Thermosets and Composites : Technical Information for Plastics Users

電子版価格 ¥27,264
  • 電書あり

Thermosets and Composites : Technical Information for Plastics Users

  • ただいまウェブストアではご注文を受け付けておりません。 ⇒古書を探す
  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 272 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9781856174114
  • DDC分類 668.422

Full Description


* A succinct source of information for designers and manufacturers.* A decision-making tool for those who need a quick and pragmatic account of thermosets and composites.* A synoptic account of the techno-economics and properties of all the commonly-used thermosets and composites.Designers and manufacturers using thermosets and composites, or those intending to do so, often need a succinct source of information on the economics and properties of these materials. This book provides a synoptic approach.It covers the economic importance of thermosets and composites, a comparison of the properties of the various thermoset categories, monographs on the nine principal families of thermosets, polymer composites and emergent materials and processes. Will enable readers to make informed decisions leading to well designed and made products.

Table of Contents

List of tables and figures                         xvii
Disclaimer xxvii
Acronyms and abbreviations xxix
Chapter 1 Outline of the actual situation of
plastics compared to conventional materials
1.1 Polymers: the industrial and economic 2 (14)
reality compared to traditional materials
1.1.1 Plastic and metal consumption 2 (2)
1.1.2 Mechanical properties 4 (4)
1.1.2.1 Intrinsic mechanical properties 4 (3)
1.1.2.2 Specific mechanical properties 7 (1)
1.1.3 Thermal and electrical properties 8 (2)
1.1.4 Durability 10 (2)
1.1.5 Material costs 12 (4)
1.1.5.1 Cost per weight of various 12 (1)
materials
1.1.5.2 Cost per volume of various 12 (2)
materials
1.1.5.3 [Performance/cost per litre] 14 (2)
ratios of various materials
1.2 What are thermosets, composites and 16 (4)
hybrids?
1.2.1 Thermosets 16 (2)
1.2.2 Polymer composites 18 (1)
1.2.3 Hybrid materials 19 (1)
1.3 Plastics: an answer to the designer's 20 (2)
main problems
1.3.1 Economic requirements 20 (1)
1.3.2 Technical requirements 21 (1)
1.3.3 Marketing requirements 22 (1)
1.3.4 Environmental requirements 22 (1)
1.3.5 Some weaknesses of the polymer 22 (1)
materials
1.4 Outline of the technical and economic 22 (6)
possibilities of processing
1.4.1 Thermoset processing 23 (2)
1.4.1.1 Moulding the solid thermosets 23 (1)
1.4.1.2 Moulding the liquid thermosets 24 (1)
1.4.1.3 Secondary processing 25 (1)
1.4.2 Composite processing 25 (3)
1.4.2.1 Primary processes 25 (2)
1.4.2.2 Secondary processing 27 (1)
1.4.2.3 Repair possibilities: a 28 (1)
significant composite advantage
1.4.3 Hybrid processing 28 (1)
1.5 Environmental constraints 28 (2)
1.5.1 Toxicity and pollution 29 (1)
1.5.2 The recycling of polymers 29 (1)
1.6 The final material/process/cost compromise 30 (2)
Chapter 2 The plastics industry: economic
overview
2.1 Overview of the global plastics industry 32 (2)
2.2 Market shares of the various thermoset 34 (2)
families in the main industrialized countries
2.3 Market shares of composites 36 (2)
2.4 Market shares for the main application 38 (4)
sectors
2.5 Importance of the various processing modes 42 (2)
2.6 The european market 44 (3)
