The Vertebrate Organizer (2003. 435 p. w. 101 figs. (23 col.).)

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The Vertebrate Organizer (2003. 435 p. w. 101 figs. (23 col.).)

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Outstanding molecular development biologists and embryologists report their latest approaches in this fascinating research area using different vertebrate model organisms.

Full Description

The organizer area plays a central role in the formation of the embryonic axis and the central nervous system of all vertebrates including the human fetus. In The Vertebrate Organizer, outstanding molecular development biologists and embryologists report their latest approaches in this fascinating research area using different vertebrate model organisms. The presented data is of central importance for the understanding of early human embryogenesis.

Table of Contents

1 Maternal VegT and β-Catenin: 1 (10)
Patterning the Xenopus Blastula
Matthew Kofron, Jennifer Xanthos, and Janet
1.1 Introduction 1 (1)
1.2 Cell Fate Specification in the 1 (4)
Animal-Vegetal Axis
1.2.1 Endodermal Transcription Factors 4 (1)
Downstream of VegT Have General and
Specific Roles in Fate Specification
1.2.2 The Importance of Inductive 4 (1)
Interactions in Mesoderm and Endoderm
1.3 Patterning in the Dorso-Ventral Axis 5 (3)
1.4 Conclusions 8 (1)
References 9 (2)
2 Short-Versus Long-Range Effects of 11 (14)
Spemann's Organizer
Ira L. Blitz and Ken W.Y. Cho
2.1 Introduction 11 (2)
2.2 What Are the Organizer-Derived 13 (2)
Dorsalizing Signal(s)?
2.3 Are the Long-Range Effects of the 15 (4)
Organizer Really Long Range?
2.3.1 The Heart Primordia and Anterior 16 (1)
Somites Are Specified by Short-Range
Signaling During Gastrulation
2.3.2 Specification of the Pronephros 17 (1)
Provides an Example of a Secondary
Induction Occurring During Late
2.3.3 Specification of Posterior 18 (1)
Somites Provides an Example of Late
Short-Range Induction by
Organizer-Derived Structures
2.4 Concluding Remarks 19 (1)
References 20 (5)
3 Formation of the Endoderm in Xenopus 25 (16)
Hugh R. Woodland and Debbie Clements
3.1 Introduction 25 (2)
3.1.1 Concepts and Views of Patterning 25 (2)
of the Embryo
3.2 Early Endoderm Formation in Xenopus 27 (8)
3.2.1 Phases of Endoderm Formation 27 (2)
3.2.2 The Initiation/Maternal Phase of 29 (1)
VegT Action
3.2.3 The Establishment of the Endoderm 29 (2)
3.2.4 Why Are There So Many Signalling 31 (1)
Molecules Involved in the Endoderm
Community Effect?
3.2.5 The Role of VegT Targets in 32 (3)
Endoderm Formation
3.2.6 Delimitation of the Endodermal 35 (1)
3.3 Patterning of the Endoderm 35 (1)
3.4 Conclusions 36 (1)
References 37 (4)
4 Role of Fox Genes During Xenopus 41 (14)
Hsiu-Ting Tseng, Isaac Brownell, Ryuju
Hashimoto, Heithem El-Hodiri, Olga
Medina-Martinez, Rina Shah, Carolyn
Zilinski, and Milan Jamrich
4.1 Introduction 41 (1)
4.2 Expression of Fox Genes in the 42 (4)
4.2.1 FoxA4(XFKH1) 44 (1)
4.2.2 FoxC2(XFKH7) 44 (1)
4.2.3 FoxF1 (XFD-13) 45 (1)
4.3 Expression of Fox Genes in the 46 (5)
4.3.1 Neuroectoderm 46 (1) FoxG1 (XFKH4/XBF-1) 47 (1) FoxB2 (XFD-5) 48 (1) FoxD3 (XFD6/XFKH6) 48 (1)
4.3.2 Placodal Ectoderm 49 (1) FoxE4 (Xlens1) 49 (1)
4.3.3 Epidermis 50 (1) FoxJ1 (XFKH5) 50 (1)
4.4 Conclusions 51 (1)
References 51 (4)
5 The Molecular Nature of Spemann's Organizer 55 (146)
E.M. De Robertis and Oliver Wessely
5.1 Historical Background 55 (1)
5.2 The Spemann Organizer Transcription 55 (2)
5.3 The Organizer Secreted Factors 57 (6)
5.3.1 TGFs Superfamily Antagonists 58 (1) The Chordin and Noggin BMP 58 (1)
Antagonists Gremlin and Sclerostin 58 (1) Follistatin 59 (1) Xnr-3 59 (1) Lefty and Antivin 59 (1) Cerberus 60 (1) Secreted Wnt Inhibitors 61 (2)
5.4 Chordin and the Organizer 63 (2)
5.5 The Chordin Co-factors 65 (1)
5.6 Neural Induction and the Spemann 66 (2)
References 68 (5)
6 The Community Effect in Xenopus Development 73 (20)
Henrietta J. Standley and J.B. Gurdon
6.1 Introduction 73 (2)
6.2 The Community Effect in Xenopus 75 (7)
6.2.1 A Community Effect Is Required 75 (1)
for Muscle Differentiation
6.2.2 The Search for the Myogenic 76 (1)
Community Factor The Myogenic Community Factor 76 (1)
May Be Secreted or Associated with the
Cell Membrane Organiser Factors Cannot 77 (1)
Account for the Community Effect Candidate Community Factors Can 78 (1)
Be Tested for Community Activity by
Supplying Them in Protein Form to
Dispersed Cells eFGF Fulfills the Criteria 80 (1)
Demanded of the Endogenous Myogenic
Community Factor
6.2.3 The Timing of the Community Effect 81 (1) The Community Effect is 81 (1)
