希釈ガスにおけるボーズ-アインシュタイン凝縮<br>Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dilute Gases

希釈ガスにおけるボーズ-アインシュタイン凝縮
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dilute Gases

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 402 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521665803
  • DDC分類 530.42

基本説明

The graduate-level textbook explain this exciting new subject in terms of basic physical principles.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xi
Introduction 1 (15)
Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic clouds 4 (2)
Superfluid 4He 6 (2)
Other condensates 8 (2)
Overview 10 (6)
Problems 13 (1)
References 14 (2)
The non-interacting Bose gas 16 (24)
The Bose distribution 16 (5)
Density of states 18 (3)
Transition temperature and condensate 21 (3)
fraction
Condensate fraction 23 (1)
Density profile and velocity distribution 24 (5)
The semi-classical distribution 27 (2)
Thermodynamic quantities 29 (6)
Condensed phase 30 (2)
Normal phase 32 (1)
Specific heat close to Tc 32 (3)
Effect of finite particle number 35 (1)
Lower-dimensional systems 36 (4)
Problems 37 (1)
References 38 (2)
Atomic properties 40 (18)
Atomic structure 40 (4)
The Zeeman effect 44 (5)
Response to an electric field 49 (6)
Energy scales 55 (3)
Problems 57 (1)
References 57 (1)
Trapping and cooling of atoms 58 (44)
Magnetic traps 59 (8)
The quadrupole trap 60 (2)
The TOP trap 62 (2)
Magnetic bottles and the Ioffe-Pritchard 64 (3)
trap
Influence of laser light on an atom 67 (7)
Forces on an atom in a laser field 71 (2)
Optical traps 73 (1)
Laser cooling: the Doppler process 74 (4)
The magneto-optical trap 78 (3)
Sisyphus cooling 81 (9)
Evaporative cooling 90 (6)
Spin-polarized hydrogen 96 (6)
Problems 99 (1)
References 100(2)
Interactions between atoms 102(44)
Interatomic potentials and the van der 103(4)
Waals interaction
Basic scattering theory 107(7)
Effective interactions and the scattering 111(3)
length
Scattering length for a model potential 114(6)
Scattering between different internal states 120(19)
Inelastic processes 125(6)
Elastic scattering and Feshbach resonances 131(8)
Determination of scattering lengths 139(7)
Scattering lengths for alkali atoms and 142(2)
hydrogen
Problems 144(1)
References 144(2)
Theory of the condensed state 146(19)
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation 146(3)
The ground state for trapped bosons 149(9)
A variational calculation 151(3)
The Thomas-Fermi approximation 154(4)
Surface structure of clouds 158(3)
Healing of the condensate wave function 161(4)
Problems 163(1)
References 163(2)
Dynamics of the condensate 165(39)
General formulation 165(6)
The hydrodynamic equations 167(4)
Elementary excitations 171(7)
Collective modes in traps 178(15)
Traps with spherical symmetry 179(3)
Anisotropic traps 182(4)
Collective coordinates and the 186(7)
variational method
Surface modes 193(2)
Free expansion of the condensate 195(1)
Solitons 196(8)
Problems 201(1)
Referneces 202(2)
Microscopic theory of the Bose gas 204(34)
Excitations in a uniform gas 205(9)
The Bogoliubov transformation 207(2)
Elementary excitations 209(5)
Excitations in a trapped gas 214(4)
Weak coupling 216(2)
Non-zero temperature 218(12)
The Hartree-Fock approximation 219(6)
The Popov approximation 225(1)
Excitations in non-uniform gases 226(2)
The semi-classical approximation 228(2)
Collisional shifts of spectral lines 230(8)
Problems 236(1)
References 237(1)
Rotating condensates 238(26)
Potential flow and quantized circulation 238(2)
Structure of a single vortex 240(9)
A vortex in a uniform medium 240(5)
A vortex in a trapped cloud 245(2)
Off-axis vortices 247(2)
Equilibrium of rotating condensates 249(5)
Traps with an axis of symmetry 249(2)
Rotating traps 251(3)
Vortex motion 254(3)
Force on a vortex line 255(2)
The weakly-interacting Bose gas under 257(7)
rotation
Problems 261(1)
References 262(2)
Superfluidity 264(25)
The Landau criterion 265(2)
The two-component picture 267(3)
Momentum carried by excitations 267(1)
Normal fluid density 268(2)
Dynamical processes 270(3)
First and second sound 273(7)
Interactions between excitations 280(9)
Landau damping 281(6)
Problems 287(1)
References 288(1)
Trapped clouds at non-zero temperature 289(31)
Equilibrium properties 290(8)
Energy scales 290(2)
Transition temperature 292(2)
Thermodynamic properties 294(4)
Collective modes 298(8)
Hydrodynamic modes above Tc 301(5)
Collisional relaxation above Tc 306(14)
Relaxation of temperature anisotropies 310(5)
Damping of oscillations 315(3)
Problems 318(1)
References 319(1)
Mixtures and spinor condensates 320(18)
Mixtures 321(7)
Equilibrium properties 322(4)
Collective modes 326(2)
Spinor condensates 328(10)
Mean-field description 330(3)
Beyond the mean-field approximation 333(2)
Problems 335(1)
References 336(2)
Interference and correlations 338(23)
Interference of two condensates 338(10)
Phase-locked sources 339(4)
Clouds with definite particle number 343(5)
Density correlations in Bose gases 348(2)
Coherent matter wave optics 350(4)
The atom laser 354(1)
The criterion for Bose-Einstein condensation 355(6)
Fragmented condensates 357(2)
Problems 359(1)
References 359(2)
Ferminos 361(33)
Equilibrium properties 362(4)
Effects of interactions 366(4)
Superfluidity 370(15)
Transition temperature 371(5)
Induced interactions 376(2)
The condensed phase 378(7)
Boson-fermion mixtures 385(3)
Induced interactions in mixtures 386(2)
Collective modes of Fermi superfluids 388(6)
Problems 391(1)
References 392(2)
Appendix. Fundamental constants and conversion 394(3)
factors
Index 397