2.7 The north american market 47 (1)
2.8 Consumption growth trends 48 (1)
2.8.1 Thermosets 48 (1)
2.8.2 Composites 49 (1)
2.9 Structure of the plastic processing 49 (1)
industry
2.10 Plastic costs 50 (13)
2.10.1 Raw material costs 51 (1)
2.10.2 Examples of additive costs 52 (1)
2.10.3 Reinforcement costs 53 (1)
2.10.4 Processing costs 54 (3)
2.10.5 Examples of part costs 57 (4)
2.10.6 Assembly, operating and maintenance 61 (2)
costs: three factors to favour composites
2.10.6.1 Assembly cost savings 61 (1)
2.10.6.2 Operating cost savings 62 (1)
2.10.6.3 Maintenance cost savings 62 (1)
2.11 Survey of main markets 63 (28)
2.11.1 Automotive and transportation 63 (11)
2.11.1.1 Thermosets and composites in the 63 (5)
automotive industry
2.11.1.2 Composites in railway 68 (6)
applications
2.11.2 Furniture and bedding 74 (2)
2.11.1.1 Interior and communal furniture 74 (1)
2.11.1.2 Outdoor furniture, street 75 (1)
furniture
2.11.3 Aeronautics, space armaments 76 (5)
2.11.3.1 Advantages of composite for 77 (1)
aerospace applications
2.11.3.2 Disadvantages of composites 77 (1)
2.11.3.3 Examples of operational or 78 (3)
development parts
2.11.4 Shipbuilding, offshore, nautical 81 (3)
sports
2.11.4.1 Composites in the shipbuilding 81 (1)
sector
2.11.4.2 Composites in offshore oil rig 81 (2)
construction
2.11.4.3 Barriers to composite use 83 (1)
2.11.5 Anti-corrosion equipment, mechanics, 84 (2)
industry, tools
2.11.6 Electricity, electronics 86 (2)
2.11.7 Electric household appliances, 88 (1)
refrigeration, office automation
2.11.8 Medical 89 (1)
2.11.9 Sports and leisure 89 (1)
2.11.10 Packaging 90 (1)
2.11.11 Art, decoration 90 (1)
2.11.12 Miscellaneous applications 90 (1)
2.12 Applications of the main thermoset and 91 (32)
composite families
2.12.1 Polyurethane and polyurea 91 (4)
2.12.1.1 Foam application examples 92 (1)
2.12.1.2 RIM application examples 93 (1)
2.12.1.3 Elastomer application examples 94 (1)
2.12.1.4 Coating and sealing application 95 (1)
examples
2.12.1.5 Polyuera 95 (1)
2.12.2 Unsaturated polyesters 95 (8)
2.12.2.1 Consumption 95 (1)
2.12.2.2 Applications 96 (7)
2.12.3 Phenolic resins 103 (2)
2.12.3.1 Consumption 103 (1)
2.12.3.2 Applications 104 (1)
2.12.4 Melamine and urea-formaldehyde 105 (3)
resins (amino resins)
2.12.4.1 Consumption 105 (1)
2.12.4.2 Applications 106 (2)
2.12.5 Epoxide resins 108 (5)
2.12.5.1 Consumption 108 (1)
2.12.5.2 Applications 108 (5)
2.12.6 Polyimides 113 (3)
2.12.6.1 Consumption 113 (1)
2.12.6.2 Applications 113 (3)
2.12.7 Silicones 116 (4)
2.12.7.1 Consumption 116 (1)
2.12.7.2 Applications 117 (3)
2.12.8 Polycyanates or cyanate esters 120 (1)
2.12.8.1 Consumption 120 (1)
2.12.8.2 Applications 121 (1)
2.12.9 DCPD 121 (1)
2.12.9.1 Consumption 121 (1)
2.12.9.2 Applications 121 (1)
2.12.10 Furane resins 122 (1)
2.12.10.1 Consumption 122 (1)
2.12.10.2 Applications 122 (1)
2.13 Application examples of the main 123 (13)
reinforcements
2.13.1 Glass fibres 123 (5)
2.13.1.1 Consumption 123 (1)
2.13.1.2 Applications 123 (5)
2.13.2 Aramid fibres 128 (1)
2.13.2.1 Consumption 128 (1)
2.13.2.2 Applications 129 (1)
2.13.3 Carbun fibres 129 (3)
2.13.3.1 Consumption 129 (1)
2.13.3.2 Applications 129 (3)
2.13.4 Sustainable natural fibres 132 (1)
2.13.5 Other fibres and reinforcements 132 (1)
2.13.6 Self-reinforcing polymers 133 (1)
2.13.7 Sandwich composites 133 (2)
2.13.8 Hybrids 135 (1)