Operative During Gastrulation and
Neurulation The Period of Sensitivity to 81 (1)
eFGF Coincides with the Endogenous
Community Interaction
6.3 The Community Effect in the Notochord 82 (1)
6.4 The Community Effect and Mesoderm 83 (1)
6.5 The Mechanism of the Community Effect 84 (4)
6.6 Future Directions 88 (1)
6.7 Concluding Remarks 89 (1)
References 89 (4)
7 Regulation of Spemann's Organizer Formation 93 (20)
Abraham Fainsod and Vered Levy
7.1 Introduction 93 (1)
7.2 Positive Regulation of Organizer 94 (4)
Formation - Establishing Spemann's
7.2.1 The Wnt Signaling Pathway 94 (1)
7.2.2 Positioning the Wnt Signal for 95 (2)
Organizer Induction
7.2.3 Timing of the Early Wnt Signal 97 (1)
7.3 BMP Signaling as a Negative Regulator 98 (3)
of Organizer Formation
7.3.1 Inhibition of BMP Signaling 98 (1)
Induces Secondary Axes
7.3.2 Localization and Timing of the 99 (1)
Early BMP Signal
7.3.3 BMP Downstream Effectors 100(1)
7.4 Competence of the Marginal Zone To 101(6)
Become Organizer Tissue
7.4.1 Timing of Secondary Axis Induction 101(3)
7.4.2 Controlling the Ventral Marginal 104(2)
Zone Competence
7.4.3 Temporal and Spatial Expression 106(1)
of Xcad2
7.5 Establishment of the Organizer - a 107(1)
References 107(6)
8 Transcriptional Repression in Spemann's 113(14)
Organizer and the Formation of Dorsal Mesoderm
Sergey Yaklichkin, Aaron B. Steiner, and
Daniel S. Kessler
8.1 Introduction 113(3)
8.1.1 Xenopus Mesoderm Formation: 113(1)
Embryological Analysis
8.1.2 Xenopus Mesoderm Formation: 114(1)
Molecular Analysis
8.1.3 The Fox Gene Family 115(1)
8.1.4 FoxD3 in the Vertebrate Embryo 115(1)
8.2 Results 116(7)
8.2.1 Embryonic Expression of Xenopus 116(2)
8.2.2 Regulation of FoxD3 by the Nodal 118(2)
and Wnt Signaling Pathways
8.2.3 Dorsal Mesoderm Induction by FoxD3 120(1)
8.2.4 Nuclear Localization and 121(2)
Transcriptional Activity of FoxD3
8.3 Conclusions 123(1)
References 124(3)
9 Wnt Signals and Antagonists: The Molecular 127(24)
Nature of Spemann's Head Organizer
Christof Niehrs
9.1 Summary 127(1)
9.2 The Spemann Organizer 127(1)
9.3 Head, Trunk and Tail Organizers 128(2)
Versus Gradient Models
9.4 Wnt/β-Catenin Signalling 130(2)
Antagonizes Spemann's Head Organizer
9.5 Production of Wnt Antagonists is a 132(3)
Distinguishing Function of the Head
9.6 Wnt Antagonists and Patterning of 135(1)
Mesoderm and Endoderm
9.7 A Posteriorizing Gradient of 136(3)
Wnt/β-Catenin Activity Regulates A-P
9.8 Interactions Between Wnt, BMP, FGF 139(2)
and RA Signalling in A-P Patterning
9.8.1 BMPs 139(1)
9.8.2 FGFs 140(1)
9.8.3 Retinoic Acid (RA) 140(1)
9.9 Orthogonal Signalling Gradients of 141(1)
Wnt and BMP Specify A-P and D-V Embryonic
9.10 Conclusions 142(1)
References 143(8)
10 Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Proneural Genes and 151(1)
Neurogenesis in Xenopus Embryos
Eric Bellefroid and Jacob Souopgui
10.1 Introduction 151(3)
10.2 Proneural Genes in Xenopus 154(1)
10.3 Transcriptional Factors Controlling 155(1)
the Activation of bHLH Proneural Genes
10.4 Proneural Genes and the Selection 156(4)
of Neuronal Progenitors
10.5 Cascade of 160(1)
Proneural-Differentiation Genes
10.6 Stabilization of the Neuronal 160(2)
Differentiation Process
10.7 Downstream Targets of Proneural 162(1)
Factors Regulating Later Steps in
Neuronal Differentiation
10.8 Proneural Factors Promote Cell 163(2)
Cycle Exit
10.9 Inhibition of Glia/Neural Crest 165(2)
Fate and Neuronal Subtype Specification
10.10 Conclusions and Prospects 167(1)
References 168(5)
11 Organizer Activities Mediated by Retinoic 173(1)
Acid Signaling
Yonglong Chen, Thomas Hollemann, and Tomas
11.1 Summary 173(1)
11.2 Introduction 173(2)
11.3 RA Generation and Degradation 175(2)
11.4 RALDH2 and CYP26A1 May Generate a 177(2)
Dynamic RA Concentration Gradient In Vivo
11.5 RA Signaling and Hindbrain Patterning 179(4)
11.6 Concluding Remarks 183(1)
References 183(4)
12 Wnt Signalling and Regulation of 187(1)
Gastrulation Movements
De-Li Shi
12.1 Introduction 187(3)
12.1.1 Convergent Extension Movements 187(2)
in Gastrulation
12.1.2 Wnt Signalling Pathways 189(1)
12.2 Molecular Regulation of Convergent 190(6)
Extension Movements
12.2.1 Wnt Signalling Activity and 190(1)
Convergent Extension Movements
12.2.2 The JNK Pathway Regulates 191(3)
Convergent Extension During Gastrulation
12.2.3 Wnt Signalling in Neural 194(1)
Convergent Extension and Neural Fold
12.2.4 The Wnt/Ca2+ Pathway Regulates 194(1)
Cell-Cell Adhesion
12.2.5 Otx-2 and Inhibition of 195(1)
Convergent Extension in Head Mesoderm
12.3 Conclusions 196(1)
References 196(5)
13 How Cell-Cell Adhesion Contributes to 201(32)
