Meteorology : Understanding the Atmosphere (2 PCK)

Meteorology : Understanding the Atmosphere (2 PCK)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 467 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495108924
  • DDC分類 551.5

Full Description


An entirely new way for students to observe, analyze, and understand meteorology, - Steven A. Ackerman and John A. Knox's METEOROLOGY: UNDERSTANDING THE ATMOSPHERE is scientific, topical, and scholarly. The authors use vivid photographs and compelling real-life stories to present the subject of weather as it directly affects your students. METEOROLOGY generates genuine enthusiasm for the subject by using conceptual models and engaging narrative to truly make weather phenomena come alive. METEOROLOGY emphasizes how we observe the atmosphere and then uses those observations to explain atmospheric phenomena. New "Observational Questions" further extend this emphasis by asking students to analyze photographs, data, or their own experiences. By learning how to interpret scientific observations of the atmosphere, students can deepen their understanding of the subject. The second edition offers complete integration with MeteorologyNow(TM), the first assessment-driven and student-centered online learning solution created specifically for this course. MeteorologyNow(TM) uses a series of chapter-specific diagnostic tests to build a personalized learning plan for each student, allowing students to focus their study time on specific areas of weaknesses. Each personalized learning plan directs students to specific text sections as well as to a set of over three dozen Java applets designed to augment their understanding. These acclaimed applets, designed by Tom Whittaker and co-author Steven Ackerman, are divided into two types, "Observational Learning" applets deal with interpreting satellite imagery and "Atmospheric Explorations" extend the book's treatment of key topics, such as weather map analysis and numerical weather models.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xiv
Introduction to the Atmosphere 1 (25)
Introduction 1 (1)
Weather and Climate 1 (2)
The Earth's Major Surface Features 3 (1)
Making an Atmosphere: Gases and Gravity 3 (1)
Atmospheric Evolution and Composition 4 (1)
Box 1.1: Moist Air Is Lighter Than Dry 4 (1)
Air
Trace Gases and Aerosols 5 (8)
Carbon Dioxide Cycle 5 (2)
Hydrologic Cycle 7 (2)
Methane 9 (1)
Chlorofluorocarbons 10 (1)
Aerosols 10 (3)
Atmospheric Pressure and Density 13 (5)
Basic Concepts 13 (1)
Box 1.2: The Ideal Gas Law 13 (1)
Pressure and Altitude 14 (2)
Box 1.3: Why Do Your Ears Pop? 16 (2)
Dividing Up the Atmosphere 18 (1)
An Introduction to Weather Maps 18 (3)
Basic Concepts 18 (1)
The Station Model 18 (3)
Time Zones 21 (2)
Weather Watches, Warnings, and Advisories 23 (1)
Putting It All Together 24 (2)
Summary 24 (1)
Key Terms 25 (1)
Review Questions 25 (1)
Observation Activities 25 (1)
The Energy Cycle 26 (26)
Introduction 27 (1)
Force, Work, and Heat 27 (3)
Transferring Energy in the Atmosphere 30 (10)
Conduction: Requires Touching 30 (1)
Convection: Hot Air Rises 31 (1)
Temperature Advection: Horizontal 31 (1)
Movement
Latent Heating: Changing the Phase of 31 (3)
Water
Radiative Heat Transfer: Exchanging 34 (4)
Energy with Space
Box 2.1: Ozone 38 (2)
The Sun and the Seasons 40 (5)
Radiative Properties of the Atmosphere 45 (3)
The Greenhouse Effect 46 (1)
Greenhouse Warming: The Basics 47 (1)
Box 2.2: Satellite Images 47 (1)
The Global Average Energy Budget: Energy 48 (2)
Is Transferred from the Surface to the
Atmosphere
Putting It All Together 50 (2)
