Nuclear Superfluidity : Pairing in Finite Systems (Cambridge Monographs on Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology)

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Nuclear Superfluidity : Pairing in Finite Systems (Cambridge Monographs on Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 378 p./サイズ 124 line diagrams
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521395403
  • DDC分類 539.75

基本説明

The text devoted exclusively to pair correlations in nuclei.

Full Description


Nuclear Superfluidity is an advanced text devoted exclusively to pair correlations in nuclei. It begins by exploring pair correlations in a variety of systems including superconductivity in metals at low temperatures and superfluidity in liquid 3He and in neutron stars. The book goes on to introduce basic theoretical methods, symmetry breaking and symmetry restoration in finite many-body systems. The last four chapters are devoted to introducing results on the role of induced interactions in the structure of both normal and exotic nuclei. The most important of these is the renormalization of the pairing interaction due to the coupling of pairs of nucleons to low energy nuclear collective excitations. This book will be essential reading for researchers and students in both experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, and related research fields such as metal clusters, fullerenes and quantum dots.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xi
Introduction 1 (32)
Pairing in nuclei, superconductors, 1 (2)
liquid 3He and neutrons stars
Macroscopic wavefunction and phase 3 (3)
rigidity
Broken symmetry and collective modes 6 (2)
Superfluid 4He (He II) 8 (5)
Critical velocity for superconductors 13 (1)
Pairing in nuclei 14 (5)
Superconductivity 19 (6)
Superfluidity of liquid 3He 25 (1)
Comparison of pairing in nuclei with 26 (4)
superconductivity
Neutron stars 30 (3)
The pairing force and seniority 33 (19)
Evidence for pairing correlations 33 (3)
The pairing interaction 36 (3)
The δ-function nucleon--nucleon 39 (3)
potential
The degenerate model and quasi-spin 42 (2)
Pairing binding energy formula 44 (1)
Quasi-spin wavefunctions 45 (2)
Pairing rotations 47 (1)
Exact solution of the pairing Hamiltonian 48 (4)
The BCS theory 52 (20)
The BCS wavefunction 52 (3)
The energy 55 (2)
Excited states and quasiparticles 57 (3)
The mean-field Hamiltonian 60 (1)
The correlation energy 61 (3)
Pairing correlations in the wavefunction 64 (1)
The degenerate model in the BCS 65 (1)
approximation
Gauge invariance 66 (1)
Matrix elements of one-body operators 67 (2)
Pairing and isospin 69 (3)
Spontaneous symmetry breaking 72 (20)
General background 72 (3)
Pairing in atomic nuclei (0D systems; 75 (13)
ξ>>R)
Infinite 3D neutral superconductors 88 (4)
(ξ>>L)
Pairing vibrations 92 (25)
The two-level model 92 (10)
Applications 102(6)
Multipole pairing vibrations 108(9)
Phase transitions 117(37)
The experimental situation 119(3)
Static pairing correlations: the BCS 122(16)
theory of pairing phase transitions in
strongly rotating nuclei
Pairing fluctuations 138(3)
Moments of inertia 141(3)
Condensation-induced tunnelling 144(1)
Response function technique to calculate 145(9)
RPA fluctuations
Plastic behaviour of nuclei and other 154(16)
finite systems
Exotic decay 155(8)
A variety of applications 163(2)
Low-lying surface vibrations 165(3)
Fission in metal clusters 168(2)
Sources of pairing in nuclei 170(34)
The bare nucleon--nucleon potential and 171(6)
the pairing interaction
Mean-field theory 177(7)
Random phase approximation 184(15)
Correlation energy contribution to 199(5)
nuclear masses
Beyond mean field 204(15)
Doorway states 204(7)
Effective mass (ω-mass) 211(4)
The ω-mass and the induced 215(4)
interaction
Induced interaction 219(38)
Simple estimates 219(4)
Microscopic calculations 223(8)
Slab model 231(8)
Induced pairing interaction, effective 239(5)
mass and vertex correction processes
Superfluidity in the inner crust of 244(13)
neutron stars
Pairing in exotic nuclei 257(23)
The halo nucleus 11Li 258(17)
The halo nucleus 12Be 275(5)
Appendix A A brief resume of second 280(12)
quantization
A.1 Fermions 280(6)
A.2 Particles and holes 286(2)
A.3 Bosons 288(2)
A.4 Quasi-bosons 290(2)
Appendix B Single particle in a non-local 292(5)
potential
B.1 Single particle in a non-local, 294(3)
ω-dependent potential
Appendix C Useful relations in the treatment 297(2)
of collective modes
C.1 Limit on the multipolarity of 297(1)
collective surface vibrations
C.2 The relation between F and α 297(2)
Appendix D Particle-vibration coupling 299(6)
D.1 Estimate of <lj||YL||lj> 301(2)
D.2 A simple estimate of <R0 au/ar> 303(2)
Appendix E Model of the single-particle 305(3)
strength function
Appendix F Simple model of Pauli principle 308(2)
corrections
Appendix G Pairing mean-field solution 310(10)
G.1 Solution of the pairing Hamiltonian 310(5)
G.2 Two-quasiparticle excitations 315(2)
G.3 Minimization 317(1)
G.4 BCS wavefunction 318(2)
Appendix H Pairing in a single j-shell 320(7)
H.1 BCS solution 320(2)
H.2 Cranking moment of inertia 322(1)
H.3 Two-particle transfer 323(1)
H.4 Polarization effects 324(3)
Appendix I Fluctuations and symmetry 327(8)
restoration
I.1 Conjugate variables 327(1)
I.2 Rotation about an axis 328(1)
I.3 Rotations in gauge space 329(1)
I.4 Symmetry restoring fluctuations and 330(5)
pairing rotations
Appendix J RPA solution of the pairing 335(14)
Hamiltonian
J.1 Diagonalization of the H0 + Hp 336(3)
Hamiltonian (odd-solution)
J.2 Diagonalization of the H0 + Hp 339(4)
Hamiltonian (even-solution)
J.3 Diagonalization of the full 343(6)
Hamiltonian H = H0 + Hp + Hp
Appendix K Vortices in nuclei 349(7)
K.1 Simple estimates 349(5)
K.2 Critical velocity for the excitation 354(1)
of rotons
K.3 Critical velocity for superfluidity 355(1)
Appendix L Josephson effect 356(5)
References 361(13)
Index 374