Radioecology in Northern European Seas (Environmental Science) (2004. 340 p. w. 163 figs.)

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Radioecology in Northern European Seas (Environmental Science) (2004. 340 p. w. 163 figs.)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 340 p., 163 illus.
  • 商品コード 9783540201977

Description


(Text)
Radioecology in Northern Euroepean Seas summarizes an extensive body of literature on the oceanographic and biological conditions involved in the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in marine sediment and biota of the Northern European seas. Much of the information has been derived through many decades of investigation carried out by the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute. This book presents the original works, augmented and complemented by work conducted by other institutes during the nuclear era. The synthesis of this extensive body of information forms the basis of a new methodological and theoretical framework describing radionuclide bioaccumulation by marine invertebrate and vertebrate animals, paying special attention to marine food webs leading to humans.
(Table of content)
1 History and methods.- 2 Sources and pathways of artificial radionuclides in northern seas.- 3 The pelagic ecosystem.- 4 The benthic zone.- 5 The coastal zone.- 6 Marine vertebrates.- 7 Transfer and assimilation of radionuclides in marine ecosystems.- 8 Radioactive monitoring principles for marine ecosystems.- Conclusion.- References.

Table of Contents

Contents                                           vii
1 History and methods 1 (16)
1.1 History of investigations 2 (6)
1.2 Methods 8 (9)
2 Sources and pathways of artificial 17 (47)
radionuclides in northern seas
2.1 Primary sources of radioactive pollutants 18 (20)
2.1.1 Nuclear explosions 18 (6)
2.1.2 Sea Dumping 24 (2)
2.1.3 Large river supplies 26 (4)
2.1.4 Sea burial 30 (3)
2.1.5 Land discharges 33 (3)
2.1.6 Nuclear accidents at sea 36 (2)
2.2 Secondary sources 38 (6)
2.3 Transboundary transfer of radioactive 44 (20)
substances
2.3.1 Water circulation within the Arctic 44 (7)
Ocean
2.3.2 Deep-water troughs as pathways for 51 (5)
shelf-ocean exchange
2.3.3 Transfer by ice drift - the Kara and 56 (2)
Laptev Seas
2.3.4 Biological transfer mechanisms 58 (6)
3 The pelagic ecosystem 64 (39)
3.1 Patterns of radionuclide distribution 65 (25)
3.1.1 Baltic, North and Irish Seas 65 (11)
3.1.2 Norwegian, Barents and White Seas 76 (8)
3.1.3 Kara and Laptev Seas 84 (5)
3.1.4 North Atlantic and Central Polar 89 (1)
Basins
3.2 Biofiltration of radionuclides 90 (6)
3.2.1 Ecological characteristics of plankton 90 (3)
3.2.2 Radionuclide accumulation by marine 93 (3)
plankton
3.3 Radionuclides in pelagic ecosystems 96 (7)
4 The benthic zone 103(58)
4.1 Patterns of radionuclide distribution 104(33)
4.1.1 Barents Sea 104(11)
4.1.2 West European and Black Seas 115(8)
4.1.3 Kara Sea shelf 123(12)
4.1.4 Laptev Sea 135(2)
4.2 Sedimentation of radioactive substances 137(7)
on the shelf
4.3 Ecological characteristics of benthic 144(2)
organisms
4.4 Radionuclide accumulation by benthic 146(10)
organisms
4.5 Radionuclides In the ecosystem of the 156(5)
Murmansk Bank (site of the submarine "Kursk"
accident)
5 The coastal zone 161(63)
5.1 Biogeographical characteristics 162(2)
5.2 Patterns of radionuclide distribution 164(40)
5.2.1 Barents Sea coastal zone 167(1)
5.2.2 Kola Bay 167(10)
5.2.3 The White Sea 177(2)
5.2.4 Pechora and Cheshskaya Bays 179(5)
5.2.5 Bays of Novaya Zemlya 184(10)
5.2.7 Sea of Azov 194(10)
5.3 Contaminant classification of coastal sea 204(4)
areas
5.4. Artificial radioactivity in macrophytes 208(11)
5.5 Filtration of anthropogenic radionuclides 219(5)
in coastal ecosystems
6 Marine vertebrates 224(42)
6.1 Marine fish 225(20)
6.2 Sea birds 245(11)
6.3 Marine mammals 256(10)
7 Transfer and assimilation of radionuclides in 266(18)
marine ecosystems
7.1 Natural purification of marine systems 267(17)
7.1.1 Conditions of radionuclides 267(4)
assimilation
7.1.2 Geomorphological and hydrodynamic 271(2)
factors
7.1.3 Influence of the marginal filter 273(2)
7.1.4 Significance of biological composition 275(2)
7.1.5 Salinity and radionuclide transfer 277(4)
7.1.6 Radionuclide sorption processes 281(3)
8 Radioactive monitoring principles for marine 284(27)
ecosystems
8.1 Important considerations in 285(7)
radioecological monitoring
8.1.1 Marine sediments as an indicator of 285(6)
radioactive contamination
8.1.2 Secondary radiation contamination of 291(1)
the benthic zone
8.2. Role of bioindicators in radiological 292(4)
monitoring
8.3 Human radiological dose estimates for 296(2)
consumption of sea food
8.4 Modeling as a tool in radioecological 298(9)
monitoring
8.5 Withdrawal of commercial bioresources 307(1)
8.6 Framework for monitoring in northern seas 308(3)
Conclusion 311(5)
References 316