流れの水文学<br>Stream Hydrology : An Introduction for Ecologists (2ND)

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流れの水文学
Stream Hydrology : An Introduction for Ecologists (2ND)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 429 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470843574
  • DDC分類 551.483

基本説明

Updated to include new sections on environmental flows, rehabilitation, measuring stream health and stream classification.

Full Description


Since the publication of the first edition (1994) there have been rapid developments in the application of hydrology, geomorphology and ecology to stream management. In particular, growth has occurred in the areas of stream rehabilitation and the evaluation of environmental flow needs. The concept of stream health has been adopted as a way of assessing stream resources and setting management goals. "Stream Hydrology: An Introduction for Ecologists, Second Edition" documents recent research and practice in these areas. Chapters provide information on sampling, field techniques, stream analysis, the hydrodynamics of moving water, channel form, sediment transport and commonly used statistical methods such as flow duration and flood frequency analysis. Methods are presented from engineering hydrology, fluvial geomorphology and hydraulics with examples of their biological implications.This book demonstrates how these fields are linked and utilised in modern, scientific river management. It places emphasis on applications, from collecting and analysing field measurements to using data and tools in stream management.It is updated to include new sections on environmental flows, rehabilitation, measuring stream health and stream classification. It provides critical reviews of the successes and failures of implementation. It features revised and updated windows-based AQUAPAK software. This book is essential reading for 2nd/3rd year undergraduates and postgraduates of hydrology, stream ecology and fisheries science in Departments of Physical Geography, Biology, Environmental Science, Landscape Ecology, Environmental Engineering and Limnology. It would be valuable reading for professionals working in stream ecology, fisheries science and habitat management, environmental consultants and engineers.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition                      xi
Preface to the First Edition xiii
Introducing the Medium 1 (10)
Water as a Fluid 1 (1)
The Physics of Fluids 1 (2)
Physical Properties of Water 3 (8)
Density and Related Measures 3 (2)
Viscosity and the `No-slip Condition' 5 (1)
Surface Tension 5 (2)
Thermal Properties 7 (1)
Entrained Air and Dissolved Oxygen 8 (3)
How to Study a Stream 11 (20)
Focusing on Physical Habitat 11 (5)
The Planning Process 16 (3)
General 16 (1)
What Is the Question? 17 (1)
Choosing Your Method: The Study Design 17 (1)
Collecting Information: The Value of a 18 (1)
Pilot Study
Analysing and Presenting the Results 18 (1)
Strategic Sampling 19 (8)
Population, Sample and Other Vocabulary 19 (1)
of the Trade
The Errors of Our Ways 20 (1)
Considerations in Choosing a Sampling 21 (1)
Design
Partitioning the Stream 22 (1)
Basic Sampling Designs 23 (4)
Sample Size 27 (1)
Know Your Limitations 27 (1)
Examples of How and How Not to Conduct a 28 (3)
Study
M. Keough
Potential Sources of Data (How to Avoid 31 (18)
Reinventing the Weir)
Data Types 31 (1)
Physical Data Sources, Format and Quality 31 (6)
Where to Look for Data and What You Are 31 (2)
Likely to Find
Data Quality 33 (3)
How to Fill in a Streamflow Record 36 (1)
Maps: Finding Those Spatial Places 37 (6)
What Types of Maps Are Useful? 37 (4)
Map Interpretation 41 (2)
Revision, Accuracy and Standardization 43 (1)
of Maps
Photographs and Other Remotely Sensed Data 43 (6)
What Is Remote Sensing? 43 (1)
Photographs 44 (1)
Other Remote Sensing Imagery 45 (1)
Sources of Imagery 46 (1)
Interpretation, Classification and 47 (2)
`Ground Truthing' of Imagery
Getting to Know Your Stream 49 (26)
General Character 49 (7)
