Organic Metal and Metalloid Species in the Environment : Analysis, Distribution, Processes and Toxicological Evaluation (2004. XVIII, 328 p. w. 85 figs.)

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Organic Metal and Metalloid Species in the Environment : Analysis, Distribution, Processes and Toxicological Evaluation (2004. XVIII, 328 p. w. 85 figs.)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 328 p.
  • 商品コード 9783540208297

Description


(Text)
Subsequent to the profiling of organometal(loid) compounds in important biogeogenic and anthropogenic deposits, the importance of this class of compounds for human health are evaluated by the analysis of both physicochemical and biological formation, distribution and transformation processes. Multidisciplinary articles written by experts from disciplines as diverse as biogeochemistry, ecotoxicology, analytical chemistry, microbiology and genetics estimate the global levels of biogeogenic and anthropogenic emissionsof organometal(loid) compounds, and thus obtain an insight to processes which influence the genesis, as well as the distribution and stability of organometal(loid) species and their interaction with each other and other matrix compounds. The authors evaluate various environmentally relevant sources from a toxicological point of view, in order to identify potential "hot spots" of organometal(loid)s, which can negatively influence ecosystems and human health.
(Table of content)
1 Organometallic compounds in the environment: An overview.- 2 Advances in analytical methods for speciation of trace elements in the environment.- 3 Analytical strategies for arsenic speciation in environmental and biological samples.- 4 Occurrence and speciation of arsenic, antimony and tin in specimens used for environmental biomonitoring of limnic ecosystems.- 5 Methylated metal(loid) species in biological waste treatment.- 6 Volatile mercury species in environmental gases and biological samples.- 7 Biovolatilisation of metal(loid)s by microorganisms.- 8 The Effect of Phosphate on the Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Arsenic(V) by the Marine Alga Fucus gardneri.- 9 Molecular modeling studies of specific interactions between organometallic compounds and DNA.- 10 Organometal(loid) compounds associated with human metabolism.- 11 Genotoxicity of organometallic species.- 12 Current aspects on the genotoxicity of arsenite and its methylated metabolites: Oxidative stress andinteractions with the cellular response to DNA damage.- 13 Cytogenetic investigations in employees from waste industries.- 14 Neurotoxicity of metals.- 15 Actions of metals on membrane channels, calcium homeostasis and synaptic plasticity.- 16 Effects of organometal(loid) compounds on neuronal ion channels: possible sites for neurotoxicity.- 17 Panel discussion: Analytical aspects Discussion Session on "Speciation Analysis of Environmental Samples".- 18 Panel discussion: Toxicological Aspects Discussion Session on "Toxicological Aspects of Alkylated Metal(loid) Species".- Resumé.

