古代中国・ギリシアにおける科学と医療<br>The Way and the Word : Science and Medicine in Early China and Greece

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古代中国・ギリシアにおける科学と医療
The Way and the Word : Science and Medicine in Early China and Greece

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 368 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780300101607
  • DDC分類 509

基本説明

Two world-renowned scholars compare and contrast the cosmology, science, and medicine of China and Greece between 400 B.C. and A.D. 200.

Full Description


The rich civilizations of ancient China and Greece built sciences of comparable sophistication-each based on different foundations of concept, method, and organization. In this engrossing book, two world-renowned scholars compare the cosmology, science, and medicine of China and Greece between 400 B.C. and A.D. 200, casting new light not only on the two civilizations but also on the evolving character of science.Sir Geoffrey Lloyd and Nathan Sivin investigate the differences between the thinkers in the two civilizations: what motivated them, how they understood the cosmos and the human body, how they were educated, how they made a living, and whom they argued with and why. The authors' new method integrally compares social, political, and intellectual patterns and connections, demonstrating how all affected and were affected by ideas about cosmology and the physical world. They relate conceptual differences in China and Greece to the diverse ways that intellectuals in the two civilizations earned their living, interacted with fellow inquirers, and were involved with structures of authority. By A.D. 200 the distinctive scientific strengths of both China and Greece showed equal potential for theory and practice. Lloyd and Sivin argue that modern science evolved not out of the Greek tradition alone but from the strengths of China, Greece, India, Islam, and other civilizations, which converged first in the Muslim world and then in Renaissance Europe.

Table of Contents

Introduction                                       xi
1. Aims and Methods 1 (15)
What Is Ancient Science? 4 (2)
What Is Comparable? 6 (3)
Methods 9 (1)
Period 9 (2)
Historical Setting 11 (5)
2. The Social and Institutional Framework of 16 (66)
the Chinese Sciences
Social Distinctions 16 (6)
Origins of Scientists and Physicians 22 (5)
Employment and Patronage 27 (15)
Individuals, Groups, Education, Transmission 42 (19)
Arguments, Books, Commentaries, Memorials 61 (18)
The Social Nexus of the Sciences 79 (3)
3. The Social and Institutional Framework of 82 (58)
Greek Science
The Origins of Investigators, Employment, 82 (22)
Patronage
Individuals, Groups, Sects, Orthodoxies 104(14)
Debates, Lectures, Dialogues, Treatises, 118(22)
Commentaries
4. The Fundamental Issues of Greek Science 140(48)
The Problem 140(2)
Why Elements, Why Nature, Why Reality versus 142(16)
Appearances?
Causes 158(7)
Mathematical and Physical Explanations 165(9)
Cosmos: Assumptions and Debates 174(9)
Conclusions 183(5)
5. The Fundamental Issues of the Chinese 188(51)
Sciences
The Problem 188(1)
The Aims of Inquiry 189(4)
The World That Concepts Describe 193(10)
Appearance versus Reality 203(11)
Macrocosm and Microcosms 214(12)
The Concepts of the Sciences 226(8)
Conclusions 234(5)
6. Chinese and Greek Sciences Compared 239(14)
Concepts 240(2)
Livelihood 242(1)
Applications of Cosmology and Science 243(1)
Pluralism and Deviance 244(2)
Public and Private Spheres 246(1)
Consensus and Disagreement 247(2)
Persuasion 249(1)
The Way and the Word 250(3)
Appendix: Evolution of the Chinese Cosmological 253(20)
Synthesis
Chronology of Historical Events 273(6)
Notes 279(20)
Bibliography 299(30)
Index and Glossary 329