電気自動車技術解説<br>Electric Vehicle Technology Explained

電気自動車技術解説
Electric Vehicle Technology Explained

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 312 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470851630
  • DDC分類 629.2293

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments                                    xi
Abbreviations xiii
Symbols xv
1 Introduction 1 (22)
1.1 A Brief History 1 (4)
1.1.1 Early days 1 (2)
1.1.2 The relative decline of electric 3 (2)
vehicles after 1910
1.1.3 Uses for which battery electric 5 (1)
vehicles have remained popular
1.2 Developments Towards the End of the 5 (2)
20th Century
1.3 Types of Electric Vehicle in Use Today 7 (13)
1.3.1 Battery electric vehicles 8 (1)
1.3.2 The IC engine/electric hybrid 9 (6)
vehicle
1.3.3 Fuelled electric vehicles 15 (3)
1.3.4 Electric vehicles using supply lines 18 (1)
1.3.5 Solar powered vehicles 18 (1)
1.3.6 Electric vehicles which use 18 (2)
flywheels or super capacitors
1.4 Electric Vehicles for the Future 20 (1)
Bibliography 21 (2)
2 Batteries 23 (46)
2.1 Introduction 23 (1)
2.2 Battery Parameters 24 (6)
2.2.1 Cell and battery voltages 24 (1)
2.2.2 Charge (or Amphour) capacity 25 (1)
2.2.3 Energy stored 26 (1)
2.2.4 Specific energy 27 (1)
2.2.5 Energy density 27 (1)
2.2.6 Specific power 28 (1)
2.2.7 Amphour (or charge) efficiency 28 (1)
2.2.8 Energy efficiency 29 (1)
2.2.9 Self discharge rates 29 (1)
2.2.10 Battery geometry 29 (1)
2.2.11 Battery temperature, heating and 29 (1)
cooling needs
2.2.12 Battery life and number of deep 29 (1)
cycles
2.3 Lead Acid Batteries 30 (5)
2.3.1 Lead acid battery basics 30 (2)
2.3.2 Special characteristics of lead 32 (2)
acid batteries
2.3.3 Battery life and maintenance 34 (1)
2.3.4 Battery charging 35 (1)
2.3.5 Summary of lead acid batteries 35 (1)
2.4 Nickel-based Batteries 35 (6)
2.4.1 Introduction 35 (1)
2.4.2 Nickel cadmium 36 (2)
2.4.3 Nickel metal hydride batteries 38 (3)
2.5 Sodium-based Batteries 41 (3)
2.5.1 Introduction 41 (1)
2.5.2 Sodium sulphur batteries 41 (1)
2.5.3 Sodium metal chloride (Zebra) 42 (2)
batteries
2.6 Lithium Batteries 44 (2)
2.6.1 Introduction 44 (1)
2.6.2 The lithium polymer battery 45 (1)
2.6.3 The lithium ion battery 45 (1)
2.7 Metal Air Batteries 46 (2)
2.7.1 Introduction 46 (1)
2.7.2 The aluminium air battery 46 (1)
2.7.3 The zinc air battery 47 (1)
2.8 Battery Charging 48 (3)
2.8.1 Battery chargers 48 (1)
2.8.2 Charge equalisation 49 (2)
2.9 The Designer's Choice of Battery 51 (2)
2.9.1 Introduction 51 (1)
2.9.2 Batteries which are currently 52 (1)
available commercially
2.10 Use of Batteries in Hybrid Vehicles 53 (1)
2.10.1 Introduction 53 (1)
2.10.2 Internal combustion/battery 53 (1)
electric hybrids
2.10.3 Battery/battery electric hybrids 53 (1)
2.10.4 Combinations using flywheels 54 (1)
2.10.5 Complex hybrids 54 (1)
2.11 Battery Modelling 54 (12)
2.11.1 The purpose of battery modelling 54 (1)
2.11.2 Battery equivalent circuit 55 (2)
2.11.3 Modelling battery capacity 57 (4)
2.11.4 Simulation a battery at a set power 61 (3)
2.11.5 Calculating the Peukert Coefficient 64 (1)
2.11.6 Approximate battery sizing 65 (1)
2.12 In Conclusion 66 (1)
References 67 (2)
3 Alternative and Novel Energy Sources and 69 (12)
Stores
3.1 Introduction 69 (1)
3.2 Solar Photovoltaics 69 (2)
3.3 Wind Power 71 (1)
