This book is the result of more than 20 years of experience in working with near-infrared spectroscopy for raw milk analysis. The totality of this work presents extensive possibilities for milk spectral measurements that can be carried out in dairy. Moving beyond the standard milk components such as fat, protein, or lactose, this book presents near-infrared spectroscopy as a method that can also be used in disease diagnostics. The measurements and experimental results presented here are all based on the utilization of usually neglected near-infrared regions—regions with strong absorbance of water. The author has found the water – light interaction discussed to be an immensely rich source of information, not only on milk composition but also on the physiological status of the animals involved. A special section of the book is dedicated to exploration of potential interfering factors that may influence the analysis and contribute to the robustness of the models. The research described in this book served as a basis for the development of the novel discipline aquaphotomics and is of interest to anyone working in this field.
Part I: Introduction.- 1. Milk Quality Management: State of the Art and Contemporary Requirements.- 2. Near-infrared Spectroscopy for Milk Quality Analysis: The State of the Art.- 3. Aquaphotomics: Advancing Beyond the State of the Art.- Part II: NIRS for Individual Cow's Milk Composition Measurement.- 4. Milk Fat Measurement.- 5. Milk Protein Measurement.- 6. Milk Lactose Measurement.- 7. Milk Urea Nitrogen Measurement.- 8. Milk Fatty Acids Measurement.- Part III: NIRS for Somatic Cell Count Determination in Individual Cow's Milk.- 9. Near-infrared Spectroscopy: A New Diagnostic Tool for Determination of Somatic Cell Count.- 10. Non-destructive Somatic Cell Count Measurement Using Near-Infrared Spectra of Milk in the 400–1,100 nm Short Wavelength Region.- 11. Measurement of Somatic Cell Count in the 700–1,100 nm Short Wavelength Region using PLS Regression and Referenced Data.- 12. Measurement of Somatic Cell Count in the 700–1,100 nm Short Wavelength Region: Comparison of At-line and On-line Measurement Modes.- Part IV: Perturbation Influence on NIRS Measurement of Milk Composition.- 13. Influence of Sample Thickness and Individual Characteristics of Each Cow on Milk Composition Measurement in the Spectral Region from 700 to 1,100 nm.- 14. Influence of Individual Characteristics of Each Cow on Milk Composition Measurement in the Spectral Region from 1,100 to 2,400 nm.- 15. Mastitis Influence on Protein Measurement in the spectral region from 700 to 1,100 nm.- 16. Mastitis Influence on Milk Composition Measurement in the Spectral Region from 1,100 to 2,400 nm.- Part V: Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Physiological Studies of Dairy Cows.- 17. Interrelation between the Composition and Near-Infrared Spectra of Milk, Blood Plasma and Rumen Juice of Lactating Cows.- 18. Near-Infrared Spectra of Urine for Mastitis Diagnostics.- 19. Mastitis Diagnostics based on the Near-Infrared Spectra of Cow's Milk, Blood and Urine.- 20. Near-Infrared Spectra of Udder Quarter Foremilk for Measurement of Both Somatic Cell Count and Absolute Electrical Conductivity and for Diagnosis of Mastitis.- 21. Real-time Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Udder Tissue for Mastitis Diagnosis.- 22. Estrus Detection in Dairy Cows Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Aquaphotomics.- Part VI: Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Artificial Intelligence for Functional Studies of Dairy Cows.- 23. Two-dimensional Correlation Analysis of the Near-Infrared Spectra of Milk and Milk Constituents: Temporal Study of Post-partum Adaptation in Dairy Cows.- 24. Two-Dimensional Near-Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy of an Individual Cow's Milk for Functional Study of Somatic-Cell-Count Changes in Milk.- 25. Wavelet Transform of Near-Infrared Individual Cow's Milk for Single-Spectrum Mastitis Diagnosis.- 26. Artificial Neural Network Applied to Near-Infrared Spectra of Raw Milk for Dairy Cow Feeding Management.- 27. Artificial Intelligence in Dairy Farming: The Near-Infrared Approach.- Part VII: Conclusion and Future Perspectives.- 28. Conclusion and Future Perspectives.