火山活動<br>Volcanism

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火山活動
Volcanism

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 324p./サイズ 400 illus., 396 in color
  • 商品コード 9783540436508

基本説明

日本地球惑星科学連合2006年大会好評書。
Based on over 300 color figures and the model of plate tectonics the book offers an insight in the generation of magmas and the occurrence and origin of volcanoes.

Full Description


Volcanic eruptions are the clear and dramatic expression of dynamic processes in planet Earth. The author, one of the most profound specialists in the field of volcanology, explains in a concise and easy to understand manner the basics and most recent findings in the field. Based on over 300 color figures and the model of plate tectonics, the book offers insight into the generation of magmas and the occurrence and origin of volcanoes. The analysis and description of volcanic structures is followed by process oriented chapters discussing the role of magmatic gases as well as explosive mechanisms and sedimentation of volcanic material. The final chapters deal with the forecast of eruptions and their influence on climate. Students and scientists of a broad range of fields will use this book as an interesting and attractive source of information. Laypeople will find it a highly accessible and graphically beautiful way to acquire a state-of-the-art foundation in this fascinating field."Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject... In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features..."I have really enjoyed reading and rereading Schmincke's book. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism... I have shared Volcanism with my colleagues to their significant benefit, and I am more convinced of its value for a broad range of Earth and planetary scientists.Undoubtedly, I will use Volcanism for my upcoming courses in volcanology. I will never hesitate to recommend it to others. Many geoscientists from very different subdisciplines will benefit from adding the book to their personal libraries. Schmincke has done us all a great service by undertaking the grueling task of writing the book - and it is much better that he alone wrote it." Stanley N. Williams, ASU Tempe, AZ (Physics Today, April 2005)"Schmincke is a German volcanologist with an international reputation, and he has done us all a great favour because he sensibly channelled his fascination with volcanoes into writing this beautifully illustrated book... [he] tackles the entire geological setting of volcanoes within the earth and the processes that form them... And, with more than 400 colour illustrations, including a huge number of really excellent new diagrams, cutaway models and maps, plus a rich glossary and references, this book is accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject." New Scientist (March 2004)"The science of volcanology has made tremendous progress over the past 40 years, primarily because of technological advances and because each tragic eruption has led researchers to recognize the processes behind such serious hazards. Yet scientists are still learning a great deal because of photographs that either capture those processes in action or show us the critical factors left behind in the rock record.Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject. I found myself wishing that I had had the photo of Nicaragua's Masaya volcano, which was the subject of my dissertation, but it was Schmincke who was able to include it in his book. In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features. The book's paper is of such high quality that at times I felt I had turned two pages rather than one.I have really enjoyed reading and rereading Schmincke's book. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism. I was disappointed that the text did not arrive on my desk until last August, when it was too late for me to choose it for my course in volcanology. I am also disappointed about another fact-the book's binding is already becoming tattered because of my intense use of it! Schmincke is a volcanologist who, in 1967, first published papers on sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin, the direction traveled by lava flows millions of years ago, and the structures preserved in explosive ignimbrites, or pumice-flow deposits, that reveal important details of their formation. Since then, his studies in Germany's Laacher See, the Canary Islands, the Troodos Ophiolite of Cyprus, and many other regions have forged great fundamental advances. Such contributions have been recognized with his receipt of several international awards and clearly give him a strong base for writing the book.However, as a scientist who has focused on the challenges of monitoring the very diverse activities of volcanoes, I think that the text's overriding emphasis on the rock record has its cost. The group of scientists who are struggling with their goals to reduce or mitigate the hazards of the eruptions of tomorrow need to learn more about the options of technology, instrumentation, and methodology that are currently available. More than 500 million people live near the more than 1500 known active volcanoes and are constantly facing serious threats of eruptions. An extremely energetic earthquake caused the horrific tsunamis of 2004. However, the tsunamis of 1792, 1815, and 1883, which were caused by the eruptions of Japan's Unzen volcano and Indonesia's Tambora and Krakatau volcanoes, each took a similar toll. "( Stanley N. Williams, PHYSICS TODAY, April 2005)