2.14 Applications of the main processing 136 (10)
methods
2.14.1 Thermoplastic composites 136 (2)
2.14.2 SMC,BMC,ZMC 138 (1)
2.14.3 RTM 139
2.14.4 Hand lay-up and spray lay-up 130 (11)
2.14.5 Pultrusion 141 (1)
2.14.6 Filament winding 142 (1)
2.14.7 Prepreg applications 143 (1)
2.14.8 Centrifugal moulding 143 (1)
2.14.9 Continuous sheet moulding 144 (2)
Chapter 3 Basic criteria for the selection of
thermosets
3.1 Evaluation of plastic properties 146 (9)
3.1.1 Thermal behaviour 146 (2)
3.1.2 Low temperature behaviour 148 (1)
3.1.3 Mechanical properties 149 (2)
3.1.4 Long-term mechanical properties 151 (1)
3.1.5 Long-term light and UV resistance 152 (1)
3.1.6 Chemical resistance by immersion or 152 (1)
contact
3.1.7 Electrical properties 153 (1)
3.1.8 Gas permeability 154 (1)
3.1.9 Flammability 155 (1)
3.1.10 Optical properties 155 (1)
3.2 ISO standards concerning polymer testing 155 (9)
3.2.1 Moulding of test specimens 155 (1)
3.2.2 Mechanical properties 155 (5)
3.2.3 Thermomechanical properties 160 (1)
3.2.4 Long-term properties 160 (2)
3.2.5 Fluid contact behaviour 162 (1)
3.2.6 Electrical properties 163 (1)
3.2.7 Oxygen index, flammability, smoke 163 (1)
generation
3.2.8 Optical properties 164 (1)
3.3 Material selection 164 (1)
3.4 Precision of the moulded parts 165 (1)
3.5 Schematic comparison of thermoset and 166 (18)
composite properties
Chapter 4 Detailed accounts of thermoset resins
for moulding and composite matrices
4.1 Polyurethanes, polyureas (PUR) 184 (19)
4.1.1 General properties 185 (2)
4.1.2 Thermal behaviour 187 (2)
4.1.3 Optical properties 189 (1)
4.1.4 Mechanical properties 189 (1)
4.1.5 Ageing 189 (4)
4.1.6 Electrical properties 193 (1)
4.1.7 Joining 193 (1)
4.1.8 Foams 193 (3)
4.1.9 Specific ISO standards concerning 196 (1)
polyurethanes
4.1.10 Trade name examples 197 (1)
4.1.11 Property tables 197 (6)
4.2 Unsaturated polyesters (UP) 203 (20)
4.2.1 General properties 204 (5)
4.2.2 Thermal behaviour 209 (2)
4.2.3 Optical properties 211 (1)
4.2.4 Mechanical properties 211 (2)
4.2.5 Ageing 213 (2)
4.2.6 Electrical properties 215 (1)
4.2.7 Joining 215 (1)
4.2.8 Specific ISO standards concerning 216 (1)
polyesters
4.2.9 Trade name examples 217 (1)
4.2.10 Property tables 217 (6)
4.3 Phenolic resins (PF) 223 (16)
4.3.1 General properties 225 (3)
4.3.2 Thermal behaviour 228 (1)
4.3.3 Optical properties 229 (1)
4.3.4 Mechanical properties 229 (1)
4.3.5 Ageing 230 (2)
4.3.6 Electrical properties 232 (1)
4.3.7 Joining 232 (1)
4.3.8 Foams 233 (1)
4.3.9 Specific ISO standards concerning 233 (2)
phenolic resins
4.3.10 Trade name examples 235 (1)
4.3.11 Property tables 235 (4)
4.4 The amino resins: melamine(MF) and 239 (12)
urea-formaldehyde(UF)
4.4.1 General properties 240 (2)
4.4.2 Thermal behavior 242 (1)
4.4.3 Optical properties 243 (1)
4.4.4 Mechanical properties 243 (1)
4.4.5 Ageing 243 (2)
4.4.6 Electrical properties 245 (1)
4.4.7 Joining 245 (1)
4.4.8 Foams 245 (1)
4.4.9 Specific ISO standards concerning 246 (1)
amino resins
4.4.10 Trade name examples 247 (1)
4.4.11 Property tables 247 (4)
4.5 Epoxides or epoxy resins (EP) 251 (24)
4.5.1 General properties 252 (3)
4.5.2 Thermal behaviour 255 (2)
4.5.3 Optical properties 257 (2)
4.5.4 Mechanical properties 259 (6)
4.5.5 Ageing 265 (1)
4.5.6 Electrical properties 265 (1)
4.5.7 Joining 265 (1)
4.5.8 Foamed epoxies and syntactic foams 265 (1)
