気候モデル入門(第3版)<br>A Climate Modelling Primer (3 PAP/CDR)

気候モデル入門(第3版)
A Climate Modelling Primer (3 PAP/CDR)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 280 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470857519
  • DDC分類 551.6011

Full Description


"A Climate Modelling Primer, Third Edition" explains the basis and mechanisms of all types of current physically based climate models. A thoroughly revised and updated edition, this book assists the reader in understanding the complexities and applicabilities of today's wide range of climate models. Topics covered include the latest techniques for modelling the coupled biosphere ocean atmosphere system, information on current practical aspects of climate modelling and ways to evaluate and exploit the results, discussion of Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs), and interactive exercises based on Energy Balance Model (EBM) and the Daisyworld model. Source codes and results from a range of model types allows readers to make their own climate simulations and to view the results of the latest high resolution models.The accompanying CD contains: a suite of resources for those wishing to learn more about climate modelling; a range of model visualisations; data from climate models for use in the classroom; Windows and Macintosh programs for an Energy Balance Model; and, selected figures from the book for inclusion in presentations and lectures.This book is suitable for 3rd/4th year undergraduates taking courses in climate modelling, economic forecasting, computer science, environmental science, geography and oceanography. It is also of relevance to researchers and professionals working in related disciplines with climate models or who need accessible technical background to climate modelling predictions.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xiii
Acknowledgements xv
Climate 1 (46)
The components of climate 1 (6)
Introduction and outline of the book 3 (2)
The climate system 5 (2)
Climate change assessment 7 (15)
The scientific perspective 9 (4)
The human perspective 13 (5)
Isotopes and climate 18 (4)
Climate forcings 22 (13)
External causes of climatic change 23 (1)
Milankovitch variations 23 (2)
Solar activity 25 (1)
Other external factors 26 (1)
Internal factors: human-induced changes 26 (1)
Greenhouse gases 26 (1)
Tropospheric aerosols and clouds 27 (1)
Stratospheric ozone 27 (2)
Land-surface changes 29 (2)
Internal factors: natural changes 31 (1)
Volcanic eruptions 31 (2)
Ocean circulation changes 33 (2)
Climate feedbacks and sensitivity 35 (7)
The ice-albedo feedback mechanism 36 (1)
The water vapour `greenhouse' 36 (1)
Cloud feedbacks 36 (2)
Combining feedback effects 38 (4)
Range of questions for climate modelling 42 (5)
Recommended reading 43 (2)
Web resources 45 (2)
A History of and Introduction to Climate 47 (34)
Models
Introducing climate modelling 47 (2)
The need for simplification 47 (1)
Resolution in time and space 48 (1)
Types of climate models 49 (14)
Energy balance climate models 52 (1)
One-dimensional radiative-convective 53 (1)
climate models
Dimensionally-constrained climate models 54 (1)
General circulation models 55 (4)
Stable isotopes and interactive 59 (4)
biogeochemistry
History of climate modelling 63 (3)
Sensitivity of climate models 66 (6)
Equilibrium climatic states 67 (1)
Stability of model results 68 (1)
Equilibrium conditions and transitivity 69 (1)
of climate systems
Measures of climate model sensitivity 70 (2)
Parameterization of climatic processes 72 (4)
Interactions in the climate system 73 (3)
The need for observations 76 (1)
Simulation of the full, interacting 76 (5)
climate system: one goal of modelling
Recommended reading 77 (1)
Web resources 78 (3)
Energy Balance Models 81 (36)
Balancing the planetary radiation budget 81 (1)
The structure of energy balance models 82 (4)
Zero-dimensional EBMs 82 (3)
One-dimensional EBMs 85 (1)
Parameterizing the climate system for 86 (3)
energy balance models
Albedo 87 (1)
Outgoing infrared radiation 88 (1)
Heat transport 88 (1)
BASIC models 89 (10)
A Basic EBM 89 (1)
Description of the EBM 89 (7)
EBM model code 96 (1)
Basic geophysiology 96 (3)
Energy balance models and glacial cycles 99 (6)
Milankovitch cycles 101 (2)
Snowball Earth 103 (2)
Box models -- another form of energy 105 (8)
balance model
Zonal box models that maximize 106 (2)
planetary entropy
A simple box model of the 108 (3)
