持続可能性評価:資料とガイド<br>Sustainability Appraisal : A Sourcebook and Reference Guide to International Experience

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持続可能性評価:資料とガイド
Sustainability Appraisal : A Sourcebook and Reference Guide to International Experience

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 810 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9781844073573
  • DDC分類 338.927

基本説明

Published with IIED(International Institute for Environment and Development). Highlights how SA can be used to integrate the key environmental, social and economic (ESE) pillars of sustainability into decision-making at all levels.

Full Description


Sustainability Appraisal is a sourcebook of the state-of-the-art of this rapidly emerging and diversifying area. It draws on a wealth of international experiences and approaches to illustrate the status and scope of Sustainability Appraisal/Assessment (SA) This comprehensive guide highlights how SA can be used to analyse and integrate the key environmental, social and economic pillars of sustainability into decision-making at all levels, from policy to project to investment, by government, business and industry, or international organizations. Distilling both published and unpublished materials, and with contributions from a range of leading experts, organizations and agencies, this book will be of significant value to professionals everywhere who are in need of a solid, reference guide to what constitutes SA practice and, more importantly, how and when it can be applied.

Table of Contents

List of figures                            xv
List of tables xvii
List of boxes xix
Notes on contributors xxv
Preface xxvii
Acknowledgements xxix
List of abbreviations xxxi
PART 1 Introduction and approaches to 1 (132)
sustainability appraisal
1 Introduction 3 (9)
1.1 Brief definition and unpacking of 4 (2)
terms
1.1.1 Sustainability appraisal as a 5 (1)
policy instrument and vector for reform
1.2 Emerging demand for integrated 6 (1)
sustainability-focused approaches
1.3 Purpose, rationale and scope: the 7 (1)
what, why and how of the review
1.4 An initial framework for 8 (4)
sustainability appraisal
Note 11 (1)
2 A macro framework for sustainability 12 (49)
appraisal: concepts, principles and
perspectives
2.1 Introduction 12 (1)
2.2 Background: evolution of sustainable 12 (14)
development in international law and
policy
2.2.1 Early beginnings 13 (1)
2.2.2 Report of the World Commission on 13 (2)
Environment and Development (1987)
2.2.3 The UN Conference on Environment 15 (1)
and Development (1992)
2.2.4 UN Millennium Development Goals 16 (1)
(2000)
2.2.5 The UN World Summit on 17 (3)
Sustainable Development (2002)
2.2.6 Tallying the ledger 20 (1)
2.2.7 The latest UN Conference on 21 (3)
Sustainable Development (Rio+20)
2.2.8 Sustainable development goals 24 (2)
2.3 Towards an operational understanding 26 (22)
of sustainable development: perspectives
on evaluation
2.3.1 The imperative for sustainability 26 (1)
and the issue of limits to growth
2.3.1.1 Making the case for limits 27 (2)
2.3.1.2 Counter-arguments 29 (1)
2.3.1.3 The prevailing orthodoxy: 30 (1)
managing risks and banking on technology
2.3.2 Key components of sustainable 30 (2)
development and the conditions for
sustainability
2.3.2.1 The Brundtland definition of 32 (1)
sustainable development
2.3.2.2 Capital assets and their inter- 33 (2)
and intra-generational transfer
2.3.2.3 System conditions for 35 (3)
sustainability identified in The
Natural Step
2.3.3 The governance of sustainable 38 (1)
development and institutions for public
policy-making
2.3.3.1 Themes and issues of 38 (4)
sustainability governance
2.3.3.2 Multi-level governance 42 (6)
2.4 Sustainability as an integrated 48 (7)
approach
2.4.1 Different forms of integration 49 (2)