4.5.9 Specific ISO standards concerning 266 (2)
epoxides
4.5.10 Trade name examples 268
4.5.11 Property tables 267 (8)
4.6 Polyimides (P1) 275 (22)
4.6.1 General properties 276 (2)
4.6.2 Thermal behaviour 278 (2)
4.6.3 Optical properties 280 (1)
4.6.4 Mechanical properties 280 (2)
4.6.5 Ageing 282 (7)
4.6.6 Electrical properties 289 (1)
4.6.7 Joining 289 (1)
4.6.8 Foamed polyimides and syntactic foams 289 (1)
4.6.9 Trade name examples 290 (1)
4.6.10 Property tables 290 (7)
4.7 Silicones or polysiloxanes (MQ, PMQ, 297 (20)
PVMQ, VMQ or SI) and fluorosilicones (FMQ,
FVMQ or FSI)
4.7.1 General properties 298 (4)
4.7.2 Thermal behaviour 302 (2)
4.7.3 Optical properties 304 (1)
4.7.4 Mechanical properties 304 (1)
4.7.5 Ageing 305 (4)
4.7.6 Electrical properties 309 (1)
4.7.7 Joining 309 (1)
4.7.8 Foamed silicones and syntactic foams 309 (1)
4.7.9 Specific ISO standards concerning 310 (1)
silicones
4.7.10 Trade name examples 310 (1)
4.7.11 Property tables 311 (6)
4.8 Polycyanates or cyanates esters (Cy) 317 (5)
4.8.1 General properties 318 (1)
4.8.2 Thermal behaviour 319 (1)
4.8.3 Mechanical properties 319 (1)
4.8.4 Ageing 320 (1)
4.8.5 Electrical properties 320 (1)
4.8.6 Syntactic foams 320 (1)
4.8.7 Trade name examples 321 (1)
4.8.8 Property tables 321 (1)
4.9 Other thermosets 322 (8)
4.9.1 Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) 322 (4)
4.9.1.1 General properties 322 (2)
4.9.1.2 Thermal behaviour and ageing 324 (1)
4.9.1.3 Mechanical properties 325 (1)
4.9.1.4 Electrical properties 325 (1)
4.9.1.5 Joining 325 (1)
4.9.1.6 Trade name examples 325 (1)
4.9.1.7 Property tables 325 (1)
4.9.2 Furans 326 (4)
4.9.2.1 General properties 326 (1)
4.9.2.2 Properties and ageing 327 (1)
4.9.2.3 Trade name examples 327 (3)
Chapter 5 Thermoset processing
5.1 Solid thermoset processing 330 (6)
5.1.1 Compression moulding 331 (1)
5.1.2 Compression transfer moulding 332 (2)
5.1.3 Injection moulding 334 (1)
5.1.4 Extrusion 335 (1)
5.2 Liquid thermoset processing 336 (3)
5.2.1 Casting 336 (1)
5.2.2 Liquid injection moulding(LIM) 336 (1)
5.2.3 Reaction injection moulding(RIM) 337 (1)
5.2.4 Rotational moulding 338 (1)
5.2.5 Foaming 339 (1)
5.2.6 Composite processes 339 (1)
5.3 Thermoset machining 339 (1)
5.4 Thermoset assembly 340 (4)
5.4.1 Adhesive bonding 340 (1)
5.4.2 Mechanical assembly 341 (3)
Chapter 6 Composites
6.1 Definitions 344 (1)
6.2 Reminder of some basic principles 344 (2)
6.3 Composite mechanical performances 346 (4)
according to the reinforcement type
6.3.1 Reinforcement by randomly distributed 346 (1)
short fibres
6.3.2 Reinforcement by arranged continuous 347 (1)
fibres
6.3.2.1 Unidirectional reinforcement 347 (1)
6.3.2.2 Reinforcement with two orthogonal 348 (1)
layers
6.3.3 General approximate method for 348 (2)
strength estimation
6.4 Composite Matrices 350 (20)
6.4.1 Thermosets 350 (7)
6.4.2 Thermoplastics 357 (13)
6.4.3 Influence of the matrix on the 370 (1)
composite properties
6.5 Reinforcements 370 (34)
6.5.1 Fibres 370 (18)
6.5.1.1 Glass fibres for polymer 373 (6)
reinforcement
6.5.1.2 Carbon fibres (CF) for polymer 379 (2)
reinforcement
6.5.1.3 Aramid fibres (AF) for polymer 381 (2)
reinforcement
6.5.1.4 Comparison of the three main 383 (2)
types of fibres
6.5.1.5 Sustainable natural vegetal fibres 385 (2)
6.5.1.6 Other mineral fibres 387 (1)
6.5.1.7 Other textile fibres 387 (1)
6.5.1.8 Industrial fibres 388 (1)