Table of Contents

Introduction                                       1  (1)
Early Perception of Volcanoes and 1 (2)
Volcanic Actions
Neptunists, Volcanists and Plutonists 3 (2)
How and Why Do Volcanoes Work? 5 (1)
The Volcano-Magma System 6 (1)
The Global Framework of Volcanism 7 (1)
Nature - Nurture 8 (1)
How Do Volcanologists Work and Why Do 9 (2)
They Work on Volcanoes?
The Impact of Volcanic Activity on the 11
Environment and on Society
Plate Tectonics 2 (19)
The Conveyor Belt of the Mid-Ocean Ridges 14 (1)
The Layered Earth 15 (1)
Dynamic Subdivision of the Earth 15 (2)
Distribution of Volcanoes on the Earth's 17 (1)
Surface
Hybrid Tectonic Settings 18 (1)
Summary 19 (2)
Magma 21 (14)
What Is Magma? 21 (1)
Classification of Igneous Rocks 21 (2)
Where Are Magmas Generated? 23 (1)
How Are Magmas Generated? 24 (2)
Why Do Magmas Rise? 26 (1)
Magmatic Differentiation 26 (1)
Cooling and Crystallization of Lava Lakes 27 (1)
Magma Chambers 28 (1)
Zoning in Phenocryst Minerals 29 (1)
Compositionally Zoned Magma Reservoirs 30 (4)
Summary 34 (1)
Rheology, Magmatic Gases, Bubbles and 35 (24)
Triggering of Eruptions
Rheology 37 (1)
Melt Structure 38 (1)
Viscosity 39 (3)
Magmatic Gases 42 (6)
Volatile Budget of Kilauea Volcano 48 (1)
Formation of Bubbles 49 (1)
Explosive Eruptions 50 (1)
External and Internal Forcing Mechanisms 51 (1)
or Why Do Volcanoes Erupt?
Triggering of Volcanic Eruptions 52 (1)
Internal Forcing Mechanisms 52 (2)
Internal / External Forcing Mechanisms 54 (1)
Extrinsic Far Field Lithosphere 54 (1)
Atmosphere and Climate 55 (1)
The 864 A.D. and 1707 A.D. Eruptions of 56 (1)
Mt. Fuji
Classification of Pyroclastic Eruptions 56 (1)
Summary 57 (2)
Mid-Ocean Ridges 59 (12)
The Revolution in the Earth Sciences 59 (1)
Geophysical Studies of the Ocean Crust 60 (1)
Ridge Morphology and Tectonics 61 (3)
Pillow Lavas and Pillow Volcanoes 64 (1)
Sheet Lavas 64 (2)
Pyroclastic Eruptions in the Deep Sea? 66 (1)
How Common Are Submarine Eruptions? 67 (1)
The Roots of Mid-Ocean Ridge Magma 67 (2)
Chambers
Summary 69 (2)
Seamounts and Volcanic Islands 71 (26)
Seamounts 72 (3)
Guyots 75 (1)
Volcanic Islands 75 (7)
Destructive Stage and Lateral Apron Growth 82 (1)
How Representative Are the Evolutionary 83 (7)
Stages of the Hawaiian Islands?
Speculations on the Cause of Contrasting 90 (1)
Evolution of Oceanic Islands
Large Igneous Provinces and Oceanic 91 (1)
Plateaus
Hot Spots and Mantle Plumes 92 (4)
Summary 96 (1)
Continental Intraplate Volcanoes 97 (16)
Rift Zones and Rift Shoulders 97 (2)
Scoria Cones 99 (2)
The Quaternary Volcanic Fields of the 101(5)
Eifel
The Yellowstone Plume 106(1)
Flood Basalts 107(4)
Generation of Flood Basalts 111(1)
Summary 111(2)
Subduction Zone Volcanoes 113(14)
Subduction Zones 113(1)
Volcanic Arcs Above Subduction Zones 114(1)
Island Arcs 115(2)
Convergent Continental Margins 117(1)
Volcanic Fronts 118(4)
