Building Pathology : Deterioration, Diagnostics, and Intervention

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Building Pathology : Deterioration, Diagnostics, and Intervention

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 654 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780471331728
  • DDC分類 690.24

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xiii
Introduction 1 (11)
Statement of the Problem 4 (2)
Problem-Solving Process 6 (4)
Structured Problem Solving 7 (1)
Establishing Necessary and Sufficient 7 (2)
Conditions
Establishing the Search Pattern 9 (1)
Statement of Objectives 10 (2)
Mechanisms and Diagnostics 12 (45)
Building Pathology and Diagnostics 12 (3)
Deterioration as a Natural Process 13 (1)
Monitoring and the Time Budget 14 (1)
Mechanisms and Degradation Model 15 (8)
The Deterioration Mechanism 16 (6)
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 22 (1)
Complex Mechanisms and Diagnostics 23 (11)
Typical Mechanism Combinations 24 (1)
Variable Environmental Effects: A Dynamic 25 (2)
Approach
Integrated Systems and Complex 27 (1)
Pathogenesis
Structural Systems 28 (1)
Closure 29 (1)
Vertical Closure System 29 (1)
Horizontal Closure System 29 (1)
Utilities Systems 30 (1)
Power Supply 31 (1)
Hydraulic Supply 31 (1)
Environmental Modification System 31 (1)
Heating and Cooling 32 (1)
Humidity Control 32 (1)
Ventilation 32 (1)
Protection System 33 (1)
Security 33 (1)
Emergency 33 (1)
The Impact of Material Standards over Time 34 (2)
The Myth of Modern Materials 35 (1)
Intervention Methodologies 36 (8)
The Client as Commander 37 (2)
Approaches 39 (1)
Abstention 40 (1)
Mitigation 41 (1)
Reconstitution 41 (1)
Substitution 42 (1)
Circumvention 43 (1)
Acceleration 44 (1)
The Intervention Matrix 44 (13)
Structural Systems 57 (226)
Functional Definition 57 (1)
Components Description 58 (1)
Materials Pathology 58 (72)
Differential Deformations 58 (3)
Thermal Variation 61 (3)
Hygroscopic Variation 64 (2)
Isotropy 66 (1)
Homogeneity 67 (2)
Mechanical Variation 69 (2)
Combined Variation 71 (1)
Crack Formation, Extension, and 72 (1)
Coalescence
Mechanical Mechanisms 72 (1)
Composite Materials 73 (5)
Stress Gradients 78 (1)
Combined Stress 79 (1)
Principle Stresses 80 (1)
Deformation and Crack Formation 81 (9)
Permanent Set and Plastic Deformation 90 (3)
Strain Hardening 93 (1)
Creep 94 (1)
Biological Mechanisms 95 (3)
Fungal Action and Other Microbial Activity 98 (17)
Termites and Other Insects 115 (6)
The Formosan Termite 121 (6)
The Battle against the Formosan 127 (3)
Systemic Pathology 130 (6)
Differentiation between Deformation and 135 (1)
Failure
The Pathology of Common Structural Elements 136 (147)
Foundations and Retaining Structures 136 (4)
Shallow Foundations 140 (1)
Differential Settlement 141 (3)
Heaving 144 (7)
Lateral Sliding 151 (12)
Other Lateral Retention Problems 163 (5)
Other Shallow Foundation Problems 168 (8)
Moving Water 176 (6)
Deep Foundations 182 (6)
Superstructures 188 (3)
Compression Elements 191 (4)
Columns 195 (13)
Walls 208 (3)
Exterior Walls 211 (5)
Interior Walls and Partitions 216 (2)
Tension Elements 218 (5)
Spanning Members 223 (2)
Rafters, Joists, Girders and Other Beams 225 (23)
Trusses 248 (6)
Cantilevers 254 (1)
Arches and Catenaries 255 (6)
Connections 261 (1)
Fixed Connections 262 (11)
Released Connections 273 (10)
Vertical Closure Systems 283 (206)
Functional Definition 283 (1)
Components and Description 284 (1)