6.5.2 The different fibre forms used for 388 (2)
reinforcement
6.5.3 Foams for sandwich technology 390 (9)
6.5.4 Honeycombs 399 (1)
6.5.5 Plywood and wood 400 (1)
6.5.6 Influence of the core on the sandwich 401 (1)
properties
6.5.7 Nanofillers 402 (2)
6.6 Intermediate semi-manufactured materials 404 (9)
6.6.1 SMC, bulk compounds, prepregs 404 (5)
6.6.2 Glass mat thermoplastics (GMTs) and 409 (2)
prepregs
6.6.3 Examples of intermediate 411 (1)
semi-manufactured composites
6.6.4 Advanced all-polymer prepregs or 412 (1)
self-reinforced polymers
6.7 Composite Processing 413 (30)
6.7.1 Thermoset composites 414 (20)
6.7.2 Thermoplastic composites 434 (3)
6.7.3 Sandwich composites 437 (2)
6.7.4 Finishing operations 439 (3)
6.7.5 Repairing composites 442 (1)
6.8 Examples of composite characteristics 443 (23)
6.8.1 Basic principles 443 (1)
6.8.2 Nanocomposites 444 (1)
6.8.3 Short fibre composites 445 (4)
6.8.3.1 Significant parameters 445 (1)
6.8.3.2 Short glass fibres 446 (1)
6.8.3.3 Short carbon fibres 447 (1)
6.8.3.4 Short aramid fibres 448 (1)
6.8.4 Long fibre reinforced plastics: LFRT 449 (1)
and BMC
6.8.5 "Continuous" fibre composites 450 (7)
6.8.6 Sandwich composites 457 (1)
6.8.7 Foamed composites 458 (3)
6.8.7.1 Property examples of RRIM, SRRIM 458 (1)
6.8.7.2 Foamed matrix composites 459 (1)
6.8.7.3 Syntactic foams 460 (1)
6.8.8 Hybrid composites 461 (1)
6.8.9 Conductive composites 462 (4)
Chapter 7 Future prospects for thermosets and
composites
7.1 The Laws and requirements of the market 466 (1)
7.2 Thermoset and composite answers and assets 467 (5)
7.3 Markets: what drives what? The forces 472 (1)
driving development
7.3.1 Consumption trends 472 (1)
7.3.2 Requirements of the main markets 473 (1)
7.4 Cost savings 473 (3)
7.4.1 Material costs 473 (1)
7.4.2 Hybrids 474 (1)
7.4.3 Processing costs 474 (2)
7.4.3.1 Example of compounding integrated 475 (1)
on the process line
7.4.3.2 New or modified processes 475 (1)
7.4.3.3 Integrating finishing in the 475 (1)
process
7.4.4 Low-cost tool examples 476 (1)
7.5 Material upgrading and competition 476 (6)
7.5.1 Carbon nanotubes (CNT) 476 (1)
7.5.2 Molecular reinforcement 477 (1)
7.5.3 Polymer nanotubes 477 (1)
7.5.4 Nanofillers 477 (1)
7.5.5 Short fibre reinforced thermoplastics 477 (1)
to compete with LFRT
7.5.6 Thermoplastic and thermoset 478 (1)
competition
7.5.7 3D reinforcements compete with 2D 479 (1)
7.5.8 Carbon fibres compete with glass 480 (1)
fibres
7.5.9 New high performance polymers 481 (1)
7.6 The immediate future seen through recent 482 (2)
patents
7.6.1 Analysis of patents by polymer type
482.
7.6.2 Analysis of patents by reinforcement 483 (1)
type
7.6.3 Analysis of patents by structure and 484 (1)
process type
7.7 The immediate future seen through recent 484 (2)
awards
7.8 Environmental concerns 486 (7)
7.8.1 Recycling of thermosets and composites 486 (4)
7.8.1.1 Collection and pre-treatment of 486 (1)
wastes
7.8.1.2 The main recycling routes 487 (1)
7.8.1.3 Thermoset and composite specifics 487 (1)
7.8.1.4 Thermoset and composite 488 (2)
recyclates: mechanical and calorific
properties
7.8.1.5 Recycling costs 490 (1)
7.8.2 Sustainable standard and 490 (1)
high-performance reinforcements
7.8.3 Sustainable and biodegradable 491 (1)
components for matrices
7.8.4 Examples of sustainable composites 492 (1)
Conclusion 493 (4)
Index 497