Preliminary Introductions 49 (1)
Putting the Stream Channel and Its 49 (1)
Catchment into Context
Initial Assessments of the State of a 50 (4)
Stream
An Example of a River Condition Survey: 54 (2)
The Index of Stream Condition,
Victoria, Australia
Catchment Characteristics 56 (9)
General 56 (1)
Delimiting and Measuring the Catchment 56 (2)
Area
Stream Length 58 (1)
Stream Patterns 59 (2)
Stream Orders 61 (2)
Miscellaneous Morphometric Measures 63 (2)
Streamflow Hydrographs 65 (3)
Definitions 65 (1)
Hydrograph Separation 66 (1)
Factors Influencing the Hydrograph Shape 67 (1)
Recession Curve Analysis 68 (1)
How Does This Stream Measure Up? 68 (7)
General 68 (1)
Annual Statistics 69 (2)
Monthly Statistics 71 (1)
Daily Statistics 71 (1)
A Method for Describing Hydrological 71 (4)
Predictability: Colwell's Indices
How to Have a Field Day and Still Collect 75 (52)
Some Useful Information
Venturing into the Field 75 (1)
Surveying: A Brief Introduction 76 (8)
General 76 (1)
Horizontal Distance 76 (1)
Vertical Distance 77 (1)
Slope 78 (1)
The Full Contingent of Co-ordinates, 79 (5)
Including Methods of Mapping
Methods of Measuring Areal Extent 84 (3)
General 84 (1)
Visual Estimation of Percentage Cover 84 (1)
Point Intercept Method 84 (1)
Line Intercept Method 85 (2)
Grids 87 (1)
Surveying Streams 87 (3)
General 87 (1)
Cross-sectional Profiles 87 (1)
Channel Slope and Thalweg Profile 88 (1)
Bed Surface Materials 89 (1)
Mapping the Stream Reach 89 (1)
Measurement of Water Level or Stage 90 (2)
General 90 (1)
The Staff Gauge 90 (1)
Maximum Stage Recorders or Crest Gauges 90 (1)
Automatic Recorders 90 (1)
Depth to the Water Table: Piezometry 91 (1)
Measurement of Discharge (Streamflow) 92 (12)
General 92 (1)
Volumetric Measurement 92 (1)
Velocity-area Method 93 (3)
Dilution Gauging Methods 96 (2)
Stream Gauging 98 (3)
Slope-area Method of Estimating 101 (3)
Discharge
Substrates and Sediments: Sampling and 104 (10)
Monitoring Methods
General 104 (1)
Bank Material Sampling (Soil Sampling) 105 (1)
Bed Material Sampling 105 (1)
Sampling Suspended Sediments 106 (4)
Sampling Bedload Sediments 110 (3)
Erosion and Scour 113 (1)
Substrates and Sediments: Analysis of 114 (11)
Physical Properties
General 114 (1)
Soil Moisture Content, Gravimetric 114 (1)
Method
Sediment Concentration 114 (1)
Particle Size 115 (4)
Presentation of Particle Size Data 119 (2)
Particle Shape: Roundness, Sphericity 121 (1)
Particle Arrangement and Other 122 (3)
Miscellaneous Bulk Properties
Water Quality 125 (2)
Water at Rest and in Motion 127 (42)
General 127 (1)
Hydrostatics: the Restful Nature of Water 127 (3)
Pressure 127 (2)
Buoyancy 129 (1)
Studying the Flow of Fluids 130 (2)
Steady and Unsteady Flow 130 (1)
Streamlines 130 (1)
Conserving Mass: The Principle of 131 (1)
Continuity
Energy Relationships and the Bernoulli 131 (1)
Equation
Narrowing the Focus: Flow of a Viscous 132 (9)
Fluid
Laminar and Turbulent Flow 132 (4)
Flow Past Solid Surfaces: The Boundary 136 (5)
Layer
The Microenvironment: Flow Near Solid 141 (14)
Surfaces
General 141 (1)
Describing the Velocity Profile and 141 (2)
Boundary Layer Thickness near a Solid
Surface
Shear Stress and Drag Forces 143 (3)
Flow around Bluff Bodies 146 (6)
Lift 152 (1)
Methods of Microvelocity Measurement 153 (2)
Open-channel Hydraulics: The 155 (14)
Macro-environment
But First, A Few Definitions 155 (1)
Introduction to Hydraulics 155 (1)
The Variations of Velocity in Natural 156 (3)
Channels
Energy Relationships in Streams 159 (4)
Shear Stress and the Uniform Flow 163 (2)
Equations of Chezy and Manning
Water-surface Profiles in Gradually 165 (2)
Varied Flow
Hydraulic Jumps and Drops, Alias 167 (2)
Rapidly Varied Flow
It's Sedimentary, Watson! 169 (32)
Introduction to Stream Channels, 169 (5)
Streambeds and Transported Materials
General 169 (1)
Making Up a Channel Bed 169 (1)
What Sort of Debris Is Transported? 170 (2)
Sediment Distribution and Discharge 172 (1)
Ecological Implications 173 (1)
Stream-shaping Processes 174 (8)
A Note about Stream Power 174 (2)
