Chemical-Mechanical Planarization of Semiconductor Materials (Springer Series in Materials Science Vol.69) (2004. XI, 425 p. w. 298 ill.)

個数:

Chemical-Mechanical Planarization of Semiconductor Materials (Springer Series in Materials Science Vol.69) (2004. XI, 425 p. w. 298 ill.)

  • 在庫がございません。海外の書籍取次会社を通じて出版社等からお取り寄せいたします。
    通常6~9週間ほどで発送の見込みですが、商品によってはさらに時間がかかることもございます。
    重要ご説明事項
    1. 納期遅延や、ご入手不能となる場合がございます。
    2. 複数冊ご注文の場合、分割発送となる場合がございます。
    3. 美品のご指定は承りかねます。

  • 提携先の海外書籍取次会社に在庫がございます。通常2週間で発送いたします。
    重要ご説明事項
    1. 納期遅延や、ご入手不能となる場合が若干ございます。
    2. 複数冊ご注文の場合、分割発送となる場合がございます。
    3. 美品のご指定は承りかねます。
  • 【重要:入荷遅延について】
    各国での新型コロナウィルス感染拡大により、洋書・洋古書の入荷が不安定になっています。
    弊社サイト内で表示している標準的な納期よりもお届けまでに日数がかかる見込みでございます。
    申し訳ございませんが、あらかじめご了承くださいますようお願い申し上げます。

  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 425 p., 298 illus.
  • 商品コード 9783540431817

Full Description


This book contains a comprehensive review of CMP (Chemical-Mechanical Planarization) technology, one of the most exciting areas in the field of semiconductor technology. It contains detailed discussions of all aspects of the technology, for both dielectrics and metals. The state of polishing models and their relation to experimental results are covered. Polishing tools and consumables are also covered. The leading edge issues of damascene and new dielectrics as well as slurryless technology are discussed.