Early Embryonic Development
Gui Ruan, Doris Wedlich, and Almut Kohler
13.1 Introduction 201(2)
13.2 Who Is Who Among Xenopus Cadherins? 203(3)
13.2.1 XB/U-Cadherin and EP/C-Cadherin 203(1)
13.2.2 Epithelial Cadherins 204(1)
13.2.3 Neural Cadherins 205(1)
13.2.4 Type II Cadherins 205(1)
13.2.5 Protocadherins 206(1)
13.3 Functions of Cadherins in Xenopus 206(8)
13.3.1 Cadherin-Catenin Complexes 207(1)
During Cleavage and Blastula Stage
13.3.2 Cadherins Control Cell Movements 208(2)
During Gastrulation
13.3.3 How Is Adhesive Strength 210(1)
Modulated in Cell Movements?
13.3.4 Cadherins in Tissue Formation 211(3)
13.4 Perspectives 214(1)
References 215(4)
14 Patterning Non-neural Ectoderm by 219(1)
Organizer-Modulated Homeodomain Factors
Thomas D. Sargent
14.1 Introduction 219(2)
14.2 Axial Specificity of Msx and Dlx 221(2)
Gene Expression in the Ectoderm
14.3 Msx and Dlx Genes: Local Indicators 223(2)
of BMP Signal Strength
14.4 Selective Repression of Ectodermal 225(1)
Targets by Msx/D1x Genes
14.5 A Homeobox Gene Code for Ectodermal 226(4)
References 230(3)
15 Embryonic Organogenesis and Body Formation 233(126)
in Amphibian Development
M. Asashima, A. Sogame, T. Ariizumi, and T.
15.1 Introduction 233(1)
15.2 Animal Cap Assay and Activin Findings 234(4)
15.3 Formation of Heart 238(2)
15.4 Formation of Kidney 240(3)
15.5 Formation of Pancreas 243(2)
15.6 Formation of Cartilage 245(1)
15.7 Formation of Central Nervous System 246(2)
and Sensory Organs: In Vitro Control of
Embryonic Axis Formation
15.8 Formation of Heads and 248(2)
Trunk-and-Tails: In Vitro Control of
Embryonic Body Plan by Artificial
15.9 Advancing from the Basic to Applied 250(2)
References 252(5)
16 Organizing the Eye 257(1)
Robert Vignali, Massimiliano Andreazzoli,
Federico Cremisi, and Giuseppina Barsacchi
16.1 Introduction 257(1)
16.2 Neural Induction and the Initial Eye 258(3)
16.3 Splitting of the Early Eye Field 261(2)
16.4 Eye Field Patterning and the Role of 263(4)
Eye Field Specific Transcription Factors
16.5 Factors Establishing Eye Polarity 267(1)
16.6 Control of Proliferation During 268(1)
16.7 Retinal Cell Fate Specification 269(4)
16.8 Concluding Remarks 273(1)
16.9 Acknowledgements 274(1)
References 274(5)
17 A Critical Role for Retinoid Receptors in 279(1)
Axial Patterning and Neuronal Differentiation
Andr駸 E. Carrasco and Bruce Blumberg
17.1 Retinoid Signaling 279(1)
17.2 Anteroposterior Neural Patterning 280(2)
17.3 Retinoid Signaling in A/P Patterning 282(1)
17.4 Wnt, FGF and Retinoid Signaling 283(1)
Converge on Xcad3
17.5 Interaction Between RAR and FGF 284(1)
Signaling During Xenopus A/P Patterning
17.6 RA Signaling Is Involved in 285(1)
Multiple Steps in Posteriorization of the
Neural Tube
17.7 Neurogenesis - a Brief Story 286(2)
17.8 RA Induces the Expression of 288(1)
N-Tubulin in the Neural Plate
17.9 The RA-Mediated Increase in Primary 289(1)
Neurons Does Not Result from Alterations
in Proliferation or Apoptosis
17.10 Retinoids Affect the Expression of 289(1)
Genes Involved in Primary Neurogenesis
17.11 Shh Signaling Delays Neuronal 290(1)
17.12 Retinoids Inhibit shh Expression to 291(1)
Promote Neuronal Differentiation
17.13 Conclusions: Retinoids Regulate 292(1)
Early A/P Patterning and Early Steps in
the Neurogenic Cascade
References 293(6)
18 Molecular Patterning of the Embryonic Brain 299(1)
Esther Bell and Ali H. Brivanlou
18.1 Introduction 299(1)
18.2 Neural Induction 300(1)
18.3 Initiation of the Neural Patterning 301(1)
18.4 Induction and Patterning of the 302(4)
Forebrain along the AP, DV and LR Axes
18.4.1 Establishment of the 302(3)
Telencephalon and Diencephalon:
Putative Signaling Centers and
Molecular Pathways
18.4.2 Regulatory Genes That Pattern 305(1)
the Forebrain Along the DV Axis
18.4.3 Is the Forebrain a Segmented 305(1)
18.4.4 Patterning of the LR Axis of the 306(1)
18.5 Midbrain Patterning 306(1)
18.5.1 The DV Axis 306(1)
18.5.2 The AP Axis 307(1)
18.6 Hindbrain Patterning 307(2)
18.6.1 The AP Axis 307(1)
18.6.2 The DV Axis of the Hindbrain 308(1)
18.7 Conclusions 309(1)
References 309(6)
19 Epidermal, Neuronal and Glial Cell Fate 315(1)
Choice in the Embryo
Marc Moreau, Philippe Cochard, and
Anne-Marie Duprat
19.1 Introduction 315(1)
19.2 Neural Cell Fate Determination 316(10)
19.2.1 What Are the Neuralizing Factors? 316(1)
19.2.2 Dissociation Inhibits Epidermal 316(3)
Fate and Neuralizes the Ectodermal Cells
19.2.3 Calcium Is Involved in the 319(1)
Choice Between Neural and Epidermal Fate
19.2.4 Neuralization by Dissociation of 319(1)
Ectodermal Cells Is Associated with a
Calcium Signal