3.4 Flywheels 72 (2)
3.5 Super Capacitors 74 (3)
3.6 Supply Rails 77 (3)
References 80 (1)
4 Fuel Cells 81 (30)
4.1 Fuel cells, a Real Option? 81 (2)
4.2 Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Basic Principles 83 (6)
4.2.1 Electrode reactions 83 (1)
4.2.2 Different electrolytes 84 (3)
4.2.3 Fuel cell electrodes 87 (2)
4.3 Fuel Cell Thermodynamics - an 89 (7)
Introduction
4.3.1 Fuel cell efficiency and efficiency 89 (3)
limits
4.3.2 Efficiency and the fuel cell voltage 92 (2)
4.3.3 Practical fuel cell voltages 94 (1)
4.3.4 The effect of pressure and gas 95 (1)
concentration
4.4 Connecting Cells in Series - the 96 (5)
Bipolar Plate
4.5 Water Management in the PEM Fuel Cell 101 (4)
4.5.1 Introduction to the water problem 101 (1)
4.5.2 The electrolyte of a PEM fuel cell 101 (3)
4.5.3 Keeping the PEM hydrated 104 (1)
4.6 Thermal Management of the PEM Fuel Cell 105 (2)
4.7 A Complete Fuel Cell System 107 (2)
References 109 (2)
5 Hydrogen Supply 111 (30)
5.1 Introduction 111 (2)
5.2 Fuel Reforming 113 (6)
5.2.1 Fuel cell requirements 113 (1)
5.2.2 Steam reforming 114 (2)
5.2.3 Partial oxidation and autothermal 116 (1)
reforming
5.2.4 Further fuel processing: carbon 117 (1)
monoxide removal
5.2.5 Practical fuel processing for 118 (1)
mobile applications
5.3 Hydrogen Storage I: Storage as Hydrogen 119 (8)
5.3.1 Introduction to the problem 119 (1)
5.3.2 Safety 120 (1)
5.3.3 The storage of hydrogen as a 120 (2)
compressed gas
5.3.4 Storage of hydrogen as a liquid 122 (2)
5.3.5 Reversible metal hydride hydrogen 124 (2)
stores
5.3.6 Carbon nanofibres 126 (1)
5.3.7 Storage methods compared 127 (1)
5.4 Hydrogen Storage II: Chemical Methods 127 (11)
5.4.1 Introduction 127 (1)
5.4.2 Methanol 128 (2)
5.4.3 Alkali metal hydrides 130 (2)
5.4.4 Sodium borohydride 132 (3)
5.4.5 Ammonia 135 (3)
5.4.6 Storage methods compared 138 (1)
References 138 (3)
6 Electric Machines and their Controllers 141 (42)
6.1 The 'Brushed' DC Electric Motor 141 (14)
6.1.1 Operation of the basic DC motor 141 (2)
6.1.2 Torque speed characteristics 143 (4)
6.1.3 Controlling the brushed DC motor 147 (1)
6.1.4 Providing the magnetic field for DC 147 (2)
motors
6.1.5 DC motor efficiency 149 (2)
6.1.6 Motor losses and motor size 151 (2)
6.1.7 Electric motors as brakes 153 (2)
6.2 DC Regulation and Voltage Conversion 155 (11)
6.2.1 Switching devices 155 (2)
6.2.2 Step-down or 'buck' regulators 157 (2)
6.2.3 Step-up or 'boost' switching 159 (3)
regulator
6.2.4 Single-phase inverters 162 (3)
6.2.5 Three-phase 165 (1)
6.3 Brushless Electric Motors 166 (9)
6.3.1 Introduction 166 (1)
6.3.2 The brushless DC motor 167 (2)
6.3.3 Switched reluctance motors 169 (4)
6.3.4 The induction motor 173 (2)
6.4 Motor Cooling, Efficiency, Size and Mass 175 (4)
6.4.1 Improving motor efficiency 175 (2)
6.4.2 Motor mass 177 (2)
6.5 Electrical Machines for Hybrid Vehicles 179 (2)
References 181 (2)
7 Electric Vehicle Modelling 183 (30)
7.1 Introduction 183 (1)
7.2 Tractive Effort 184 (4)
7.2.1 Introduction 184 (1)
7.2.2 Rolling resistance force 184 (1)
7.2.3 Aerodynamic drag 185 (1)
7.2.4 Hill climbing force 185 (1)
7.2.5 Acceleration force 185 (2)
7.2.6 Total tractive effort 187 (1)
7.3 Modelling Vehicle Acceleration 188 (8)
7.3.1 Acceleration performance parameters 188 (1)
