European and International Experiences of Strategic Environmental Assessment : Recent Progress and Future Prospects

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European and International Experiences of Strategic Environmental Assessment : Recent Progress and Future Prospects

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 362 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780415656788
  • DDC分類 333.714094

Full Description


This book brings together the latest thinking in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and considers the key question of whether the processes are having a positive impact on strategic decision making, both in Europe and worldwide.As governments move to develop green agendas, the book explores the challenges of working within national systems, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of sector-specific SEA. The importance of stakeholder engagement is considered, as is the question of how to turn NIMBYs into WIMBYs - that is, creating positive reasons to encourage development and allow local stakeholders to profit.In assessing ways in which the practice of SEA can provide a new agenda for the 21st Century, the chapters explore current and emerging approaches, procedures and methods, along with ways in which SEA can be linked with other planning tools. The role of research and academia is considered, and the book looks beyond the current status of SEA to address the question of how practitioners can capitalise on the potential of SEA to become integrated into high-level policy as a key element of climate change mitigation strategies. Each chapter is written by internationally renowned authors and based on many years of experience in the field. The book will be essential reading for forward-thinking practitioners and students of SEA.

Table of Contents

List of figures                                    xiii
List of tables xiv
List of boxes xvi
Acknowledgements xvii
1 SEA at a milestone and a crossroad: the 1 (16)
paradox of progress and performance
Barry Sadler
Jiri Dusik
Introduction 1 (1)
Background: SEA progress and prospects in 2 (3)
perspective
Themes and approach: terms of reference 5 (3)
and guidance for authors
Scope and organisation of the review 8 (6)
SEA systems and their implementation 9 (2)
Elements and dimensions of SEA practice 11 (3)
Conclusions 14 (3)
2 SEA effectiveness in a no-analogue world 17 (38)
Barry Sadler
Introduction 17 (1)
Background on SEA as an environmental and 18 (2)
sustainability instrument
Global environmental change and its 20 (6)
sustainability implications
Environmental trends and issues 21 (2)
Planetary thresholds and boundaries 23 (3)
How does SEA measure up as an 26 (10)
environmental instrument?
Unpacking the building blocks of SEA 28 (6)
effectiveness
SEA contribution to decision-making and 34 (2)
environmental safeguarding
On reorienting SEA as an environmental 36 (7)
sustainability instrument
Some initial organising perspectives 37 (1)
Emerging trends in impact science 38 (2)
relevant to ESA purpose
Building blocks of an ESA process 40 (3)
Conclusions 43 (12)
Part I Review of SEA process implementation 55 (120)
3 The implementation of the EU SEA Directive: 57 (27)
main achievements and challenges
Louis Meuleman
Introduction 57 (1)
Background and context 57 (5)
The EU framework of environmental 58 (2)
impact assessment
The scope of the SEA Directive 60 (2)
Commission guidance documents on 62 (1)
environmental assessments
Transposition and application of the SEA 62 (2)
Directive
Transposition and conformity 62 (1)
SEA of plans and programmes co-financed 63 (1)
or required by the EU
Benefits and challenges of the SEA 64 (10)
Directive
Benefits 64 (2)
Challenges 66 (8)
Reflection on key SEA issues 74 (4)
Observations on the SEA practice 74 (4)
Conclusions and perspectives 78 (6)
On the future of the SEA Directive 79 (5)
4 Reflections on a dysfunctional SEA-system ? 84 (25)
the case of Swedish spatial planning
Lars Emmelin
Introduction 84 (1)
Background on SEA effectiveness 85 (2)
Understanding the performance of the 85 (1)
Swedish system
Expectations for SEA performance 85 (2)