19.2.5 Noggin Triggers an Increase in 320(1)
Intracellular Calcium Concentration
19.2.6 Direct Activation of L-Type 321(2)
Calcium Channels Triggers Neural
Induction on Isolated Ectoderms
19.2.7 Targets of Calcium 323(1)
19.2.8 Neural Competence of the 323(1)
Ectoderm Is Linked to the Expression of
L-Type Calcium Channels
19.2.9 Control of the Choice of 324(2)
Determination: a New Model
19.3 Specification Mechanisms of Glial 326(9)
Cells in the Central Nervous System
19.3.1 Specification Mechanisms of 327(1)
Astrocytes The Stem Cell Potential of 327(1)
Astrocytes The Switch Between Neuronal 328(2)
and Astroglial Fates
19.3.2 Mechanisms of Oligodendrocyte 330(1)
Specification Oligodendrocyte Origins 330(1) Oligodendrocyte Induction 331(1) Negative Control of 333(2)
Oligodendrocyte Specification
19.4 Concluding Remarks 335(1)
References 336(7)
20 Downstream of the Organizer: The Xenopus 343(1)
Cement Gland as a Model for Organ Positioning
and Differentiation
Fiona C. Wardle and Hazel L. Sive
20.1 Introduction 343(1)
20.2 The Cement Gland 343(2)
20.3 Positioning the Cement Gland: 345(2)
Activity of Positive and Negative Tissue
Interactions and Secreted Signals
20.3.1 Positive Factors 346(1)
20.3.2 Inhibitory Factors 347(1)
20.4 Positioning the Cement Gland 347(4)
Requires the Overlap of Three Larger
20.4.1 The Venn Diagram Model 347(1)
20.4.2 AD: The Anterodorsal Domain 348(2)
20.4.3 VL: The Ventrolateral Domain 350(1)
20.4.4 EO: The Outer Ectodermal Domain 351(1)
20.5 Intermediate Domains in Cement Gland 351(1)
20.5.1 VL+E: A Ventral Ectodermal Domain 352(1)
20.5.2 AD+VL+E: An Anterior Ectodermal 352(1)
20.6 Differentiation of the Cement Gland: 352(2)
Identification of Factors That Control
Cement Gland Differentiation Genes
20.6.1 Promoter Analysis of the Cement 353(1)
Gland Specific Gene, Xagl
20.6.2 Does Expression of All Cement 353(1)
Gland Differentiation Genes Require the
Same Transcription Factors?
20.7 From Position to Differentiation 354(1)
References 354(5)
21 The Organizer in Amphibians with Large 359(64)
Eggs: Problems and Perspectives
Eugenia M. del Pino and Richard P. Elinson
21.1 Introduction 359(1)
21.2 Large and Small Amphibian Eggs 360(2)
21.3 Slow and Rapid Development in Frogs 362(2)
with Large Eggs
21.3.1 Slow Development in G. riobambae 362(1)
21.3.2 Rapid Development in E. coqui 363(1)
and Other Frogs
21.4 Mesoderm Formation in Frogs with 364(1)
Large Eggs
21.5 Formation of the Organizer 365(6)
21.5.1 The Organizer in G. riobambae 368(1)
21.5.2 The Organizer in E. coqui 369(2)
21.6 Concluding Remarks 371(1)
References 371(4)
22 Formation and Functions of the Gastrula 375(1)
Organizer In Zebrafish
Joshua S. Waxman and Randall T. Moon
22.1 Introduction 375(1)
22.2 Early Observations and Experimental 375(2)
Studies of the Teleost Gastrula Organizer
22.3 Formation of the Teleost Organizer 377(1)
22.4 Physical Components Contributing to 378(1)
the Formation of the Organizer
22.5 The Teleost Nieuwkoop Center, Or 379(2)
22.6 Genes That Function in the Teleost 381(4)
Gastrula Organizer
22.6.1 Bozozok 381(1)
22.6.2 The Nodals 382(1)
22.6.3 Dickkopf 383(1)
22.6.4 Hhex 384(1)
22.6.5 Chordin 384(1)
22.7 Downstream of boz and the Nodals; 385(1)
Partners in Specifying the Organizer
22.8 Antagonistic Interactions among 386(1)
Organizer Vs Non-organizer Signals
22.9 Interactions Between boz, cyc and sqt 387(1)
22.10 Interactions among Ventral-Lateral 388(1)
Specification Genes: wnt8 and BMPs
22.11 Organizer Activity and the Control 389(1)
of Morphogenetic Movements
22.12 Conclusions 389(1)
References 390(5)
23 Hensen's Node: The Embryonic Organizer of 395(1)
the Chick
Lars Wittler, Derek Spieler, and Michael
23.1 Introduction 395(1)
23.2 From the Unicellular Embryo to the 396(3)
Single-Layered Blastoderm
23.3 The Two Layers of the Avian Blastula 399(1)
23.4 The Primitive Streak of the Early 400(1)
Avian Gastrula
23.5 Hensen's Node in the Late Gastrula 400(3)
23.6 The Prechordal Plate/Mesendoderm of 403(1)
the Chick Embryo
23.7 The Establishment of the Left-Right 403(2)
23.8 Conclusions and Outlook 405(1)
References 406(3)
24 Formation and Function of the Mouse 409(1)
Luc Leyns and Caroline R. Kemp
24.1 Introduction 409(1)
24.2 Early Mouse Embryonic Development 409(3)
24.3 Formation of a Double Axis in Mammals 412(3)
24.3.1 Polyembryony 412(1)
24.3.2 Experimental Manipulations 413(1)
24.3.3 Molecular Manipulations 414(1)
24.4 Molecular Inductions 415(5)
24.4.1 Establishment of the 416(2)
Proximal-Distal Axis
24.4.2 Formation of the 418(2)
Anterior-Posterior Axis
References 420(3)
Subject Index 423