Subduction Zone Magmas 122(1)
Source Materials 122(2)
The Role of Water 124(1)
Summary 125(2)
Volcanic Edifices and Volcanic Deposits 127(28)
Lava Flows 127(1)
Pahoehoe Lava 128(1)
Basalt Columns 129(2)
Aa Lava 131(1)
Block Lava 132(1)
Domes 132(5)
Tephra and Pyroclastic Deposits 137(1)
Scoria Cones 138(5)
Stratovolcanoes 143(1)
Flank Collapses, Debris Avalanches and 144(3)
Debris Flows
Calderas and Caldera Volcanoes 147(2)
Calderas on Basaltic Volcanoes and the 149(2)
2000 Eruption of Miyakejima Volcano
Ash-Flow Calderas 151(3)
Summary 154(1)
Strombolian, Hawaiian and Plinian Eruptions 155(22)
and the Mount St. Helens Eruption 1980
Pyroclastic Fragmentation 155(2)
Eruption Columns 157(4)
Strombolian and Hawaiian Eruptions 161(2)
Plinian Eruptions 163(3)
The Eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 166(6)
May 1980
Analysis of the Eruption Dynamics 172(4)
Summary 176(1)
Pyroclastic Flows, Block and Ash Flows, 177(32)
Surges and the Laacher See Eruption
Some Historical Notes 180(4)
Terminology 184(3)
Ignimbrites 187(6)
Pyroclastic Block Flows and Their Deposits 193(2)
Origin of Pyroclastic Block Flows 195(1)
Surges, Blasts, Umbrella Clouds and 196(2)
Debris Jets
The Eruption of Laacher See Volcano 12900 198(9)
Years Ago
Summary 207(2)
Fire and Water 209(20)
The Discovery 209(4)
Rapid Cooling 213(2)
The High Explosivity of Magma--Water 215(2)
Interactions
Open Water Conditions 217
The Initial and Terminal Phases of 216(8)
Eruptions
Phreatic Eruptions 224(1)
Rainwater 225(1)
Fire and Ice 225(2)
Summary 227(2)
Volcanic Hazards, Volcanic Catastrophes, 229(30)
and Disaster Mitigation
Terminology 230(1)
Volcanic Hazards 230(9)
The Volcano Explosivity Index (VEI) 239(1)
Can Volcanic Catastrophes be Avoided? 239(3)
Monitoring 242(9)
Lessons Learned From Two Large Volcanic 251(1)
Eruptions
Nevado del Ruiz 252(1)
Pinatubo 253(3)
Volcanic Eruptions and the Media 256(1)
Summary 257(2)
Volcanoes and Climate 259(14)
The Scientific Revolution 260(1)
Input of Volcanic Gases into the 261(1)
Atmosphere
Sulfur 262(1)
Formation of the Aerosol Veil: 263(1)
Gas-Particle Conversion
The Effects of Stratospheric Aerosol 264(2)
Veils on Global and Regional Temperatures
and Ozone Depletion
Which Volcanic Eruptions Load the 266(1)
Atmosphere Most?
Back For the Future 267(2)
The Chicken and the Egg 269(1)
Are Mass Extinctions Due to 270(1)
Mega-eruptions?
Summary 271(2)
Man and Volcanoes: The Benefits 273(18)
Heat From the Interior of the Earth 273(1)
Geothermal Energy 273(3)
Hot Water Valves on the Ocean Floor and 276(2)
the Formation of Ore Deposits
Volcanic Soils 278(2)
Volcanoes as Source for Raw Materials 280(2)
The Attraction of Volcanoes and Volcanic 282(5)
Landscapes
Summary 287(2)
Epilogue 289(2)
Physical Units and Abbreviations 291(2)
Glossary 293(6)
References 299(12)
Subject Index 311(8)
Index of Geographical Names 319(6)
Index of Names 325