ocean-atmosphere
A coupled atmosphere, land and ocean 111 (2)
energy balance box model
Energy balance models: deceptively simple 113 (4)
models
Recommended reading 115 (1)
Web resources 116 (1)
Intermediate Complexity Models 117 (48)
Why lower complexity? 117 (4)
One-dimensional radiative-convective 121 (3)
models
The structure of global 122 (2)
radiative--convective models
Radiation: the driver of climate 124 (10)
Shortwave radiation 126 (2)
Albedo 128 (1)
Shortwave radiation subject to 128 (1)
scattering (Rs)
Shortwave radiation subject to 129 (2)
absorption (Ra)
Longwave radiation 131 (2)
Heat balance at the ground 133 (1)
Convective adjustment 134 (2)
Sensitivity experiments with 136 (4)
radiative-convective models
Sensitivity to humidity 137 (1)
Sensitivity to clouds 138 (1)
Sensitivity to lapse rate selected for 139 (1)
convective adjustment
Development of radiative-convective models 140 (3)
Cloud prediction applied to the early 140 (1)
Earth
Cloud prediction 140 (1)
Model sensitivity 141 (1)
Regional and local applications 142 (1)
Single column models 143 (1)
Two-dimensional statistical dynamical 143 (7)
climate models
Parameterizations for two-dimensional 143 (6)
modelling
`Column' processes in two-dimensional 149 (1)
statistical dynamical (SD) models
The EMIC spectrum 150 (10)
An upgraded energy balance model 150 (1)
Multi-column RC models 151 (3)
A severely truncated spectral general 154 (1)
circulation climate model
Repeating sectors in a global `grid' 155 (1)
model
A two-and-a-half-dimensional model: 156 (2)
CLIMBER-2
McGill palaeoclimate model 158 (1)
An all-aspects, severely truncated 158 (1)
EMIC: MoBidiC
EMICs predict future release of 158 (2)
radiocarbons from the oceans
Why are some climate modellers 160 (5)
Flatlanders?
Recommended reading 162 (1)
Web resources 163 (2)
Coupled Climate System Models 165 (48)
Three-dimensional models of the climate 165 (1)
system
Modelling the atmosphere 166 (22)
Finite grid formulation of atmospheric 168 (2)
models
Spectral models 170 (1)
Representing the atmosphere with waves 171 (1)
Structure of a spectral model 172 (2)
Truncation 174 (1)
Geodesic grids 175 (2)
The influence of computer architecture 177 (1)
on numerical methods
Atmospheric GCM components 178 (1)
Radiative transfer 179 (1)
Boundary layer 180 (2)
Cloud prediction 182 (1)
Convection processes 183 (4)
Precipitation 187 (1)
Gravity wave drag 187 (1)
Modelling the ocean 188 (7)
Background 188 (2)
Formulation of three-dimensional ocean 190 (1)
models
Co-ordinate system 191 (4)
Validating ocean parameterization with 195 (1)
14C isotopic simulation
Modelling the cryosphere 195 (4)
Modelling the land surface 199 (3)
Atmospheric chemistry 202 (2)
Coupling models: towards the predictive 204 (6)
Earth system model
Climate drift and flux correction 208 (1)
The `cold start' phenomenon 208 (1)
Model complexity comes full circle: 208 (2)
using `MAGICC'
Earth system and climate models 210 (3)
Recommended reading 210 (2)
Web resources 212 (1)
Practical Climate Modelling 213 (36)
Working with climate models 213 (1)
Data interchange 214 (2)
Earth System Modelling Frameworks 216 (2)
Model evaluation 218 (12)
Intercomparisons facilitated by 219 (1)
technology
AMIP and CMIP 220 (1)
Radiation and cloud intercomparisons 221 (1)
Project for Intercomparison of 222 (2)
Land-surface Parameterization Schemes
(PILPS)
Comparing carbon-cycle subcomponents of 224 (2)
climate models
Isotopes quantify the global carbon 226 (2)
budget
More and more MIPs 228 (2)
Benefits gained from climate model 230 (1)
intercomparisons
Exploitation of climate model predictions 230 (9)
Expert assessment 231 (1)
GCM experiments for specific 232 (1)
applications
Land use change 232 (2)
Palaeoclimate and mineral deposits 234 (2)
Regional climate prediction 236 (2)
Policy development 238 (1)
Integrated assessment models 239 (5)
The future of climate modelling 244 (5)
Recommended reading 246 (2)
Web resources 248 (1)
APPENDIX A Twentieth-century Classics 249 (8)
EBMs and other `simple' models 249 (1)
Classic model experiments 250 (1)
Dynamics 251 (1)
Clouds and radiation 251 (1)
The ocean 252 (1)
The land surface 253 (1)
Coupled models 253 (1)
Sea ice and snow 254 (1)
Novel ideas and applications: outside the 254 (1)
box
Climate system 254 (1)
Palaeoclimate models 255 (1)
Feedbacks and forcings 255 (2)
APPENDIX B Glossary 257 (16)
APPENDIX C About the Primer CD 273 (2)
Index 275