Summary 50 (1)
Key Terms 51 (1)
Review Questions 51 (1)
Observation Activities 51 (1)
Temperature 52 (30)
Introduction 53 (1)
Surface Temperature 53 (1)
Surface Energy Budget 54 (1)
Temperature Cycles 55 (13)
Annual Temperature Cycle 56 (6)
Interannual Temperature Variations 62 (2)
Box 3.1: Volcanoes and Temperature 64 (2)
Diurnal Temperature Cycle 66 (2)
Temperature Variation with Height: Lapse 68 (8)
Rate and Static Stability
Box 3.2: Record Cold and Record Heat 69 (1)
Across the United States
Adiabatic Cooling and Warming 70 (2)
The Environmental Lapse Rate and Static 72 (2)
Stability
Temperature Inversions 74 (2)
Wind-Chill Temperature 76 (2)
Temperature and Agriculture 78 (1)
Box 3.3: Temperature and Your Health 79 (1)
Putting it All Together 79 (3)
Summary 79 (1)
Key Terms 80 (1)
Review Questions 80 (1)
Observation Activities 81 (1)
Water in the Atmosphere 82 (44)
Introduction 83 (1)
Evaporation: The Source of Atmospheric 84 (1)
Water
Measuring Water Vapor in the Air 85 (8)
Mixing Ratio 85 (1)
Vapor Pressure 86 (1)
Relative Humidity 87 (1)
Box 4.1: Atmospheric Moisture and Your 88 (3)
Health
Dew Point/Frost Point 91 (2)
Condensation and Deposition: Cloud 93 (6)
Formation
Solute and Curvature Effects 93 (1)
Nucleation 93 (2)
Cloud Particle Growth by Condensation 95 (1)
and Deposition
Fog Formation 95 (3)
Lifting Mechanisms That Form Clouds 98 (1)
Static Stability and Cloud Development 99 (2)
The Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate 99 (2)
Conditionally Unstable Environments 101(1)
Cloud Classification 101(10)
Low Clouds 103(2)
Precipitating Clouds 105(1)
Middle Clouds 106(2)
High Clouds 108(3)
Clouds and the Greenhouse Effect 111(1)
Cloud Composition 112(1)
Precipitation 113(9)
Precipitation Growth in Warm Clouds 113(1)
Box 4.2: Controlling the Weather 113(1)
Collision-Coalescence 114(1)
Precipitation Growth in Cold Clouds 114(1)
Precipitation Types 115(7)
Clouds, Lapse Rates, and Precipitation 122(1)
Near Mountains
Putting It All Together 123(3)
Summary 123(1)
Key Terms 124(1)
Review Questions 124(1)
Observation Activities 125(1)
Observing the Atmosphere 126(32)
Introduction 127(1)
Meteorological Observations 127(1)
Direct Measurements of Surface Conditions 127(5)
Box 5.1: The Meteogram 128(1)
Temperature 129(1)
Humidity 129(1)
Pressure 130(1)
Box 5.2: GPS and Water Vapor 131(1)
Wind 132(1)
Precipitation 132(1)
Direct Measurements of Upper-Air Weather 132(1)
Observations
Indirect Methods of Observing Weather 133(15)
Laws of Reflection and Refraction 134(1)
Box 5.3: Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star 135(1)
Scattering 136(1)
Box 5.4: Multiple Scattering and 137(1)
Climate Change
ASOS Indirect Sensors 138(1)
Meteorological Satellite Observations 139(1)
Interpreting Satellite Images 140(3)
Radar Observations 143(5)
Atmospheric Optics 148(8)
Mirages 148(1)
Halos 149(2)
Dispersion of Light 151(1)
Green Flash 152(1)
Sundogs 152(1)
Sun Pillar 153(1)
Rainbows 153(2)
Coronas, Glories, and the Bracken Bow 155(1)
Putting It All Together 156(2)
Summary 156(1)
Key Terms 157(1)
Review Questions 157(1)
Observation Activities 157(1)
Atmospheric Forces and Wind 158(30)
Introduction 159(1)
Wind Basics 159(1)
Physics Basics 160(1)
Newton's Second Law of Motion 160(1)
Forces That Move the Air 161(8)
Gravitational Force 161(1)
Pressure Gradient Force 161(1)
Box 6.1: Planes and Pressure Differences 162(2)
Coriolis Force 164(2)
Centrifugal Force/Centripetal 166(1)
Acceleration
Frictional Force 167(1)
Box 6.2: Going Down the Drain with the 168(1)
Rossby Number---Clockwise or
Counterclockwise?