Table of Contents

  1 Introduction
Michael R. Oliver 1 (6)
1.1 Original Motivation for CMP 1 (1)
1.2 CMP Technology and Its Technical 1 (1)
Understanding
1.3 Applications of CMP to 2 (1)
Semiconductor Processing
1.4 Polishing Tools and Consumables of 3 (1)
CMP Technology
1.5 Post CMP Cleaning 4 (1)
1.6 Integration of CMP Into the 5 (1)
Semiconductor Fabrication Process
1.7 Pattern Dependency Issues 5 (1)
1.8 Other Issues 6 (1)
References 6 (1)
2 CMP Technology
Michael R. Oliver 7 (34)
2.1 Background and Motivation for CMP 7 (1)
2.2 Description of the CMP Process 8 (1)
2.3 Polishing Equipment 8 (4)
2.4 Polish Process 12 (2)
2.5 Planarization 14 (5)
2.6 Polish Process Variables 19 (7)
2.7 Scales and Random Polishing Effects 26 (4)
2.8 Random Effects 30 (1)
2.9 Slurries with Particles Other than 31 (2)
Silica
2.10 Non-ILD Non-Metal CMP 33 (4)
2.11 Conclusion 37 (1)
References 38 (3)
3 Metal Polishing Processes
D.R. Evans 41 (44)
3.1 Metal Polishing Processes 41 (5)
3.2 Evolution of Damascene Surface 46 (5)
Morphology During Polishing
3.3 Specifics of Tungsten and Copper 51 (9)
Polishing
3.4 Metal Polishing Chemistry 60 (2)
3.5 Acid-Base Equilibria 62 (1)
3.6 Buffering 63 (3)
3.7 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 66 (1)
3.8 Half Reactions 67 (1)
3.9 Electrode Potentials 67 (4)
3.10 Complexation 71 (3)
3.11 Surfactants and Inhibitors 74 (5)
3.12 The Future of Metal Polishing 79 (1)
References 80 (5)
4 Metal CMP Science
David Stein 85 (48)
4.1 Introduction 85 (1)
4.2 Tungsten Experimental Data Chemical 86 (11)
and Electrochemical
4.3 Tungsten Experimental Data - Role 97 (6)
of Slurry Particle
4.4 Conclusions on Mechanisms on W CMP 103(1)
4.5 Copper Experimental Data Chemical 104(14)
and Electrochemical
4.6 Copper Summary 118(1)
4.7 CMP Removal Models 119(1)
4.8 Tungsten Model of Paul 120(4)
4.9 Tungsten Model of Stein et al 124(3)
4.10 Copper Model of Babu et al 127(2)
4.11 Model Summary 129(1)
4.12 Future Trends 130(1)
References 131(2)
5 Equipment Used in CMP Processes
Thomas Tracker 133(34)
5.1 CMP Tool Requirements 133(5)
5.2 Rotary CMP Tools 138(1)
5.3 Rotary Kinematics 139(3)
5.4 Carousel Systems 142(1)
5.5 Orbital Systems 143(3)
5.6 Linear Systems 146(2)
5.7 Modified Grinding Systems 148(1)
5.8 Web Format Tools 149(2)
5.9 Electrochemical Mechanical 151(1)
Planarization
5.10 Carrier Technology 151(4)
5.11 Pad Conditioning 155(3)
5.12 Endpointing 158(5)
5.13 Summary 163(1)
References 163(4)
6 CMP Polishing Pads
David B. James 167(48)
6.1 Introduction 167(1)
6.2 Polymer Requirements for Polishing 167(3)
Pads
6.3 Basics of Polyurethanes 170(2)
6.4 Types of Commercially Available 172(8)
Polishing Pads and Their Manufacture
6.5 Control of Polyurethane Pad 180(9)
Properties
6.6 Control of Pad Properties Through 189(8)
Pad Geometry
6.7 Relationships Between Pad 197(10)
Properties and Polishing Performance
6.8 Slurryless Pad Technology 207(1)
6.9 Future Trends in Polishing Pads 208(2)
6.10 Acknowledgements 210(1)
References 210(5)
7 Fundamentals of CMP Slurry
Karl Robinson 215(36)
7.1 Introduction: Basic Components of 215(2)
CMP Slurries
7.2 Surface Science and 217(5)
Electrochemistry in CMP Slurry
7.3 Slurry as a Suspension 222(10)
7.1 Solids Content 232(9)
7.5 Slurry Handling 241(4)
7.6 Future Trends in Slurry 245(1)
7.7 Summary 246(1)
References 247(4)
8 CMP Cleaning
John de Larios 251(32)
8.1 Introduction 251(8)
8.2 Polishing and the Control of CMP 259(1)
Defects
8.3 Mechanical Brush Scrubbing for CMP 260(3)
Cleaning
8.4 Non-Contact Processes for CMP 263(1)
Cleaning
8.5 Other Cleaning Technologies 264(1)
8.6 Cleaning of Oxides, W, STI, Cu, and 265(11)
low k Materials
8.7 Future Directions for CMP Cleaning 276(1)
8.8 Conclusion 277(1)
References 277(6)
9 Patterned Wafer Effects
D. Boning and D. Hetherington 283(68)
9.1 Introduction 283(1)
9.2 Planarization Terminology and 283(16)
Characterization
9.3 Pattern Dependencies in Dielectric 299(27)
CMP
9.4 Metal CMP Pattern Dependencies 326(18)
References 344(7)
10 Integration Issues of CMP
K.M. Robinson, K. DeVriendt and D.R. Evans 351(68)
10.1 Oxide CMP Integration 351(22)
10.2 Tungsten CMP 373(11)
10.3 STI Integration 384(12)
10.4 Copper Damascene Integration 396(11)
10.5 Other Applications of CMP 407(5)
References 412(7)
Appendix: Pourbaix Diagrams 419(6)
References 425