7.3.2 Modelling the acceleration of an 189 (4)
electric scooter
7.3.3 Modelling the acceleration of a 193 (3)
small car
7.4 Modelling Electric Vehicle Range 196 (16)
7.4.1 Driving cycles 196 (5)
7.4.2 Range modelling of battery electric 201 (5)
vehicles
7.4.3 Constant velocity range modelling 206 (1)
7.4.4 Other uses of simulations 207 (1)
7.4.5 Range modelling of fuel cell 208 (3)
vehicles
7.4.6 Range modelling of hybrid electric 211 (1)
vehicles
7.5 Simulations: a Summary 212 (1)
References 212 (1)
8 Design Considerations 213 (24)
8.1 Introduction 213 (1)
8.2 Aerodynamic Considerations 213 (5)
8.2.1 Aerodynamics and energy 213 (4)
8.2.2 Body/chassis aerodynamic shape 217 (1)
8.3 Consideration of Rolling Resistance 218 (2)
8.4 Transmission Efficiency 220 (3)
8.5 Consideration of Vehicle Mass 223 (3)
8.6 Electric Vehicle Chassis and Body Design 226 (8)
8.6.1 Body/chassis requirements 226 (1)
8.6.2 Body/chassis layout 227 (1)
8.6.3 Body/chassis strength, rigidity and 228 (3)
crash resistance
8.6.4 Designing for stability 231 (1)
8.6.5 Suspension for electric vehicles 231 (1)
8.6.6 Examples of chassis used in modern 232 (1)
battery and hybrid electric vehicles
8.6.7 Chassis used in modern fuel cell 232 (2)
electric vehicles
8.7 General Issues in Design 234 (3)
8.7.1 Design specifications 234 (1)
8.7.2 Software in the use of electric 234 (3)
vehicle design
9 Design of Ancillary Systems 237 (8)
9.1 Introduction 237 (1)
9.2 Heating and Cooling Systems 237 (3)
9.3 Design of the Controls 240 (3)
9.4 Power Steering 243 (1)
9.5 Choice of Tyres 243 (1)
9.6 Wing Mirrors, Aerials and Luggage Racks 243 (1)
9.7 Electric Vehicle Recharging and 244 (1)
Refuelling Systems
10 Electric Vehicles and the Environment 245 (16)
10.1 Introduction 245 (1)
10.2 Vehicle Pollution: the Effects 245 (3)
10.3 Vehicles Pollution: a Quantitative 248 (3)
Analysis
10.4 Vehicle Pollution in Context 251 (3)
10.5 Alternative and Sustainable Energy 254 (4)
Used via the Grid
10.5.1 Solar energy 254 (1)
10.5.2 Wind energy 255 (1)
10.5.3 Hydro energy 255 (1)
10.5.4 Tidal energy 255 (1)
10.5.5 Biomass energy 256 (1)
10.5.6 Geothermal energy 257 (1)
10.5.7 Nuclear energy 257 (1)
10.5.8 Marine current energy 257 (1)
10.5.9 Wave energy 257 (1)
10.6 Using Sustainable Energy with Fuelled 258 (1)
Vehicles
10.6.1 Fuel cells and renewable energy 258 (1)
10.6.2 Use of sustainable energy with 258 (1)
conventional IC engine vehicles
10.7 The Role of Regulations and Law Makers 258 (2)
References 260 (1)
11 Case Studies 261 (18)
11.1 Introduction 261 (1)
11.2 Rechargeable Battery Vehicles 261 (8)
11.2.1 Electric bicycles 261 (2)
11.2.2 Electric mobility aids 263 (1)
11.2.3 Low speed vehicles 263 (3)
11.2.4 Battery powered cars and vans 266 (3)
11.3 Hybrid Vehicles 269 (3)
11.3.1 The Honda Insight 269 (2)
11.3.2 The Toyota Prius 271 (1)
11.4 Fuel Cell Powered Bus 272 (3)
11.5 Conclusion 275 (2)
References 277 (2)
Appendices: MATLABョ Examples 279 (14)
Appendix 1: Performance Simulation of the 279 (1)
GM EV 1
Appendix 2: Importing and Creating Driving 280 (2)
Cycles
Appendix 3: Simulating One Cycle 282 (2)
Appendix 4: Range Simulation of the GM EV1 284 (2)
Electric Car
Appendix 5: Electric Scooter Range Modelling 286 (2)
Appendix 6: Fuel Cell Range Simulation 288 (2)
Appendix 7: Motor Efficiency Plots 290 (3)
Index 293