基本説明

Covers the error of failing to bring offenders to justice as well as the errors of imposing costs on innocent people and excessive costs on offenders.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xiii
Acknowledgments xv
1 The Problem 1 (9)
Introduction 1 (2)
What Is an Error of Justice? 3 (4)
Aim and Overview of the Book 7 (3)
2 Errors of Due Process 10 (12)
Introduction 10 (1)
What Is Due Process? 11 (2)
Landmark Due Process Cases 13 (3)
The Sources of Due Process Errors and Their 16 (3)
Social Significance
Managing Due Process Errors 19 (2)
Conclusion 21 (1)
3 Errors of Impunity 22 (9)
Introduction 22 (1)
What Is an Error of Impunity? 23 (1)
The Sources and Consequences of Errors of 23 (4)
Impunity
Managing Errors of Impunity 27 (3)
Conclusion 30 (1)
4 Frameworks for Analyzing the Incidence of 31 (14)
Justice Errors
Introduction 31 (1)
Managing Errors of Statistical Inference: The 32 (4)
Problem of Reliability
Managing Errors of Statistical Inference: The 36 (4)
Problem of Validity
Parallels between Errors of Statistical 40 (1)
Inference and Errors of Justice
Managing Errors in Production and Service 41 (2)
Delivery Processes
Conclusion 43 (2)
5 Assessing the Cost of Justice Errors 45 (12)
Introduction 45 (1)
What Are the Social Costs of Crime and 46 (2)
Justice?
Difficulties in Assessing the Social Costs of 48 (4)
Crime and Justice
Optimal Levels of Interventions Against Crime 52 (2)
Initial Estimates 54 (1)
Conclusion 55 (2)
6 Standards of Evidence 57 (9)
Introduction 57 (1)
Varying the Parameters 58 (6)
Conclusion 64 (2)
7 Police-Induced Errors 66 (46)
Introduction 66 (1)
Making Sense of Policing Errors 67 (2)
Nature and Sources of Justice Errors 69 (23)
Associated with the Police
Managing Justice Errors Attributable to the 92 (14)
Police
Balancing Error Management with Other 106 (3)
Policing Goals
Conclusion 109 (3)
8 Prosecution Policy and Justice Errors 112 (22)
Introduction 112 (2)
Prosecutorial Discretion and Errors of Justice 114 (2)
Improved Coordination with Police 116 (2)
Errors of Fact, Questions of Culpability, and 118 (2)
Tactical Errors
Should the Prosecutor Emphasize Conviction 120 (2)
Quality or Quantity?
Analyzing Data on Prosecution under a Range 122 (5)
of Assumptions about Factual Guilt
Analysis by Crime Category 127 (4)
Conclusion 131 (3)
9 The Jury 134 (16)
Introduction 134 (2)
Jury Policy, Representativeness, and Justice 136 (4)
Errors
How Many Jurors? Must Their Decision be 140 (5)
Unanimous?
Jury Dynamics 145 (4)
Conclusion 149 (1)
10 Sentencing and Corrections 150 (34)
Introduction 150 (2)
Optimum Sanctions under Alternative Frameworks 152 (20)
Sources of Excessive Social Costs in 172 (1)
Sentencing
Who Might Cause Sentences to be Outside the 173 (3)
Norm?
Should Sanctions be Based on Predictions? 176 (2)
Errors in Corrections 178 (2)
The Critical Role of Incentives and Systems 180 (2)
of Accountability
Conclusion 182 (2)
11 Homicide 184 (28)
Introduction 184 (1)
Basics about Homicide: Opportunities for 185 (5)
Error in Classification
Failures to Bring Homicide Offenders to 190 (7)
Justice
Excessive Intrusions in Homicide Cases 197 (2)
The Death Penalty 199 (4)
Remedies and Impediments to the Management of 203 (7)
Errors in Homicide Cases
Conclusion 210 (2)
12 A Matter of Legitimacy 212 (9)
Introduction 212 (1)
What Is Legitimacy? 213 (2)
Operationalizing the Notion of Legitimacy 215 (2)
Conclusion 217 (4)
Bibliography 221 (22)
Index 243