Background on SEA and spatial planning in 87 (2)
Sweden
Issues of SEA application 89 (10)
'Avoidance syndrome' 89 (1)
'Good intentions illusion' 90 (1)
Tiering or 'the hierarchy fallacy' 91 (1)
Handling of alternatives 92 (2)
EIA confusion 94 (2)
Natura 2000 ? the invisible conflict 96 (1)
'The prediction quandary' 97 (1)
Performance versus expectations 98 (1)
Sweden: general lessons or unfortunate 99 (10)
exception?
Attitudes to SEA in the planning system 100 (1)
The role of the scientific discourse on 101 (1)
SEA doctrine
Fundamental problems? 102 (7)
5 SEA and EU Cohesion Policy: coming together 109 (21)
or still far apart?
Martin Smutn?
Peter Hjerp
Mojca Hrabar
Alexandra Jiricka
Gordon Mclaren
Jiri Dusik
Introduction 109 (1)
Background on EU Cohesion Policy 109 (3)
Key trends and developments 112 (1)
Wider policy context 112 (1)
Link to Regional Development Programmes 113 (1)
Complex programming procedures 113 (1)
Existing implementing structures and 113 (1)
means
Effectiveness and quality of SEA practice 113 (8)
in the programming process
Importance of general national policy 114 (2)
context
Linking SEA and programming process 116 (2)
Experience with SEA application 118 (1)
Integration of environmental criteria 118 (3)
in overall implementation
Consultation with stakeholders 121 (1)
Emerging directions and future prospects 121 (3)
Conclusions and recommendations 124 (6)
6 SEA in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and 130 (24)
Central Asia: implementation of the UNECE
Protocol on SEA to the convention on
environmental impact assessment in a
transboundary context (Espoo Convention)
Tea Aulavuo
Introduction 130 (1)
Background and overview of the Protocol 130 (3)
Key features of the Protocol 131 (1)
Relationship with the SEA Directive 132 (1)
Implementation of the Protocol 133 (3)
First meeting of the Parties to the 133 (1)
Protocol
First review of implementation of the 134 (2)
Protocol
SEA in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and 136 (12)
Central Asia
South-Eastern Europe 137 (1)
Eastern Europe and the Caucasus 138 (4)
Central Asia 142 (6)
Concluding remarks 148 (6)
7 Toward good practice in SEA for development 154 (21)
cooperation
Jonathan Hobbs
Introduction 154 (1)
Background on SEA for development 155 (3)
cooperation
Differentiation of international aid 155 (1)
actors
Seeking harmonization in the basics of 155 (1)
SEA
The drivers of SEA in development 156 (2)
cooperation-changing aid modalities
Making SEA application relevant in 158 (9)
development terms
A pro-poor approach 158 (1)
Relevance to the principles of 159 (3)
international development
Defining SEA in development cooperation 162 (1)
Perspectives on SEA purpose 163 (1)
EIA pedigree ? an advantage or a 164 (1)
handicap?
Quality criteria: how to recognize a 165 (1)
good SEA
Appropriate entry points for SEA in 166 (1)
development cooperation
Progressing work on SEA in development 166 (1)
agencies
Progressing work on SEA in developing 167 (1)
countries
SEA ? remaining challenges 167 (3)
The need to increase SEA application to 168 (1)
the policy level
The need for donors to practice what 168 (1)
they preach
The need for political leadership by 169 (1)
the developing country partner
The need for practical 'on the job' 169 (1)
training
The need to demonstrate the efficacy of 169 (1)
SEA
Conclusion 170 (5)
Part II Dimensions of SEA practice 175 (172)
8 Effectiveness of European national SEA 177 (25)
systems: how are they making a difference?
William R. Sheate
Richard. P Eales
Introduction 177 (1)
Background 178 (4)
SEA effectiveness 178 (2)
Experience from Europe 180 (2)
Recent trends and developments 182 (3)
Public participation 182 (1)
Streamlining of assessment processes 183 (2)
and deregulation
Ecosystem services 185 (1)
Key issues emerging from current European 185 (5)
practice
Evaluation of effectiveness 190 (2)
Emerging directions and future prospects 192 (2)
Guidance 192 (1)
Developing new approaches/techniques 192 (2)
Conclusions and recommendations 194 (8)
9 Sector-specific SEA: are we getting it 202 (23)
right?
Marie Hanusch
Monica Fundingsland Tetlow
Davide Geneletti