Putting Forces Together: Atmospheric 169(7)
Force-Balances
Hydrostatic Balance 170(1)
Geostrophic Balance, the Geostrophic 171(2)
Wind, and Buys Ballot's Law
Gradient Balance and the Gradient Wind 173(1)
Adjustment to Balance 174(1)
Guldberg-Mohn Balance and Buys Ballot's 174(2)
Law Revisited
Box 6.3: Wind and Waves 176(1)
Observations of Upper-Level and Surface 176(3)
Wind
Putting Force-Balances Together: The 179(1)
Thermal Wind
Putting Horizontal and Vertical Winds 180(1)
Together
Sea Breezes 181(2)
Scales of Motion 183(2)
Putting It All Together 185(3)
Summary 185(1)
Key Terms 186(1)
Review Questions 186(1)
Observation Activities 187(1)
Global-Scale Winds 188(20)
Introduction 189(1)
What Are Conceptual Models? 190(1)
Observations Our Model Should Explain 191(2)
A Simple Conceptual Model of Global 193(7)
Circulation Patterns
Box 7.1: Marine Stratocumulus Cloud 196(4)
Regions
Upper-Air Mid-Latitude Westerlies 200(2)
The Poleward Transport of Energy 202(1)
Seasonal Variations 203(2)
Box 7.2: Precipitation Patterns and 204(1)
Topography
Monsoons 205(1)
Putting It All Together 206(2)
Summary 206(1)
Key Terms 206(1)
Review Questions 207(1)
Observation Activities 207(1)
Atmosphere---Ocean Interactions: El Nino 208(42)
and Tropical Cyclones
Introduction 209(1)
Oceanography 209(14)
Ocean Temperature 211(1)
Ocean Currents 212(4)
El Nino 216(6)
La Nina 222(1)
Other Oscillations 222(1)
Tropical Cyclones: Hurricanes and Typhoons 223(21)
What Are They? 223(1)
What Do They Look Like? 224(1)
How and Where Do They Form? 225(3)
How Are They Structured? 228(3)
Box 8.1: The ``Hurricane Hunters'' 231(1)
What Are the Different Stages of Their 232(1)
``Lives''?
Box 8.2: Naming Hurricanes 233(3)
What Does a Year's Worth of Tropical 236(3)
Cyclones Look Like? The Record Year of
2005
How Do They Cause Destruction? 239(4)
Box 8.3: Bryan Norcross, TV 243(1)
Meteorologist and Hero
How Do We Observe and Forecast Tropical 244(4)
Cyclones?
Galveston, 1900 and New Orleans, 2005: 244(3)
A Tale of Two Cities and Two Deadly
Hurricanes
Long-Range Tropical Cyclone Forecasting 247(1)
Putting It All Together 248(2)
Summary 248(1)
Key Terms 248(1)
Review Questions 248(1)
Observation Activities 249(1)
Air Masses and Fronts 250(24)
Introduction 251(1)
What Is an Air Mass? 251(1)
Observations 251(4)
Box 9.1: Deadly Heat Waves 252(1)
Air Mass Types 253(1)
Air Mass Source Regions 254(1)
Atmospheric Stability Revisited 255(1)
Air Masses Affecting North America 256(5)
Maritime Polar Air Masses 256(2)
Continental Polar Air Masses 258(1)
Arctic Air Masses 258(1)
Continental Tropical Air Masses 259(1)
Maritime Tropical Air Masses 260(1)
Air Mass Modification 261(3)
Box 9.2: Lake-Effect Snows 262(2)
Fronts 264(8)
Cold Fronts 265(3)
Warm Fronts 268(1)
Stationary Fronts 269(1)
Occluded Fronts 270(1)
Drylines 271(1)
Putting It All Together 272(2)
Summary 272(1)
Key Terms 272(1)
Review Questions 272(1)
Observation Activities 273(1)
Extractropical Cyclones and Anticyclones 274(36)
Introduction 275(1)
A Time and Place of Tragedy 276(1)
A Life Cycle of Growth and Death 277(1)
Day One: Birth of an Extratropical Cyclone 278(6)