Keynote Papers

Flow Graphs and Decision Algorithms 1 (10)

Zrlzislaw Pawlak

The Quotient Space Theory of Problem Solving 11 (5)

Ling Zhang, Bo Zhang

Plenary Papers

Granular Computing (Structures, 16 (9)

Representations, and Applications)

Tsau Young Lin

Rough Sets: Trends and Challenges 25 (10)

Andrzej Skowron, James F. Peters

A New Development on ANN in China - Biomimetic 35 (9)

Pattern Recognition and Multi Weight Vector


Shoujue Wang

On Generalizing Rough Set Theory 44 (8)

Y.Y. Yao

Dual Mathematical Models Based on Rough 52 (8)

Approximations in Data Analysis

Hideo Tanaka

Knowledge Theory: Outline and Impact 60 (10)

Y.X. Zhong

A Rough Set Paradigm for Unifying Rough Set 70 (8)

Theory and Fuzzy Set Theory

Lech Polkowski

Extracting Structure of Medical Diagnosis: 78 (11)

Rough Set Approach

Shusaku Tsumoto

A Kind of Linearization Method in Fuzzy Control 89 (10)

System Modeling

Hongxing Li, Jiayin Wang, Zhihong Miao

A Common Framework for Rough Sets, Databases, 99 (5)

and Bayesian Networks

S.K.M. Wong, D. Wu

Rough Sets, EM Algorithm, MST and Multispectral 104(2)

Image Segmentation

Sankar K. Pal, Pa tra Mitra

Rough Sets Foundations and Methods

Rough Mereology: A Survey of New Developments 106(8)

with Applications to Granular Computing,

Spatial Reasoning and Computing with Words

Lech Polkowski

A New Rough Sets Model Based on Database Systems 114(8)

