Dynamic Sun

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Dynamic Sun

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 443 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521810579
  • DDC分類 523.7

基本説明

New in paperback. Hardcover was published in 2003. Presents a comprehensive and authoritative overview of the Sun, from its deep core to the outer corona, and the solar wind.

Full Description


Dynamic Sun presents a comprehensive and authoritative overview of the Sun, from its deep core to the outer corona, and the solar wind. Each chapter is written by leading scientists in solar physics. Chapters deal with solar models and neutrinos, seismic Sun, rotation of the solar interior, helioseismic tomography, solar dynamo, spectro-polarimetry, solar photosphere and convection, dynamics and heating of the solar chromosphere, solar transition region, solar MHD, solar activity, particle acceleration, radio observations of explosive energy releases on the Sun, coronal seismology, coronal heating, VUV solar plasma diagnostics and the solar wind. Solar observing facilities are presented in the last chapter. With an introduction by eminent astrophysicist Eugene Parker, the twenty chapters of this book are all fully illustrated and have comprehensive reference lists. The book covers all major topics in solar physics, and is suitable for graduate students and researchers in solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy.

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           xv
E.N. Parker
Dynamic Sun: an introduction 1 (7)
B.N. Dwivedi
Introduction 1 (1)
Main contents 2 (5)
Concluding remarks 7 (1)
Solar models: structure, neutrinos and 8 (28)
helioseismological properties
J.N. Bahcall
S. Basu
M.H. Pinsonneault
Introduction 8 (1)
Standard solar model 9 (2)
Variant and deviant solar models 11 (3)
Neutrino physics 14 (10)
Standard model 16 (2)
Calculated uncertainties 18 (2)
NACRE charged particle fusion rates 20 (1)
Variant and deviant models 21 (1)
The electron number density 21 (3)
Sound speeds 24 (5)
Discussion and summary 29 (7)
Standard solar model: current epoch 29 (1)
Neutrino fluxes and related quantities 29 (2)
Sound speeds 31 (1)
References 32 (4)
Seismic Sun 36 (19)
S.M. Chitre
H.M. Antia
Introduction 36 (1)
Structure equations and the Standard 37 (2)
Solar Model
Seismology of the Sun 39 (2)
Inferences about the solar structure 41 (14)
References 52 (3)
Rotation of the solar interior 55 (23)
J. Christensen-Dalsgaard
M.J. Thompson
Introduction 55 (2)
Helioseismic probes of the solar interior 57 (7)
Rotational effects on the oscillation 59 (1)
frequencies
Data on rotational splitting 60 (3)
Inversion for solar internal rotation 63 (1)
The solar internal rotation 64 (7)
Rotation of the solar convection zone 66 (2)
The tachocline 68 (2)
The radiative interior 70 (1)
Modelling solar rotation 71 (2)
Final remarks 73 (5)
References 74 (4)
Helioseismic tomography 78 (25)
A.G. Kosovichev
Introduction 78 (1)
Method of helioseismic tomography 79 (5)
The ray approximation 84 (1)
The Born approximation 85 (2)
Inversion methods 87 (1)
Diagnostics of supergranulation 88 (2)
Large-scale flows 90 (1)
Meridional circulation 91 (1)
Emerging active regions 91 (2)
Structure and dynamics of sunspots 93 (4)
Imaging the far side of the Sun 97 (2)
Conclusion 99 (4)
References 100(3)
The solar dynamo as a model of the solar 103(25)
cycle
A.R. Choudhuri
Introduction 103(1)
Relevant observations 104(4)
Some basic MHD considerations 108(2)
The turbulent dynamo and mean field MHD 110(4)
Dynamo in the overshoot layer? 114(3)
The Babcock-Leighton approach and 117(4)
advective dynamo models
Miscellaneous ill-understood issues 121(2)
Conclusion 123(5)
References 124(4)
Spectro-polarimetry 128(20)
J.O. Stenflo
Remote sensing of the Sun's magnetic 128(2)
field: an introduction
Observational techniques and their 130(3)
limitations
Zeeman-effect diagnostics 133(5)
The Hanle effect 138(4)
Optical pumping 142(4)
Concluding remarks 146(2)
References 146(2)
Solar photosphere and convection 148(17)