Material Pathology 285 (139)
Freeze-Thaw Cycling 285 (1)
Thermal Transmission 286 (9)
Through Solid, Homogeneous, Single Layers 295 (3)
Through Multiple Layers 298 (4)
Temperature and Moisture Gradients 302 (2)
Thermal Inertia and Thermal Lag 304 (7)
Conductivity and Heating Rate 311 (1)
Solar Gain and Emissivity 312 (4)
Properties of Liquids 316 (1)
Water Absorption 317 (4)
Adsorption 321 (4)
Hydration 325 (1)
Hydrolysis 326 (1)
Pore Absorption 327 (7)
Internal and Interstitial Condensation 334 (1)
Moisture Mass and Content Delay 335 (2)
Freezing Water and Ice 337 (2)
The Freeze-Thaw Scenario 339 (5)
Lateral Motive Forces 344 (10)
Frost Progression 354 (7)
Crack Initiation and Propagation 361 (5)
Pressure Release and Air Entrainment 366 (3)
Intervention in Freeze-Thaw Cycling 369 (8)
Rising Damp and Salt Decay 377 (2)
Solutions and Salts 379 (4)
Chlorides 383 (1)
Nitrates 384 (1)
Sulfates 384 (1)
Carbonates 384 (1)
Evaporation and the Evaporative Engine 385 (6)
Efflorescence and Subflorescence 391 (1)
Efflorescence 391 (1)
Subflorescence 392 (1)
Other Salt-Related Decay Mechanisms 392 (1)
Salt Decay 393 (5)
Rising Damp 398 (7)
Acid Rain and Other Pollutants 405 (6)
Hazards of Cleaning 411 (2)
Particle Adhesion and Removal 413 (2)
Cleaning Methods 415 (1)
Water Cleaning 416 (4)
Abrasive Cleaning 420 (2)
Chemical Cleaning 422 (1)
Long-Term Effects of Cleaning 423 (1)
Systemic Pathology 424 (65)
How Walls Leak Water 425 (1)
Wall Types 426 (1)
Single-Layer Systems 427 (1)
Thick Single-Layer Systems 428 (1)
Thin Single-Layer Systems 429 (1)
Permeable Single Layers 429 (2)
Impermeable Single Layers 431 (2)
Thick Single-Layer Systems 433 (5)
Multiple-Layer Systems 438 (1)
Drained Cavity Systems 438 (16)
Pressure-Equalized Systems 454 (9)
Openings and Details 463 (9)
Why Leaks Are Detrimental 472 (6)
Pathology of Vertical Closure 478 (1)
Thermodynamics
Thermal Insulation 478 (2)
Infiltration and Air Seals 480 (3)
Vapor Barriers and Condensation 483 (3)
Thermal Retrofits of Walls 486 (1)
Vertical Closure Pathology 487 (2)
Horizontal Closure Systems 489 (129)
Functional Definition 489 (1)
Components and Description 490 (4)
Roof Types 490 (4)
Materials Pathology 494 (37)
Differential Thermal Movement 495 (12)
Corrosion and Galvanic Action 507 (1)
The Process of Alloying and Refining 508 (4)
Rates of Corrosion 512 (3)
The Conversion Process 515 (5)
The Sacrificial Process 520 (7)
UV and Ozone Degradation 527 (4)
Systemic Pathology 531 (87)
The Systems Approach to Building 533 (5)
Assessment
How Roofs Leak Water 538 (2)
Single-Layer Systems 540 (6)
Ponding 546 (1)
Points of Entry 547 (6)
Ballast 553 (3)
Multiple-Layer Systems 556 (4)
Shingle Systems 560 (3)
Shingle Materials 563 (6)
Hybrid Systems 569 (3)
Gutter, Leader, and Drain Problems 572 (6)
Summary on Roofs 578 (9)
Parapets 587 (6)
Decks and Terraces 593 (1)
Paving over Unoccupied Areas 593 (8)
Paving over Occupied Areas 601 (3)
Site Drainage Problems 604 (1)
Plant Damage 604 (1)
Site-Water Damage 605 (1)
Designing for Water Disposal 606 (5)
Water Collection and Conveyance 611 (7)
The Active Systems 618 (15)
Utilities Systems 618 (5)
Power Supply 619 (3)
Hydraulic Supply 622 (1)
Environmental Modification Systems 623 (7)
Heating and Cooling 625 (3)
Humidity Control 628 (1)
Ventilation 629 (1)
Protection Systems 630 (3)
Security Systems 630 (2)
Emergency Systems 632 (1)
Epilogue 633 (4)
Glossary 637 (6)
Index 643