Within the tropics and sub tropics approximately half the plantation forestry is of "Eucalyptus" species. Their high growth rates and their ability to grow within a wide range of site conditions make them attractive species for both commercial and social forestry applications. The large scale planting of these exotic species has caused concern to local peoples in many tropical countries, not least in southern India, where the plantations were thought to have deleterious socio-economic effects at the village level and adverse environmental impacts particularly in relation to nutrient depletion and high water use. To investigate and quantify these environmental impacts a programme of field studies designed to measure the water use, nutrient uptake and growth rates of eucalypts was initiated in 1987 in the state of Karnataka, southern India. The collaborating organizations were, in India, the Karnataka Forest Department and Mysore Paper Mills and, more recently, the University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore and, in the UK, the Institute of Hydrology and the Oxford Forestry Institute. The studies were funded by the British Overseas Development Administration. The results from these southern Indian studies and other studies on "Eucalyptus" species from other parts of the world were presented at the Bangalore Symposium. As a whole they present a body of knowledge on the growth and water relations of "Eucalyptus" species which will be of value not only for providing answers for the "Eucalyptus controversy" but also, through application of the various growth and water use models presented, for improving the management and water use efficiency of the plantations.
Part 1 Social, economic and scientific background: developmental forestry in Kamataka - an overview, S. Parameswarappa; land use policy and forests, S. Shyam Sunder; eucalypts in industrial and social plantations in Karnataka, P.J. Dilip Kumar; social or industrial forestry - an NGO's views, D.R. Prafulla Chandra and D.P. Savi Sachi; social implications of Eucalyptus propagation, G.N.N. Prasad and S.R. Ramaswamy; social or industrial forestry, N.S. Adkoli. Part 2 Forest growth: research strategy for monitoring tree growth and site change, P.G. Adlard; observed growth patterns of euclayps in Karnataka, P.G. Adlard; fast growing species and sustainability, A.N. Yellappa Reddy and G.V. Sugur; the influence of site factors on eucalypt growth in Karnataka, S.J. Dury and B.E. Manjunath; spacing at planting of short-rotation Eucalyptus in Karnantaka, P.G. Adlard, et al; results from intercropping fast-growing trees and food crops at Morogorro, Tanzania, J.F. Redhead; growth and spacing in eucalypts - a case study from Punjab, S.K. Kapur and A.S. Dogra; organic productivity, nutrient cycling and small watershed hydrology of natural forests and monoculture plantations in Chikmagalur District, H. Ramachandra Swamy; application of root bioassays to detect nutrient deficiencies in fast-growing trees and agoforestry crops, A.F. Harrison, et al. Part 3 Water use of eucalypts - a review, I.R. Calder; development of the deuterium tracing method for estimation of transpiration rates of trees, I.R. Calder; measurements of transpiration from Ecalyptus plantation, India, using deuterium tracing, I.R. Calder, et al; heat pulse observations of eucalptus grandis transpiration in South Africa, P.J. Dye and B.W. Olbrich; physiological studies in young eucalyptus stands in southern India and their use in estimating forest transpiration, J.M. Roberts, et al; the soil moisture regimes beneath forest and an agricultural crop, R.J. Harding, et al; measurements and modelling of interception loss from eucalyptus plantation in sothern India, R.L. Hall; water use of eucalypts in Kerala, J. Kallarackal. Part 4 Growth and water use: water use by eucalypts, measurement and implications for Australia and India, E.A.N. Greenwood; a water use and growth model for eucalyptus plantation in water limited conditions, I.R. Calder; comparative growth rates of eucalyptus in native forest and plantation monoculture, C.L. Beadle and C.R.A. Turnbull; modification of climate by forests, R.J. Harding; water use of agroforestry systems in semi-arid India, C.K. Ong, et al; comparative studies of the associated soil moisture regimes and productivity of different agroforestry systems, V. Bhaskar, et al.