Mojca Hrabar
Ausra Jurkeviciute
Rob Gardner
Introduction 202 (1)
Key issues and sectors for closer 203 (2)
consideration
Key issues 203 (1)
Selection of sectors 203 (2)
SEA in spatial planning 205 (4)
Cross-cutting issues 205 (3)
Conclusions and emerging issues 208 (1)
SEA in the transport sector 209 (4)
Cross-cutting issues 210 (2)
Conclusions and emerging issues 212 (1)
SEA in the energy sector 213 (4)
Cross-cutting issues 214 (2)
Conclusions and emerging issues 216 (1)
SEA in non-traditional settings 217 (2)
Case studies and cross-cutting issues 217 (1)
Conclusions and emerging issues 218 (1)
Conclusions and recommendations 219 (6)
10 SEA procedures and methods: the importance 225 (19)
of baseline, political and pragmatic contexts
Elsa Jo縊
David Annandale
Introduction 225 (1)
Background ? the state of the art 225 (2)
Baseline context 227 (4)
Political context 231 (4)
Pragmatic context 235 (2)
Conclusions and recommendations 237 (7)
11 Public and stakeholder engagement in 244 (26)
strategic environmental assessment
Ralf Aschemann
Giorgio Baldizzone
Carlo Rega
Introduction 244 (1)
Public participation and stakeholder 245 (7)
engagement in SEA: key concepts,
definitions and current trends
Evaluating stakeholder engagement and 252 (4)
public participation in SEA: established
criteria and current practice
Public and stakeholder engagement: 256 (5)
emerging directions and future prospects
Conclusions and recommendations 261 (9)
12 Linking SEA with other assessment and 270 (14)
planning tools
Thomas B. Fischer
Introduction 270 (1)
Linking up different assessment 271 (2)
instruments and planning tools ? meaning
and rationale
Aspects of linking up 273 (1)
Linking up different assessment processes 273 (2)
Linking up of substantive assessment 275 (1)
aspects
Linking up assessment instruments used by 276 (1)
different administrations
Further arguments for and against full 277 (1)
integration of different impact
assessment instruments
Conclusions 278 (6)
13 Integrating climate change in SEA practice 284 (19)
Lone K?rn?v
Sanne Vammen Larsen
Patrick Driscoll
Ivar Lyhne
Introduction 284 (2)
The role of SEA on the climate change 286 (2)
agenda
Three approaches to climate change 286 (1)
integration
Three main roles of SEA 287 (1)
Status of integrating climate change into 288 (1)
SEA practice
Climate change uncertainty and SEA 289 (3)
Embracing uncertainty 290 (2)
Adaptive management and learning processes 292 (1)
Narrow boundaries? Using life cycle 293 (1)
assessment to integrate climate change
mitigation concerns
Lack of consideration of indirect land 293 (1)
use effects (ILUC)
Considering synergies and conflicts 294 (1)
Transdisciplinarity: resilience and 295 (2)
vulnerability
Conclusion and discussion 297 (6)
The fundamental hindrance: the growth 298 (5)
regime
14 Beyond current SEA practice 303 (22)
Riki Therivel
Mike Jones
Bryan Jenkins
Introduction 303 (1)
State of current SEA practice 303 (3)
Strengths 303 (1)
Weaknesses 304 (2)
Beyond current SEA practice 306 (12)
Overview 306 (1)
Broadening analysis to consider social 307 (1)
and economic as well as environmental
issues
Greater focus on the social benefits 308 (1)
provided by the environment
Extension of the timeframe of analysis 309 (1)
both forwards and backwards
Greater focus on equity 310 (1)
Decisions should aim for net 311 (1)
sustainability gains
Identification of limits and 312 (1)
capacities, and their use in
decision-making
Adapting to change and managing for, 313 (2)
rather than trying to reduce,
uncertainties
Burden of argument, precautionary 315 (1)
principle
Democratisation of decision-making 316 (1)
More active consideration of 317 (1)
governance, values-based leadership
Conclusions: going beyond current SEA 318 (7)
practice
15 SEA research and capacity development 325 (22)
agenda
Matthew Cashmore
Maria Partid疵io
Introduction 325 (1)
Background 326 (1)
Key trends in SEA research and capacity 327 (2)
development
Key issues for research and capacity 329 (5)
development
Evaluating effectiveness 334 (1)
Future directions and prospects 335 (4)
Conclusions and recommendations 339 (8)
About the contributors 347 (6)
Index 353