Typical Extratropical Cyclone Paths 281(1)
Box 10.1: Making Cyclones and Waves 282(2)
Day Two: With the Fitz 284(7)
Portrait of the Cyclone as a Young Adult 284(1)
Cyclones and Fronts: On the Ground 284(2)
Cyclones and Fronts: In the Sky 286(1)
Back with the Fitz: A Fateful Course 287(2)
Correction
Cyclones and Jet Streams 289(2)
Day Three: The Mature Cyclone 291(9)
Bittersweet Badge of Adulthood: The 291(2)
Occlusion Process
Box 10.2: Cyclones and Water: Bomb and 293(1)
Bust
Hurricane West Wind 294(2)
One of the Worst 296(1)
``Nosedive'' 296(1)
Box 10.3: Cyclone Winds in 3D: Belts, 297(3)
Slots, and Squalls
Day Four (and Beyond): Death 300(4)
The Cyclone 300(2)
The Fitzgerald 302(1)
The Sailors 303(1)
The Extratropical Anticyclone 304(1)
Anticyclones and Another Fitzgerald 305(3)
Tragedy
High Pressure, Low Visibility 307(1)
Putting It All Together 308(2)
Summary 308(1)
Key Terms 309(1)
Review Questions 309(1)
Observation Activities 309(1)
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes 310(40)
Introduction 311(1)
What is a Thunderstorm? 311(1)
Thunderstorm Distribution 312(1)
Factors Affecting Thunderstorm Growth and 312(4)
Development
Lifting Mechanisms 312(2)
Unstable Atmosphere and Stability 314(1)
Indices
Vertical Wind Shear 315(1)
Low-Level Jet Stream and Inversions 316(1)
Types of Thunderstorms 316(9)
Ordinary Single-Cell Thunderstorms 318(1)
Multicell Thunderstorms 319(4)
Supercell Thunderstorms 323(2)
Micro bursts 325(2)
The Tornado 327(12)
Tornado Formation and Life Cycle 327(2)
Box 11.1: Storm Chasers 329(1)
Radar Observations of Tornadoes 330(2)
Tornado Winds 332(2)
Tornado Distribution 334(2)
Tornado Outbreaks 336(1)
Box 11.2: Severe Weather Safety 337(2)
The Waterspout 339(2)
Box 11.3: Tornado Safety: A Success 340(1)
Story
Other Thunderstorm Severe Weather 341(6)
Lightning 341(2)
Flash Floods and Flooding 343(2)
Hail 345(2)
Putting It All Together 347(3)
Summary 347(1)
Key Terms 348(1)
Review Questions 348(1)
Observation Activities 349(1)
Small-Scale Winds 350(22)
Introduction 351(1)
Friction in the Air: Turbulent ``Eddies'' 351(3)
Box 12.1: Clear-Air Turbulence 353(1)
A Tour of Small-Scale Winds 354(1)
The East and South 354(4)
Coastal Fronts and Cold-Air Damming 354(1)
Box 12.2: The Windiest Place on Earth 355(1)
Gravity Waves 356(2)
The Midwest 358(2)
Lake Breezes 358(1)
Derechos 359(1)
The Great Plains 360(4)
Blue Northers 361(1)
Box 12.3: Using Turbulence to 361(1)
Advantage: Snow Fences and Windbreaks
Heatbursts 362(1)
Box 12.4: Dust Storms and the ``Dust 362(1)
Bowl''
Chinooks 363(1)
The West 364(6)
Mountain/Valley Breezes and Windstorms 364(1)
Dust Devils 365(1)
Lenticular Clouds 366(1)
Santa Ana Winds 367(2)
von Karman Vortex Street 369(1)
The Big Picture 370(1)
Putting It All Together 370(2)
Summary 370(1)
Key Terms 371(1)
Review Questions 371(1)
Observation Activities 371(1)
Weather Forecasting 372(38)
Introduction 373(1)
Methods of Forecasting by People 374(5)
Folklore 374(1)
Persistence and Climatology 375(1)
Box 13.1: Personal Weather Forecasting 376(1)
Trend and Analog 377(2)
A Real Life-or-Death Forecast D-Day, June 379(3)