A. Nordlund
Introduction 148(2)
Dynamic and thermal properties of the 150(2)
solar photosphere
Spectral line synthesis 152(4)
P-mode diagnostics 156(3)
Large scale velocity fields 159(3)
Consequences for coronal and 162(1)
chromospheric heating
Concluding remarks 162(3)
References 163(2)
The dynamics of the quiet solar chromosphere 165(16)
W. Kalkofen
S.S. Hasan
P. Ulmschneider
Introduction 165(1)
Oscillations in the nonmagnetic 166(6)
chromosphere
Oscillations in the magnetic network 172(9)
References 178(3)
Heating of the solar chromosphere 181(15)
P. Ulmschneider
W. Kalkofen
Introduction 181(1)
Empirical chromosphere models 182(2)
Energy balance and the necessity of 184(3)
mechanical heating
Overview of the heating mechanisms 187(1)
Search for the important heating 188(5)
mechanisms
Summary and outlook 193(3)
References 195(1)
The solar transition region 196(21)
O. Kjeldseth-Moe
Introduction 196(1)
Emission from the transition region plasma 197(3)
The emitted intensity 197(1)
Underlying approximations and concepts 198(2)
Constant conductive flux and the thin 200(1)
transition region
The extended transition region 201(4)
Excess emission at temperatures below 201(1)
105 K
The EUV flash spectrum: direct 202(1)
observation of an inhomogeneous
transition region
A transition region structured by the 202(1)
magnetic field
Spicules and the transition region 202(1)
An extremely fine structured transition 203(1)
region?
Unresolved fine structures 204(1)
Unresolved dynamic evolution? 205(1)
The redshifted transition region 205(3)
Line shifts in the transition region 205(1)
Red- or blueshifts from siphon flows 206(1)
and spicules?
Red shifts as signatures of downward 207(1)
propagating waves
The dynamic and time dependent transition 208(4)
region
Morphology of transition region loops 208(1)
Velocities in transition region loops 209(1)
Rapid time changes in the emission 210(2)
Conclusion -- a new concept for the 212(5)
transition region
References 214(3)
Solar Magnetohydrodynamics 217(21)
E.R. Priest
Introduction 217(2)
Magnetohydrodynamic equations 219(5)
Flux tubes 219(1)
Basic equations 219(1)
Induction equations 220(3)
The Lorentz force 223(1)
Magnetohydrostatics 224(5)
Introduction 224(1)
Potential fields 225(1)
Force-free fields 226(2)
Magnetic flux tubes 228(1)
Magnetohydrodynamic waves 229(8)
Sound waves 229(2)
Alfven waves 231(1)
Compressional Alfven waves 232(1)
Magnetoacoustic waves 233(1)
Shock waves 233(4)
Concluding comment 237(1)
References 237(1)
Solar activity 238(24)
Z. Svestka
Solar cycles 238(2)
Active regions 240(3)
Complexes of activity and interconnecting 243(1)
loops
Surges, jets, and sprays 244(1)
Solar flares 245(4)
Coronal mass ejections and coronal storms 249(3)
Relation between CMEs and flares 252(3)
Other sources of CMEs 255(1)
Causes of instabilities 255(1)
Accelerated particles 256(1)
Impacts of solar activity at the Earth 257(5)
References 259(3)
Particle acceleration 262(26)
A.G. Emslie
J.A. Miller
Introduction 262(1)
Observational constraints 263(3)
Electrons 264(2)
Ions 266(1)
Direct electric field acceleration 266(5)
Stochastic acceleration 271(14)
The cascading turbulence model 276(2)
Baseline case 278(7)
Conclusions 285(3)
References 285(3)
Radio observations of explosive energy 288(26)
releases on the Sun
M.R. Kundu
S.M. White
Introduction 288(1)
Flare studies 289(10)
Millimeter flare emission: comparison 289(2)
with microwave and hard X-rays/gamma
rays
Time profiles of millimeter bursts 291(2)
Observations of millimeter and 293(1)
microwave bursts
Simple spiky bursts in microwaves 293(1)
Microwave and hard X-ray observations 294(1)
of footpoint- emission from flaring
loops
Double loop configuration of flaring 295(2)
regions
Modeling of microwave flares 297(2)
Small scale energy releases on the Sun 299(11)
XBP flares 300(1)
Metric type III burst emission from an 300(1)
XBP flare in a coronal hole
Microwave observations of XBP flares 301(2)
Radio observations of coronal X-ray jets 303(1)
Meterwave observations of jets 303(2)