Adjustments and Equilibrium 176 (1)
Balancing Slope, Streamflow, and 177 (1)
Sediment Size and Load
Floods and Floodplain Formation 178 (1)
Channel-forming Discharges 179 (1)
Fluvial Geometry 180 (2)
The Ins and Outs of Channel Topography 182 (7)
Channel Patterns 182 (3)
Pools, Riffles and Steps 185 (1)
Bars 186 (1)
Dunes, Ripples and Flat Beds of Sand 187 (2)
Sediment Motion 189 (6)
Erosion, Transport and Deposition 189 (1)
Deviations from `Ideal' 190 (1)
Predicting a Particle's `Get Up and Go' 191 (4)
Sediment Yield from a Catchment 195 (6)
Sediment Sources and Sinks 195 (2)
Sediment Yield Variations 197 (1)
Computing Sediment Discharge and Yield 198 (1)
from Measured Concentrations
The Estimation of Sediment Discharge 199 (2)
from Streamflow
Dissecting Data with a Statistical Scope 201 (32)
Introduction 201 (3)
General 201 (1)
Floods and Droughts 201 (2)
Data Considerations 203 (1)
Putting Statistics into a Proper 203 (1)
Perspective
Streamflow Frequency Analysis 204 (11)
General Concepts 204 (1)
Probability and Average Recurrence 204 (1)
Intervals
The Data Series 205 (2)
Graphical Methods: The Probability Plot 207 (1)
Fitting Probability Distributions 208 (2)
A Few Good Probability Distributions 210 (2)
Zeros and How to Treat Them 212 (2)
Goodness, The Distribution Fits! 214 (1)
Interpreting Frequency Curves 214 (1)
Flow-duration Curves 215 (3)
General 215 (1)
Constructing Flow-duration Curves 216 (1)
Interpretation and Indices 217 (1)
Flow Spell Analysis 218 (1)
Extrapolating from the Known to the 219 (5)
Unknown
General 219 (1)
Transposing Data from Gauging Stations 220 (1)
to Less-endowed Sites
Regionalization 221 (3)
Numerical Taxonomy: Multivariate Analysis 224 (9)
Techniques
General 224 (1)
Similarity/Dissimilarity Indices 225 (1)
Ordination 225 (3)
Classification 228 (3)
Other Sources of Information on 231 (2)
Numerical Taxonomy
``Putting It All Together'': Assessing 233 (126)
Stream Health, Stream Classification,
Environmental Flows and Rehabilitation
Putting Theories into Practice 233 (4)
Understanding Stream Values 237 (2)
What Are Stream Values? 237 (1)
Ecological Potential 237 (1)
The Role of Science in the Stream 238 (1)
Health Policy Debate
Assessing Stream Health 239 (23)
Introduction 239 (1)
Describing Reach Condition 240 (1)
Physico-chemical Assessment 241 (1)
Habitat Assessment 242 (5)
Hydrological Assessment 247 (2)
Bioassessment 249 (12)
Types of Stream Health Monitoring 261 (1)
Program
Selecting a Method for Measuring Stream 261 (1)
Health
The Use of Stream Classification in 262 (24)
Management
Introduction 262 (1)
Ecological Classification Models Based 263 (4)
on Energetics, Structure, Function and
Dynamics of Rivers
Geomorphological Classification Models 267 (6)
Based on River Process and Structure
Hydrologically Based Classification 273 (2)
Water Quality-based Classification 275 (1)
Combined Physical-chemical-ecological 276 (1)
Classification Models
Ecoregions and Multi-scale 277 (1)
Classification
Wetland Classification 278 (3)
Estuary Classification 281 (1)
Classification of Conservation Value of 282 (1)
Rivers
Designated Use Classification 283 (3)
Summary 286 (1)
Assessing Instream Environmental Flows 286 (33)
Introduction 286 (1)
Instream and Environmental Flows Defined 287 (1)
Three Basic Assumptions of 288 (2)
Environmental Flows Assessment
Forms of Environmental Flow Assessment 290 (1)
Hydrological Methods 291 (2)
Hydraulic Rating Methods 293 (2)
Habitat Rating Methods 295 (4)
Holistic Methods 299 (3)
Other Approaches 302 (10)
Implementation and Evaluation of 312 (6)
Environmental Flows
Summary 318 (1)
Stream Rehabilitation 319 (40)
The Basis of Stream Rehabilitation 319 (7)
Addressing Biotic Factors 326 (4)
Correction of Physical Limiting Factors 330 (3)
Rehabilitation of Channel Form 333 (12)
Instream Habitat Improvement Structures 345 (4)
Evaluation of a Range of Stream 349 (8)
Rehabilitation Projects
Some Reflections on Stream 357 (2)
Rehabilitation
Appendix Basic Statistics 359 (12)
References 371 (52)
Index 423