Xiaohua Tony Hu, Tsau Young Lin, Jianchao Han

A Rough Set and Rule Tree Based Incremental 122(8)

Knowledge Acquisition Algorithm

Zheng Zheng, Guoyin Wang, Yu Wu

Comparison of Conventional and Rough K-Means 130(8)


Pawan Lingras, Rui Yan, Chad West

An Application of Rough Sets to Monk's Problems 138(8)


Duogian Miao, Lishan Hou

Pre-topologies and Dynamic Spaces 146(10)

Piero Pagliani

Rough Sets and Gradual Decision Rules 156(9)

Salvatore Greco, Masahiro Inuiguchi, Roman


Explanation Oriented Association Mining Using 165(8)

Rough Set Theory

Y.Y. Yao, Y. Zhao, R. Brien Maguire

Probabilistic Rough Sets Characterized by Fuzzy 173(8)


Li-Li Wei, Wen-Xiu Zhang

A View on Rough Set Concept Approximations 181(8)

Jan Bazan, Nguyen Hung Son, Andrzej Skowron,

Marcin S. Szczura

Evaluation of Probabilistic Decision Tables 189(8)

Wojciech Ziarko

Query Answering in Rough Knowledge Bases 197(8)

Aida Vit ia, Carlos Viegas Dam疽io, Jan


Upper and Lower Recursion Schemes in Abstract 205(8)

Approximation Spaces

Peter Apostoli, Akira Kantla

Adaptive Granular Control of an HVDC System: A 213(8)

Rough Set Approach

James F. Peters, H. Feng, Sheela Ramanna

Rough Set Approach to Domain Knowledge 221(8)


Tuan Trung Nguyen, Andrzej Skowron

Reasoning Based on Information Changes in 229(8)

Information Maps

Andrzej Skowron, Piotr Synale

Characteristics of Accuracy and Coverage in 237(8)

Rule Induction

Sliusaku Tsumoto

Interpretation of Rough Neural Networks as 245(5)

Emergent Model

Passer Hassan, Eiichiro Tazari

Using Fuzzy Dependency-Guided Attribute 250(5)

Grouping in Feature Selection

Richard Jensen, Qiang Shen

Cunjugate Information Systems: Learning 255(4)

Cognitive Concepts in Rough Set Theory

Maria Semeniur-Polrowsra, Lech Polrowsri

A Rule Induction Method of Plant Disease 259(5)

Description Based on dough Sets

Ai-Ping Li, Gui-Ping Liao, Quan- Yuan Wu

Rough Set Data Analysis Algorithms for 264(5)

Incomplete Information Systems

K.S. Chin, Jiye Liang, Chuangyin Dang

Inconsistency Classification and 269(5)

Discernibility-Matrix-Based Approaches for

Computing an Attribute Core

Dongyi Ye, Zhaojiong Chen

Multi-knowledge Extraction and Application 274(5)

QingXiang Wu, David Bell

Multi-rough Sets Based on Multi-contexts of 279(4)


Rolly Intap, Masao Muraidono

Approaches to Approximation Reducts in 283(4)

Inconsistent Decision Tables

Ju-Sheng Mi, Wei-Zhi Wu, Wen-Xiu Zhang

Degree of Dependency and Quality of 287(4)

Classification in the Extended Variable

Precision Rough Sets Model

Malcolm J. Beynon

Approximate Reducis of an Information System 291(4)

Tien-Fang Kuo, Yasutoshi Yajima

A Rough Set Methodology to Support Learner Self 295(4)

Assessment in Web-Based Distance Education

Hongyan Geng, R. Brien Maguire

A Synthesis of Concurrent Systems: A Rough Set 299(4)


Zbigniew Suraj, Krzysztof Pancerz

Towards a Line-Crawling Robot Obstacle 303(5)

Classification System: A Rough Set Approach

James F. Peters, Sheela Ramanna, Marcin S.


Order Based Genetic Algorithms for the Search 308(4)

of Approximate Entropy Reducis

Dominik Slezak, Jakub Wr lewski

Variable Precision Bayesian Rough Set Model 312(4)

Dominik Slezak, Wojciech Ziarko

Linear Independence in Contingency Table 316(4)

Shusaku Tsumoto

The Information Entropy of Rough Relational 320(5)


Yuefei Sui, Youming Xia, Ju Wang

A T-S Type of Rough Fuzzy Control System and 325(4)

Its Implementation

Jinjie Huang, Shiyong Li, Chuntao Man

Rough Mereology in Knowledge Representation 329(5)

Cungen Cao, Yuefei Sui, Zaiyue Zhang

Rough Set Methods for Constructing Support 334(5)

Vector Machines

Yuancheng Li, Tingjian Fang

The Lattice Property of Fuzzy Rough Sets 339(3)

Fenglan Xiong, Xianggian Ding, Yuhai Liu

Querying Data from RRDS Based on Rough Sets 342(4)


Qiusheng An, Guoyin Wang, Junyi Shen,

Jiucheng Xu

An Inference Approach Based on Rough Sets 346(4)

Fuyan Liu, Shaoyi Lu

Classification Using the Variable Precision 350(4)