1944
L.F. Richardson and the Dawn of Numerical 382(4)
Weather Forecasting
Box 13.2: Modeling the Equations of the 383(2)
Air
Box 13.3: L.F. Richardson: Pioneer and 385(1)
Prophet
The Numerical Weather Prediction Process: 386(5)
Then and Now
Step One: Weather Observations 386(1)
Step Two: Data Assimilation 387(2)
Step Three: Forecast Model Integration 389(1)
Step Four: Forecast Tweaking and 390(1)
Broadcasting
Box 13.4: ``Blowing Up'' a Forecast 391(1)
Model
Modern Numerical Weather Prediction Models 391(4)
Short-Range Forecast Models 391(1)
Box 13.5: A Day in the Life of 392(3)
Private-Sector Meteorology
Medium-Range Forecast Models 395(1)
A Real Life-or-Death Forecast: The 395(7)
``Storm of the Century,'' March 1993
The Medium-Range Forecast 395(2)
The Short-Range Forecast for 397(1)
Washington, DC
The Short-Range Forecast for 398(1)
Birmingham, Alabama
The Storm of the Century Appears 399(1)
A Perfect Forecast 400(1)
Nowcasting in DC 400(1)
The Aftermath 400(2)
Why Forecasts Still Go Wrong Today 402(2)
Imperfect Data 402(1)
Faulty ``Vision'' and ``Fudges'' 402(1)
Chaos 403(1)
Improving Forecasts with Ensemble 404(1)
Forecasting
Pushing the Envelope: Numerical Nowcasts 405(3)
and Long-Range Prediction
The Proper Perspective 408(1)
Putting It All Together 408(2)
Summary 408(1)
Key Terms 408(1)
Review Questions 408(1)
Observation Activities 409(1)
Past and Present Climates 410(30)
Introduction 411(1)
Defining Climate 411(1)
Climate Controls 412(1)
Classifying Today's Climate Zones 412(9)
Tropical Humid Climates 414(1)
Dry Climates 415(1)
Moist Subtropical and Mid-Latitude 416(2)
Climates
Severe Mid-Latitude Climates 418(2)
Polar Climates 420(1)
Highland Climates 420(1)
Past Climates: The Clues 421(7)
Historical Data 421(1)
Tree Rings 422(1)
Pollen Records 423(1)
Box 14.1: Dating Ancient Climates 424(1)
Air Bubbles and Dust in Ice Sheets 425(1)
Box 14.2: Glaciers and Icebergs 425(2)
Marine Sediments 427(1)
Fossil Records 428(1)
Past Climates: The Change Mechanisms 428(10)
Volcanic Eruptions 430(1)
Asteroid Impacts 431(1)
Solar Variability 432(1)
Variations of the Earth's Orbit: 433(2)
Milankovitch Cycles
Plate Tectonics 435(1)
Changes in Ocean Circulation Patterns 436(2)
Putting It All Together 438(2)
Summary 438(1)
Key Terms 438(1)
Review Questions 438(1)
Observation Activities 439(1)
Human Influences on Climate 440
Introduction 441(1)
Observations of Global Warming 441(1)
Feedback Mechanisms 442(1)
Air Pollution 443(3)
Acid Deposition 445(1)
The Stratospheric Ozone Hole 446(3)
Changing Land Surfaces 449(4)
Desertification 449(1)
Urban Heat Islands 450(3)
Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming 453(8)
Global Warming and Atmospheric Water 454(1)
Global Warming and the Oceans 454(1)
Climate Modeling 455(1)
Box 15.1: Contrails 456(5)
Climate Change Assessment 461(3)
Climate Change and Health 461(1)
Climate Change and Coastal Regions 462(1)
Climate Change and Forests 463(1)
Closure 464(2)
Putting It All Together 466
Summary 466(1)
Key Terms 466(1)
Review Questions 466(1)
Observation Activities 467
Appendix 1 (1)
Glossary 1 (1)
Credits 1 (1)
Index 1