Table of Contents

  1 Organometallic compounds in the                1  (16)
environment: An overview
P.J. Craig and R.O. Jenkins
General points l
Biomethylation 5 (7)
Arsenic 6 (2)
Antimony 8 (1)
Mercury 8 (3)
Microbial demethylation/dealkylation 11 (1)
Literature 12 (5)
2 Advances in analytical methods for 17 (24)
speciation of trace elements in the
environment
J. Szpunar, B. Bouyssiere, R. Lobinski
Introduction 17 (1)
Organometall(oid) Species in the 18 (1)
Environment
Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation 18 (2)
Analysis
Advances in GC/ICP-M S 20 (9)
Advances in Gas Chromatography prior to 21 (1)
ICP-MS
ICP-MS Detection in Gas Chromatography 22 (2)
GC/ICP-MS Studies Using Stable Isotopes 24 (3)
Advances in Sample Preparation 27 (2)
Multidimensional LC with ICP-MS Detection 29 (6)
The Coupling HPLC/ICP-MS 29 (1)
Electrospray Mass Spectrometry for the 30 (4)
Species Identification
Multidimensional Analytical Strategy 34 (1)
for the Identification of Organoarsenic
Species in Marine Biota
Conclusions 35 (1)
Literature 35 (6)
3 Analytical strategies for arsenic 41 (30)
speciation in environmental and biological
samples
J. Feldmann, S. Devalla, A. Raab, H.R.
Hansen
Arsenic species in the environment and in 41 (4)
biological samples
Analytical strategies 45 (7)
Sample preparation 45 (2)
Separation methods 47 (2)
Identification 49 (2)
Quantification 51 (1)
Analytical aspects of selected arsenic 52 (15)
speciation studies
Gas chromatography coupled to MS or 52 (5)
ICP-MS
Liquid chromatography coupled to ESI-MS 57 (10)
and ICP-MS
Conclusions 67 (1)
Acknowledgements 68 (1)
Literature 68 (3)
4 Occurrence and speciation of arsenic, 71 (26)
antimony and tin in specimens used for
environmental biomonitoring of limnic
ecosystems
H. Emons, Z. Sebesvari, K. Falk, M. Krachler
Environmental biomonitoring 71 (1)
Occurrence of As, Sb and Sn in freshwater 72 (4)
ecosystems
Arsenic 73 (1)
Antimony 74 (1)
Tin 75 (1)
Speciation analysis of As, Sb and Sn in 76 (10)
limnic samples
Arsenic species 80 (2)
Antimony species 82 (2)
Tin species 84 (1)
Quality assurance 84 (2)
Speciation of As, Sb, Sn in limnic 86 (5)
bioindicators - first results
Arsenic 86 (2)
Antimony 88 (1)
Tin 88 (3)
Outlook and future challenges 91 (1)
Acknowledgment 92 (1)
Literature 92 (5)
5 Methylated metal(loid) species in 97 (16)
biological waste treatment
R.A. Diaz-Bone, B. Menzel, A. Barrenstein,
A.V. Hirner
Introduction 97 (3)
Biological waste treatment 98 (2)
Experimental 100(3)
Derivatisation of ionic species 100(2)
Sampling of gaseous species 102(1)
Metal analysis 102(1)
Set-up of garden composting experiments 103(1)
Results and discussion 103(7)
Ionic organometal(loid) species in 103(2)
compost from waste treatment facilities
Metal(loid) species in different aged 105(3)
compost
Biomethylation in garden compost 108(2)
Conclusions 110(3)
6 Volatile mercury species in environmental 113(24)
gases and biological samples
J. Hippler, J. Kresimon, A.V. Hirner
Introduction 113(1)
Analytical methods 114(5)
Instrumental techniques 114(5)
Results 119(10)
Environmental samples 119(3)
Biological samples 122(5)
Validation of data 127(2)
Discussion 129(2)
Dimethylmercury in environmental gases 129(1)
Mercury species generated in metabolic 130(1)
processes
Conclusions 131(1)
Acknowledgements 132(1)
Literature 132(5)
7 Biovolatilisation of metal(loid)s by 137(18)
microorganisms
K. Michalke & R. Hensel
Introduction 137(1)
Analytical setup for identifying and 138(1)
quantifying metal(loid)-organic
derivatives
Volatile metal(loid) compounds in the 138(2)
environment
Towards an understanding of metal(loid) 140(9)
biotransformation processes
Direct monitoring of volatile 140(2)
metal(loid) derivatives in the
environment
Monitoring of metal(loid) 142(5)
volatilisation by microbial populations
enriched from original environments
Monitoring of metal(loid) 147(2)
volatilisation by isolated strains
Conclusion and perspectives 149(1)
Literature 150(5)
8 The Effect of Phosphate on the 155(12)
Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of
Arsenic(V) by the Marine Alga Fucus gardneri
S.C.R. Granchinho, W.R. Cullen, E.
Polishchuk, and K.J. Reimer
Introduction 155(1)
Experimental 156(2)
Reagents and Chemicals 156(1)
Medium and Antibiotics 156(1)
Fucus gardneri Samples 157(1)
Sample Preparation and Analysis 157(1)
Results and discussion 158(7)
Acknowledgments 165(1)
Literature 165(2)
9 Molecular modeling studies of specific 167(14)
interactions between organometallic compounds
and DNA
R. Yonchev, H. Rehage, H. Kuhn
Introduction 167(1)