Rough Set

Yonggiang Zhao, Hongcai Zhang, Quan Pan

An Illustration of the Effect of Continuous 354(4)

Valued Discretisation in Data Analysis Using


Malcolm J. Beynon

Fuzzy Sets and Systems

Application of Fuzzy Control Base on Changeable 358(5)

Universe to Superheated Steam Temperature

Control System

Kemieg Xie, Fang Wang, Gang Xie, Tsau Young


Application of Fuzzy Support Vector Machines in 363(5)

Short-Term Load Forecasting

Yuancheng Li, Tingjian Fang

A Symbolic Approximate Reasoning 368(6)

Mazen El-Sayed, Daniel Pacholczyk

Intuition in Soft Decision Analysis 374(4)

Kankana Chalcrabarty

Ammunition Supply Decision-Making System Design 378(4)

Based on Fuzzy Control

Deyong Zhao Xinfemg Wang, Jiangno Lin

The Concept of Approximation Based on Fuzzy 382(6)

Dominance Relation in Decision-Making

Yunxiang Lin, Jigui Sun, Sheng-sheng Wang

An Image Enhancement Arithmetic Research Based 388(2)

on Fuzzy Set and Histogram

Liang Ming Guihai Xie, Yinlong Wang

A Study on a Generalized FCM 390(4)

Jian Yu, Miin-shen Yang

Fuzzy Multiple Synapses Neural Network and 394(4)

Fuzzy Clustering

Kai Li, Honkuan Huang, Jian Yu

On Possibilistic Variance of Fuzzy Numbers 398(5)

Wei- Gnu Zhang, Zan-Kan Nie

Granular Computing

Deductive Data Mining. Mathematical Foundation 403(2)

of Database Mining

Tsau Young Lin

Information Granules for Intelligent Knowledge 405(8)


Patrick Doherty, Witold Lukaszewicz, Andrzej


Design and Implement for Diagnosis Systems of 413(8)

Hemorheology on Blood Viscosity Syndrome Based

on GrC

Qing Lin, Feng Jiang, Dayong Deng

Granular Reasoning Using Zooming In & Out 421(4)

T. Murai, G. Resconi, M. Nakata, Y. Sato

A Pure Mereological Approach to Roughness 425(5)

Bo Chen, Mingtian Zhou

Neural Networks and Evolutionary Computing

Knowledge Based Descriptive Neural Networks 430(7)

J.T. Yao

Genetically Optimized Rule-Based Fuzzy 437(8)

Polynomial Neural Networks: Synthesis of

Computational Intelligence Technologies

Sung-Kwun Oh, James F. Peters, Witold

Pedrycz, Tae-Chon Ahn

Ant Colony Optimization for Navigating Complex 445(4)


Zhong Yam, Chum-Wie Yuan

An Improved Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Its 449(4)


Gexiang Zhang, Weidong Jim, Na Li

Intelligent Generation of Candidate Sets for 453(5)

Genetic Algorithms in Very Large Search Spaces

Julia R. Dunphy, Jose J. Salcedo, Keri S.


Fast Retraining of Artificial Neural Networks 458(4)

Dumitru-Julian Nastac, Razvan Matei

Fuzzy-ARTMAP and Higher-Order Statistics Based 462(4)

Blind Equalization

Dong-leun Jee, Jung-sils Lee, Ju-Hong Lee

Comparison of BPL and RBF Network in Intrusion 466(5)

Detection System

Chunlim Zhamg, Ju Jiang, Mohamed Kamel

Back Propagation with Randomized Cost Function 471(5)

for Training Neural Networks

H.A. Babri, Y.Q. Chen, Kamran Ahsan

Data Mining, Machine Learning, and Pattern


Selective Ensemble of Decision Trees 476(8)

Zhi-Hua Zhou, Wei Tang

A Maximal Frequent Remset Algorithm 484(7)

Hui Wang, Qinghua Li, Chuanziang Ma, Kenli Li

On Data Mining for Direct Marketing 491(8)

Chuangxin Ou, Chunnian Liu, Jiajing Huang,

Ning Zhong

A New Incremental Maintenance Algorithm of Data 499(8)


Hongsong Li, Houhuam Huang, Youfang Lin

Data Mining for Motifs in DNA Sequences 507(8)

David Bell, J. W. Guan

Maximum Item First Pattern Growth for Mining 515(9)

Frequent Patterns

Hongjian Fan, Ming Fan, Bingzhemg Wang

Extended Random Sets for Knowledge Discovery in 524(9)

Information Systems

Yuefeng Li

Research on a Union Algorithm of Multiple 533(8)

Concept Lattices

Zongtian Liu, Liansheng Li, Qing Zhamg

A Theoretical Framework for Knowledge Discovery 541(8)

in Databases Based on Probabilistic Logic

Ying Xie, Vijay V. Raghavan

An Improved Branch & Bound Algorithm in Feature 549(8)


Zhenxiao Wang, Jie Yang, Guozheng Li

Classification of Caenorhabditis Elegans 557(8)