A statistical study of jets in 305(1)
microwaves
Active region transient brightenings 305(1)
(ARTB's)
Radio (VLA) observations 306(1)
Radio (Nobeyama) observations 307(1)
Radio (OVRO) observations 307(1)
Transient brightenings in quiet Sun 308(1)
regions
Implications of transients for coronal 308(2)
heating
Concluding remarks 310(4)
References 311(3)
Coronal oscillations 314(21)
V.M. Nakariakov
Introduction 314(1)
The method of MHD coronal seismology 315(1)
Detectability of MHD waves in the corona 316(2)
Compressive waves in polar plumes 318(4)
Observations 318(1)
Interpretation as slow magnetoacoustic 319(3)
waves
Search for Alfven waves 322(2)
Theoretical aspects 322(1)
Observational aspects 323(1)
Compressive waves in long loops 324(3)
Observations and interpretation 324(3)
Seismologic implications 327(1)
Flare-generated oscillations of coronal 327(4)
loops
Observations 327(2)
Determination of the magnetic field 329(1)
Determination of transport coefficients 330(1)
EIT or coronal Moreton waves 331(1)
Conclusions 332(3)
References 332(3)
Probing the Sun's hot corona 335(18)
K.J.H. Phillips
B.N. Dwivedi
The solar corona 335(3)
The spacecraft era 338(3)
Heating of the corona: theory 341(3)
Observational evidence: transient 344(2)
brightenings
Physical characteristics of the corona 346(3)
Observational evidence: wave motions 349(2)
Conclusions 351(2)
References 351(2)
Vacuum-ultraviolet emission line 353(21)
diagnostics for solar plasmas
B.N. Dwivedi
A. Mohan
K. Wilhelm
The Sun in the ultraviolet emission lines 353(2)
SUMER spectrograph 354(1)
Atomic processes 355(4)
Emission lines 356(1)
Coronal model approximation 357(1)
Electron collisional excitation and 358(1)
de-excitation
Proton collisional excitation and 358(1)
de-excitation
Ionization balance 359(1)
Plasma diagnostics 359(6)
Emission measure analysis 360(2)
Electron-density diagnostics 362(1)
Electron-temperature diagnostics 363(1)
Abundance determination 364(1)
Some new results from SUMER 365(5)
Coronal holes and the solar wind 365(2)
The ``red/blue'' Sun 367(1)
Explosive events 368(1)
Sunspot transition region oscillations 369(1)
Solar flare observed by SUMER 370(1)
Conclusions 370(4)
References 371(3)
Solar wind 374(29)
E. Marsch
W.I. Axford
J.F. McKenzie
The solar wind 374(1)
Basic energy considerations 375(2)
Historic restrospective: Parker's model 375(1)
Problems with a polytropic single-fluid 375(1)
model
Energy requirements on heavy ions 376(1)
Solar corona and wind in three dimensions 377(2)
Types of solar wind 377(1)
Three-dimensional solar corona 377(2)
Electron density and temperature 379(1)
Fast solar wind 379(12)
Coronal and in-situ observations 379(4)
Basic model equations 383(2)
Heating functions 385(1)
Some results from model calculations 386(3)
The wave spectrum: origin, evolution 389(1)
and dissipation
Critical issues in the models 390(1)
Slow solar wind 391(3)
Observations of slow flows 391(1)
Models of the closed corona and slow 392(2)
wind
Sources of the solar wind 394(3)
Chromospheric network 394(1)
Network pico-flares 395(1)
Heating of the quiet corona 396(1)
Some consequences of network flares 396(1)
Problems 397(2)
Problems with the observations 397(1)
Problems with the theory 398(1)
Conclusions 399(4)
References 400(3)
Solar observing facilities 403(32)
B. Fleck
C.U. Keller
Introduction 403(1)
Ground-based instruments 403(13)
Present 406(1)
General purpose telescopes 406(2)
Synoptic telescopes 408(4)
Synoptic networks 412(1)
Synoptic radio telescopes 413(1)
Future plans 414(1)
General purpose telescopes 414(1)
Synoptic telescopes 415(1)
Radio telescopes 416(1)
Current and planned suborbital missions 416(1)
Space missions 417(15)
In operation 417(1)
Ulysses 417(1)
Yohkoh 418(1)
Wind 419(1)
SOHO 420(3)
ACE 423(1)
TRACE 423(1)
GOES/Solar X-ray imager 424(1)
Coronas-F 424(1)
Genesis 425(1)
HESSI 425(1)
In development and under study 426(1)
Solar-B 426(1)
Stereo 427(1)
Space Solar Telescope--SST 428(1)
SDO 428(1)
Solar Orbiter 429(1)
Solar probe 430(2)
Solar sentinels 432(1)
Conclusions 432(3)
References 432(3)
Index 435