Theory and methods 167(8)
Extensible Systematic Force Field (ESFF) 168(4)
Ligand aligning algorithm 172(3)
Results and discussion 175(5)
Conclusions 180(1)
Future work 180(1)
Literature 180(1)
10 Organometal(loid) compounds associated with 181(24)
human metabolism
A.V. Hirner, L.M. Hartmann, J. Hippler, J.
Kresimon, J. Koesters, K. Michalke, M.
Sulkowski, A.W. Rettenmeier
Introduction 181(2)
Experimental 183(2)
Ingestion experiment 183(1)
Analytical methods 184(1)
Results 185(13)
Gaseous samples 185(1)
Saliva 186(1)
Urine 187(5)
Blood 192(4)
Faeces 196(2)
Discussion 198(3)
Conclusions 201(1)
Acknowledgements 201(1)
Literature 201(4)
11 Genotoxicity of organometallic species 205(16)
A.-M. Florea, E. Dopp, G. Obe, A.W.
Rettenmeier
Human exposure to organometallic species 205(1)
Gcnotoxicity of organometallic species 206(8)
Genotoxic effects of organomercury 206(2)
compounds
Genotoxic effects of organoarsenic 208(3)
compounds
Genotoxic effects of organotin compounds 211(3)
In vitro genotoxicity of different 214(1)
organometal(loid) compounds in CHO cells
Summary 215(1)
Literature 216(5)
12 Current aspects on the genotoxicity of 221(14)
arsenite and its methylated metabolites:
Oxidative stress and interactions with the
cellular response to DNA damage
A. Hartwig, T. Schwerdtle, I. Walter
Introduction 221(2)
Oxidative DNA damage 223(3)
DNA repair systems and interactions by 225(1)
arsenite
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation as sensitive 226(2)
intracellular target for arsenite
Conclusions and perspectives 228(2)
Acknowledgements 230(1)
Literature 230(5)
13 Cytogenetic investigations in employees from 235(12)
waste industries
Helga Fender, Giesela Wolf
Introduction 235(1)
Materials and methods 236(3)
Subjects 236(1)
Smoking Status 237(1)
Cytogenetic methods 238(1)
Results 239(4)
Discussion 243(1)
Acknowledgements 244(1)
Literature 244(3)
14 Neurotoxicity of metals 247(12)
G. Stoltenburg-Didinger
Introduction 247(1)
Mercury 248(3)
Lead 251(4)
Literature 255(4)
15 Actions of metals on membrane channels, 259(24)
calcium homeostasis and synaptic plasticity
D. B selberg
Relevance of metals 259(4)
Lead 259(2)
Aluminium 261(1)
Zinc 262(1)
Mercury 262(1)
Interference of metals with cell functions 263(7)
Metals on Membrane Channels 264(4)
Other channels involved in lead toxicity 268(1)
Metals and calcium homeostasis 269(1)
Lead and aluminium actions on synaptic 269(1)
plasticity
Relevance of the data 270(1)
General Implications 271(1)
Literature 272(11)
16 Effects of organometal(loid) compounds on 283(34)
neuronal ion channels: possible sites for
neurotoxicity
J. Gruner, K. Kr er, N. Binding, M.
Madeja, U. MuBhoff
Toxicity of organometal(loid)s 283(1)
Neurotoxic aspects of organometal(loid)s 283(2)
Neurotoxicity of inorganic and organic 285(1)
arsenicals
Target structures of neurotoxicity 286(1)
Function of ion channels in the nervous 287(1)
system
Prediction of neurotoxic potency of 288(5)
hazardous substances with an in vivo
expression system: Xenopus laevis oocytes
The use of Xenopus laevis oocytes for 288(3)
electrophysiological studies of ion
channels
Testing the Xenopus expression system 291(2)
for neurotoxicological investigations:
Effects of lead on voltage- and
transmitter-operated ion channels
Effects of arsenicals on 293(10)
transmitter-operated ion channels
Transmembraneous ion currents through 293(1)
the different glutamate-operated ion
channels
Electrophysiological techniques 294(1)
Reproducibility of the 295(1)
receptor-mediated ion currents (control
experiments)
Application of the arsenicals 296(1)
Effects of inorganic arsenite 297(2)
Effects of monomethylarsonic acid 299(2)
(MeAsO(OH)2)
Effects of dimethylarsinic acid 301(2)
(Me2AsOOH)
Effects of arsenicals on voltage-operated 303(3)
potassium channels
Transmembraneous ion currents through 304(1)
different voltage-operated potassium
channels
Electrophysiological techniques 304(2)
Neuronal ion channels as targets for 306(4)
organic arsenicals
Perspectives and limitation of Xenopus 307(1)
oocytes
Effects of arsenicals on 307(2)
glutamate-operated ion channels
Effects of arsenicals on 309(1)
voltage-operated potassium channels
Significance in arsenic poisoning 310(1)
Literature 310(7)
17 Panel discussion: Analytical aspects 317(2)
Discussion Session on "Speciation Analysis of
Environmental Samples"
Convener: H. Emons
18 Panel discussion: Toxicological Aspects 319(4)
Discussion Session on "Toxicological Aspects of
Alkylated Metal(loid) Species"
Convener: A. W. Rettenmeier
Resum  323(2)
Subject Index 325