Behavioural Phenotypes Using an Improved

Binarization Method

Won Nah, Joong-Hwan Back

Consensus versus Conflicts - Methodology and 565(8)


Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, Janusz Sobecki

Interpolation Techniques for Geo-spatial 573(8)

Association Rule Mining

Dan Li, Jitender Deogun, Sherri Harms

Imprecise Causality in Mined Rules 581(8)

Lawrence J. Mazlack

Sphere-Structured Support Vector Machines for 589(5)

Multi-class Pattern Recognition

Meilin Zhu, Yue Wang, Shifu Chen, Xiangdong


HIPRICE-A Hybrid Model for Multi-agent 594(4)

Intelligent Recommendation

Zheng Yu Gong, Jing Shi, HangPing Qiu

A Database-Based Job Management System 598(5)

Ji-chuan Zheng, Zheng-guo Hu, Liane-liane Xing

Optimal Choice of Parameters for a 603(4)

Density-Based Clustering Algorithm

Wenyan Gan, Deyi Li

An Improved Parameter Tuning Method for Support 607(4)

Vector Machines

Yong Quan, Jie Yang

Approximate Algorithm for Minimization of 611(4)

Decision Tree Depth

Mikhail J. Moshkov

Virtual Reality Representation of Information 615(4)

Systems and Decision Rules: An Exploratory

Technique for Understanding Data and Knowledge


Julio J. Vald駸

Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm Based on 619(4)

Neighborhood-Linked in Large Spatial Databases

Yi-hong Dong

Unsupervised Learning of Pattern Templates from 623(4)

Unannotated Corpora for Proper Noun Extraction

Seung-Shit Kang, Chong- Woo Woo

Approximate Aggregate Queries with Guaranteed 627(4)

Error Bounds

Seok-Ju Chun, Ju-Hong Lee, Seok-Lyong Lee

Improving Classification Performance by 631(4)

Combining Multiple TAN Classifiers

Hongbo Shi, Zhihai Wang, Houkuan Huang

Image Recognition Using Adaptive Fuzzy Neural 635(5)

Network and Wavelet Transform

Huanglin Zeng, Yao Yi

SOM Based Image Segmentation 640(4)

Yuan Jiang, Ke-Jia Chen, Zhi-Hua Zhou

User's Interests Navigation Model Based on 644(4)

Hidden Markov Model

Jing Shi, Fang Shi, HangPing Qiu

Successive Overrelaxation for Support Vector 648(4)


Yong Quan, Jie Yang, Chenzhou Ye

Statistic Learning and Intrusion Detection 652(8)

Xian Rao, Cun-xi Dong, Shao-quan Yang

A New Association Rules Mining Algorithms Based 660(4)

on Directed Itemsets Graph

Lei Wen, Mingiang Li

A Distributed Multidimensional Data Model of 664(4)

Data Warehouse

Youfang Lin, Houkuan Huang, Hongsong Li

Logics and Reasoning

An Overview of Hybrid Possibilistic Reasoning 668(8)

Churn-Jung Liau

Critical Remarks on the Computational 676(6)

Complexity in Probabilistic Inference

S.K.M. Wong, D. Wu, Y.Y. Yao

Critical Remarks on the Maximal Prime 682(4)

Decomposition of Bayesian Networks

Cory J. Butz, Qiang Hu, Xue Dong Yang

A Non-local Coarsening Result in Granular 686(4)

Probabilistic Networks

Cory J. Butz, Hong Yao, Howard J. Hamilton

Probabilistic Inference on Three-Valued Logic 690(4)

Guilin Qi

Multi-dimensional Observer-Centred Qualitative 694(3)

Spatial-temporal Reasoning

Yi-nan Lu, Sheng-sheng Wang, Sheng-zian Sha

Multi-agent Systems

Architecture Specification for Design of 697(4)

Agent-Based System in Domain View

S.K. Lee, Taiyun Kim

Adapting Granular Rough Theory to Multi-agent 701(5)


Bo Chen, Mingtian Zhou

How to Choose the Optimal Policy in Multi-agent 706(5)

Belief Revision?

Yang Cao, Zhaochun Sun, Ning Li

Web Intelligence and Intelligent Systems

Research of Atomic and Anonymous Electronic 711(4)

Commerce Protocol

Jie Tang, Juan-Zi Li, Ke-Hong Wang, Yue-Ru Cai

Colored Petri Net Based Attack Modeling 715(4)

Shijie Zhou, Zhiguang Qin, Feng Zhang,

Xianfeng Zhang, Wei Chen, Jinde Liu

Intelligent Real-Time Traffic Signal Control 719(5)

Based on a Paraconsistent Logic Program EVALPSN

Kazumi Nakamatsu, Toshiaki Sero, Jair Minoro

Abe, Atsuyuki Suzuki

Transporting CAN Messages over WATM 724(6)

Ismail Erturk

A Hybrid Intrusion Detection Strategy Used for 730(4)

Web Security

Bo Yang, Han Li, Yi Li, Shaojun Yang

Mining Sequence Pattern from Time Series Based 734(5)

on Inter-relevant Successive Trees Model

Haiquan Zeng, Zhan Shen, Yunfa Hu

Author Index 739