2.4.2 A closer look at the integration 51 (4)
of the three pillars of sustainable
development
2.5 Conclusion 55 (6)
Notes 56 (5)
3 Integrated approaches to sustainability 61 (72)
appraisal
3.1 A tri-partite approach to integrated, 63 (10)
sustainability-focused decision-making
3.1.1 Time and space boundaries 64 (2)
3.1.2 A compass of sustainability 66 (1)
guides and reference points
3.1.3 A systematic process of 67 (1)
sustainability assessment
3.1.4 Rules of the game for process 68 (1)
design and implementation
3.1.4.1 The framework of sustainability 68 (1)
aims and principles
3.1.4.2 Core principles and 68 (1)
requirements that will govern the
assessment process
3.1.4.3 Objectives-led and 69 (2)
effects-based sustainability criteria
that will direct the assessment of
effects
3.1.4.4 Trade-offs and decision-making 71 (2)
3.2 Micro-level integration (impact 73 (1)
assessment)
3.3 Meso-level integration (strategic) 74 (12)
planning and policy mechanisms, with
particular reference to sustainable
development strategies and scenario
planning
3.3.1 Sustainable development strategies 74 (5)
3.3.2 Scenario planning 79 (7)
3.4 Macro-level integration (progress 86 (17)
accounting)
3.4.1 Ex post or retrospective 86 (1)
approaches to measuring and analysing
sustainability
3.4.1.1 Account-based approaches 87 (2)
3.4.1.2 Narrative assessments 89 (1)
3.4.1.3 Indicator-based assessments 90 (6)
3.4.1.4 An example of retrospective 96 (4)
application
3.4.1.5 Deciding what to measure: a 100 (3)
framework of parts and aims
3.5 Methods and tools for integration 103 (26)
3.5.1 Examples of tools for undertaking 111 (1)
sustainability assessment
3.5.1.1 Assessing the sustainability of 111 (5)
societal initiatives and proposing
agendas for change (ASSIPAC)
3.5.1.2 Threshold 21 116 (4)
3.5.1.3 Consistency analysis matrix for 120 (1)
policy assessment
3.5.1.4 Sustainability test 120 (3)
3.5.1.5 Questionnaire-based approaches 123 (1)
3.5.1.6 Toolkit approaches 124 (1)
3.5.1.7 Adaptive, participatory 125 (1)
approaches
3.5.1.8 Global sector-wide approaches 125 (1)
3.5.1.9 Other approaches 126 (3)
3.6 Conclusion 129 (4)
Notes 130 (3)
PART 2 Dimensions of sustainability 133 (174)
4 Environmental sustainability appraisal 135 (95)
and assurance: concepts, approaches and
applications
4.1 Introduction 135 (1)
4.2 Environmental sustainability in a 136 (30)
full world: values, concepts and policies
4.2.1 Environmentalism and sustainable 137 (4)
development: world-views and values of
nature in a full world
4.2.2 International environmental law 141 (1)
and policy
4.2.2.1 Status, scope and 141 (5)
sustainability relevance of
multilateral environmental agreements
4.2.2.2 The biodiversity and climate 146 (3)
change conventions
4.2.2.3 MEA implementation and issues 149 (2)
of compliance, enforcement and
effectiveness
4.2.3 Scientific concepts, criteria and 151 (1)
interpretations of environmental
sustainability
4.2.3.1 Environmental and Earth system 151 (2)
science for sustainability
4.2.3.2 Conceptual models and 153 (4)
propositions of global environmental
sustainability
4.2.3.3 Frameworks and metrics of 157 (4)
global environmental sustainability
4.2.3.4 Resilience and vulnerability of 161 (5)
natural and socio-ecological systems
4.3 Macro-assessment of global and 166 (19)
large-scale environmental change
4.3.1 Overview of the state of the 169 (3)
global environment
4.3.2 Major issues and inter-linkages 172 (3)
4.3.2.1 Climate change 175 (4)
4.3.2.2 Loss of species, biodiversity 179 (3)
and ecosystem services
4.3.2.3 Emerging risks and issues 182 (2)
4.3.3 Sustainability implications of 184 (1)
global environmental change
4.4 Environmental assessment and 185 (33)
management approaches and applications
4.4.1 Environmental mainstreaming: need 186 (6)
and tools
4.4.2 EAM tools and approaches to 192 (1)
