The Forgotten Revolution : How Science Was Born in 300 BC and Why it Had to Be Reborn (2004. IX, 487 p. w. figs. 23,5 cm)

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The Forgotten Revolution : How Science Was Born in 300 BC and Why it Had to Be Reborn (2004. IX, 487 p. w. figs. 23,5 cm)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 487 p.
  • 商品コード 9783540203964

基本説明

New in softcover. Hardcover was published in 2003. Discusses such questions as- What were the landmarks in the meteoric rise of science 2300 years ago?, What led to the end of ancient science? and much more.

Description


(Text)
The period from the late fourth to the late second century B. C. witnessed, in Greek-speaking countries, an explosion of objective knowledge about the external world. WhileGreek culture had reached great heights in art, literature and philosophyalreadyin the earlier classical era, it is in the so-called Hellenistic period that we see for the ?rst time - anywhere in the world - the appearance of science as we understand it now: not an accumulation of facts or philosophically based speculations, but an or- nized effort to model nature and apply such models, or scienti?ctheories in a sense we will make precise, to the solution of practical problems and to a growing understanding of nature. We owe this new approach to scientists such as Archimedes, Euclid, Eratosthenes and many others less familiar todaybut no less remarkable. Yet, not long after this golden period, much of this extraordinary dev- opment had been reversed. Rome borrowed what it was capable of from the Greeks and keptit for a little while yet, but created very little science of its own. Europe was soon smothered in theobscurantism and stasis that blocked most avenues of intellectual development for a thousand years - until, as is well known, the rediscovery of ancient culture in its fullness paved the way to the modern age.
(Review)
From the reviews:

"Russo has achieved and exhibited an extensive survey of science in the Hellenistic world at the time after Aristotle ... . The treat in store for the reader of this book is the vast learning that Lucio Russo has acquired, which he explains with lucidity. ... it is useful for private study, for one's own enlightenment; on the other it will enrich every science course and every history course that involves these time periods." (Samuel S. Kutler, MAA online, September, 2004)

"Russo presents an enticing vision of a Hellenistic world with a highly organized scientific effort that lasted for centuries. ... The copious, informative and useful illustrations in this beautifully produced volume intensify the sense of what was lost when this great civilization went into decline and perished." (Mott Greene, NATURE, August, 2004)

"The central thesis of the book is that science originated in the Hellenistic period ... . To summarize the book: It certainly has a number of good points. The author has combed through 200 medieval texts (plus others). There are lots of footnotes identifying sources (even in different editions of the same book) and an index of writings consulted (with page numbers). ... a very remarkable book in its depth and the boldness of its claims." (Nimish Shah, Newsletter of the London Mathematical Society, March, 2005)

Table of Contents

Introduction                                       1  (4)
The Birth of Science 5 (26)
The Erasure of the Scientific Revolution 5 (5)
On the Word ``Hellenistic'' 10 (5)
Science 15 (6)
Was There Science in Classical Greece? 21 (6)
Origins of Hellenistic Science 27 (4)
Hellenistic Mathematics 31 (26)
Precursors of Mathematical Science 31 (8)
Euclid's Hypothetico-Deductive Method 39 (2)
Geometry and Computational Aids 41 (3)
Discrete Mathematics and the Notion of 44 (1)
Infinity
Continuous Mathematics 45 (3)
Euclid and His Predecessors 48 (1)
An Application of the ``Method of 49 (3)
Exhaustion''
Trigonometry and Spherical Geometry 52 (5)
Other Hellenistic Scientific Theories 57 (38)
Optics, Scenography and Catoptrics 57 (8)
Geodesy and Mathematical Geography 65 (5)
Mechanics 70 (3)
Hydrostatics 73 (2)
Pneumatics 75 (3)
Aristarchus, Heliocentrism, and Relative 78 (8)
Motion
From the Closed World to the Infinite 86 (3)
Universe
Ptolemaic Astronomy 89 (6)
Scientific Technology 95 (48)
Mechanical Engineering 96 (2)
Instrumentation 98 (7)
Military Technology 105(7)
Sailing and Navigation 112(3)
Naval Architecture. The Pharos 115(3)
Hydraulic and Pneumatic Engineering 118(5)
Use of Natural Power 123(5)
The Antikythera Mechanism 128(2)
Heron's Role 130(7)
The Lost Technology 137(6)
Medicine and Other Empirical Sciences 143(28)
The Birth of Anatomy and Physiology 143(2)
Relationship Between Medicine and Exact 145(5)
Sciences
Anatomical Terminology and the Screw Press 150(1)
The Scientific Method in Medicine 151(5)
Development and End of Scientific Medicine 156(2)
Botany and Zoology 158(7)
Chemistry 165(6)
The Hellenistic Scientific Method 171(32)
Origins of Scientific Demonstration 171(3)
Postulates or Hypotheses 174(1)
Saving the Phainomena 175(4)
Definitions, Scientific Terms and 179(6)
Theoretical Entities
Episteme and Techne 185(2)
Postulates and the Meaning of 187(7)
``Mathematics'' and ``Physics''
Hellenistic Science and Experimental 194(2)
Method
Science and Orality 196(1)
Where Do Cliches about ``Ancient 197(6)
Science'' Come From?
Some Other Aspects of the Scientific 203(28)
Revolution
Urban Planning 203(6)
Conscious and Unconscious Cultural 209(5)
Evolution
The Theory of Dreams 214(4)
Propositional Logic 218(3)
Philological and Linguistic Studies 221(3)
The Figurative Arts, Literature and Music 224(7)
The Decadence and End of Science 231(12)
The Crisis in Hellenistic Science 231(4)
Rome, Science and Scientific Technology 235(5)
The End of Ancient Science 240(3)
Science, Technology and Economy 243(26)
Modernism and Primitivism 243(2)
Scientific and Technological Policy 245(4)
Economic Growth and Innovation in 249(4)
Agriculture
Nonagricultural Technology and Production 253(4)
The Role of the City in the Ancient World 257(3)
The Nature of the Ancient Economy 260(3)
Ancient Science and Production 263(6)
Lost Science 269(60)
Lost Optics 269(4)
Eratosthenes' Measurement of the Meridian 273(4)
Determinism, Chance and Atoms 277(4)
Combinatorics and Logic 281(1)
Ptolemy and Hellenistic Astronomy 282(4)
The Moon, the Sling and Hipparchus 286(7)
A Passage of Seneca 293(3)
Rays of Darkness and Triangular Rays 296(6)
The Idea of Gravity after Aristotle 302(3)
Tides 305(4)
The Shape of the Earth: Sling or 309(2)
Ellipsoid?
Seleucus and the Proof of Heliocentrism 311(4)
Precession, Comets, etc. 315(2)
Ptolemy and Theon of Smyrna 317(3)
The First Few Definitions in the Elements 320(9)
The Age-Long Recovery 329(70)
The Early Renaissances 329(6)
The Renaissance 335(9)
The Rediscovery of Optics in Europe 344(5)
A Late Disciple of Archimedes 349(6)
Two Modern Scientists: Kepler and 355(5)
Descartes
Terrestrial Motion, Tides and Gravitation 360(5)
Newton's Natural Philosophy 365(14)
The Rift Between Mathematics and Physics 379(6)
Ancient Science and Modern Science 385(3)
The Erasure of Ancient Science 388(3)
Recovery and Crisis of Scientific 391(8)
Methodology
Appendix 399(4)
List of Passages 403(16)
References 419(16)
General Index 435