樹木・森林測定<br>Tree and Forest Measurement (2004. XII, 167 p. w. 17 figs. 23,5 cm)

樹木・森林測定
Tree and Forest Measurement (2004. XII, 167 p. w. 17 figs. 23,5 cm)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 167 p.
  • 商品コード 9783540403906

基本説明

Summarises modern forest measurement techniques and describes why forests are measured, how to measure them, and the basis of the science behind these techniques.

Full Description


Forests must be measured, if they are to be managed and conserved properly. This book describes the principles of modern forest measurement, whether using simple, hand-held equipment or sophisticated satellite imagery. Written in a straightforward style, it will be understood by everyone who works with forests, from the professional forester to the layperson. It describes how and why forests are measured and the basis of the science behind the measurements taken.

Table of Contents

  1 Introduction                                   1  (4)
1.1 Scope of this Book 1 (2)
1.2 Scale of Measurement 3 (1)
1.3 Why Measure Forests? 3 (2)
2 Measurements 5 (8)
2.1 Measuring Things 5 (1)
2.2 Accuracy, Bias and Precision 6 (4)
2.2.1 Accuracy 7 (1)
2.2.2 Bias 8 (1)
2.2.3 Precision 9 (1)
2.3 Bias, Precision and the Value of 10 (3)
Measurements
3 Stem Diameter 13 (6)
3.1 Basis of Stem Diameter Measurement 13 (1)
3.2 Stem Cross-sectional Shape 14 (1)
3.3 Measuring Stem Diameter 15 (2)
3.4 Tree Irregularities and Stem Diameter 17 (1)
3.5 Bark Thickness 18 (1)
4 Tree Height 19 (8)
4.1 Basis of Height Measurement 19 (1)
4.2 Height by Direct Methods 20 (1)
4.3 Height by Trigonometric Methods 20 (3)
4.4 Height by Geometric Methods 23 (1)
4.5 Height of Leaning Trees 24 (3)
5 Stem Wood Volume 27 (12)
5.1 Reasons for Volume Measurement 27 (1)
5.2 Volume by Xylometry 28 (1)
5.3 Volume by Sectional Measurement 28 (6)
5.3.1 Sectional Volume Formulae 29 (1)
5.3.2 Tree Stem Shape 30 (2)
5.3.3 Sectional Measurement of Felled 32 (1)
Trees
5.3.4 Sectional Measurement of Standing 33 (1)
Trees
5.4 Volume by Importance or Centroid 34 (5)
Sampling
6 stem Volume and Taper Functions 39 (18)
6.1 Principles 39 (1)
6.2 Stem Volume Functions 40 (6)
6.2.1 Total Volume Estimated from 40 (4)
Diameter and Height
6.2.2 Volume Estimated from Diameter, 44 (1)
Height and Taper
6.2.3 Merchantable Stem Volume 45 (1)
6.3 Taper Functions 46 (8)
6.3.1 Examples of Taper Functions 47 (3)
6.3.2 Using Taper Functions 50 (4)
6.4 Developing Stem Volume and Taper 54 (3)
Functions
7 Tree Biomass 57 (12)
7.1 Reasons for Biomass Measurement 57 (1)
7.2 Biomass by Direct Measurement 58 (4)
7.2.1 Branches and Foliage 59 (1)
7.2.2 Stems 60 (1)
7.2.3 Roots 60 (1)
7.2.4 Carbon Content of Biomass 61 (1)
7.3 Biomass Estimation Functions 62 (7)
7.3.1 Allometric Functions 63 (1)
7.3.2 Root Biomass Functions 64 (1)
7.3.3 Leaf Biomass Functions 65 (2)
7.3.4 Fine-root Biomass Functions 67 (2)
8 Stand Measurement 69 (24)
8.1 Stands and Why they are Measured 69 (1)
8.2 Measurements in Stands 70 (1)
8.3 Age 70 (1)
8.4 Basal Area 71 (4)
8.4.1 Plot Measurement 72 (1)
8.4.2 Point sampling 72 (1)
8.4.3 Practicalities of Point sampling 72 (3)
8.5 Stocking Density 75 (4)
8.6 Quadratic Mean Diameter 79 (1)
8.7 Dominant Height 79 (2)
8.7.1 Importance of Dominant Height 80 (1)
8.7.2 Measuring Dominant Height 81 (1)
8.8 Site Productive Capacity 81 (4)
8.9 Volume 85 (3)
8.9.1 Plot Measurement 85 (2)
8.9.2 Point sampling 87 (1)
8.10 Biomass 88 (1)
8.11 Stand Growth 88 (5)
9 Measuring Populations 93 (10)
9.1 Forest Inventory and sampling 93 (1)
9.2 Subjective Versus Objective Sample 94 (1)
Selection
9.3 Population Statistics 95 (1)
9.3.1 Measures of Central Tendency 95 (1)
9.3.2 Variance and Confidence Limits 96 (1)
9.4 Calculating the Population statistics 96 (7)
10 sampling Theory 103(18)
10.1 Sampling Techniques and their 103(1)
Efficiency
10.2 Sampling with Varying Probability of 104(8)
Selection
10.2.1 Population Estimates with Variable 104(1)
Probabilities
10.2.2 Probability Proportional to Size 105(4)
10.2.3 Probability Proportional to 109(3)
Prediction
10.3 Stratified Random Sampling 112(2)
10.4 Model-based Sampling 114(4)
10.4.1 Applying Model-based Sampling 114(4)
10.5 Choosing the Sampling Technique 118(3)
11 Conducting an Inventory 121(12)
11.1 Objectives 121(1)
11.2 Stratification 122(1)
11.3 Forest Area 123(1)
11.4 Conduct of the Inventory 124(2)
11.5 Fixed-area Plot and Point sampling 126(1)
11.6 Systematic sampling 126(1)
11.7 Measuring Plots 127(4)
11.7.1 Shape 128(1)
11.7.2 Positioning 128(1)
11.7.3 Size 129(1)
11.7.4 Edge Plots 130(1)
11.7.5 Measurement Errors 130(1)
11.8 Conclusion 131(2)
12 The Plane survey 133(14)
12.1 Mapping 133(1)
12.2 Survey Example 134(1)
12.3 Conducting the survey 134(2)
12.4 Calculating the Survey Results 136(5)
12.5 Plotting the Surveyed Area as Part of 141(1)
a Map
12.6 Area of a Surveyed Region 142(2)
12.7 Global Positioning system 144(3)
References 147(6)
Appendix 1 Glossary 153(6)
Appendix 2 Conversion Factors 159(2)
Appendix 3 The Greek Alphabet 161(2)
Appendix 4 Basic Trigonometry 163(2)
Index 165