environmental safeguarding
4.4.2.1 Environmental impact assessment 193 (10)
and strategic environmental assessment
4.4.2.2 Cumulative effects assessment 203 (3)
and management (CEAM)
4.4.2.3 Environmental risk assessment 206 (3)
4.4.2.4 Integrated 209 (1)
environmental/ecosystem assessment
4.4.2.5 Environmental management 210 (3)
regimes and systems
4.4.3 Environmental assessment and 213 (1)
management tools and approaches for
environmental sustainability assurance
4.4.3.1 Specifying demand- and 213 (3)
supply-side principles for strong
sustainability
4.4.3.2 Strengthening EIA and SEA and 216 (1)
other EAM tools as sustainability
instruments
4.4.3.3 Ecosystems approach to 217 (1)
maintaining critical natural capital
and services
4.5 Conclusion 218 (12)
Notes 221 (9)
5 Economics-based approaches to 230 (29)
sustainability appraisal
5.1 Introduction 230 (1)
5.2 Background: entry points for an 230 (2)
economic approach to sustainability
analysis
5.3 Sustainability 232 (3)
5.3.1 The term `sustainability' 232 (1)
5.3.2 Economic sustainability in a 232 (1)
narrow sense
5.3.3 Economic sustainability as a 232 (1)
dimension of sustainable development
5.3.4 Sustainability as non-declining 233 (1)
human welfare
5.3.4.1 Natural capital: weak and 233 (2)
strong sustainability
5.3.4.2 Other types of capital 235 (1)
5.4 Economic applications of 235 (1)
sustainability assessment
5.5 Approaches to integrating economic 235 (6)
variables with social and environmental
variables
5.5.1 Approaches to integration in the 237 (1)
estimation of impacts
5.5.1.1 Scope of integration 237 (1)
5.5.1.2 Methodological approaches and 237 (1)
challenges
5.5.1.3 Simple methods 238 (1)
5.5.1.4 Complex methods 239 (2)
5.6 Evaluation and comparison: 241 (14)
integration of economic, environmental
and social variables
5.6.1 Assessment of projects 243 (1)
5.6.2 Assessment of policy 244 (4)
5.6.3 Macro-economic performance 248 (2)
5.6.3.1 Adjusted savings 250 (2)
5.6.3.2 Trade and trans-boundary 252 (1)
movements of capital
5.6.3.3 Addressing the social dimension 252 (3)
of sustainable development
5.7 Emergence of the green economy concept 255 (2)
5.8 Conclusion 257 (2)
Acknowledgements 257 (1)
Notes 257 (2)
6 Social dimensions of sustainability 259 (48)
appraisal
6.1 Introduction 259 (1)
6.2 Organising concepts, values and 259 (13)
principles
6.2.1 Scope and interpretation of 260 (1)
social sustainability
6.2.1.1 Basic needs and social 261 (1)
well-being
6.2.1.2 Equity: basic needs plus what 262 (1)
else?
6.2.1.3 Social inclusion 263 (1)
6.2.1.4 Social capital 264 (1)
6.2.1.5 Empowerment 265 (1)
6.2.1.6 Security and resilience 266 (1)
6.2.2 International law and policy 267 (2)
6.2.3 The implementation gap and the 269 (2)
role of international agencies
6.2.4 National policy frameworks 271 (1)
6.3 Retrospective assessments of trends 272 (1)
and issues: global and national social
appraisals
6.4 Status of social appraisal: tools and 273 (19)
approaches
6.4.1 Social impact assessment (SIA) 274 (4)
6.4.1.1 Scope and purpose of SIA 278 (1)
6.4.1.2 SLA principles and guidelines 278 (1)
6.4.1.3 Steps in SIA 279 (1)
6.4.1.4 Methods and data 280 (1)
6.4.1.5 Integration with other impact 281 (1)
assessments and sustainability concepts
6.4.2 Health impact assessment (HIA) 282 (1)
6.4.2.1 Sustainability values and 283 (2)
guiding principles of HIA
6.4.2.2 HIA procedure and methodology 285 (1)
6.4.2.3 HIA application and good 286 (1)
practice
6.4.3 Human Rights Impact Assessment 286 (2)
(HRIA)
6.4.4 Indigenous peoples and cultural 288 (2)
assessment
6.4.5 Sustainable livelihoods framework 290 (2)
6.5 World Bank social appraisal tools 292 (7)
6.5.1 Poverty assessments 293 (1)
6.5.2 Poverty and social impact 294 (1)
analysis (PSIA)
6.5.3 Gender analysis 295 (1)
6.5.4 Indigenous peoples' development 296 (1)
planning
6.5.5 Resettlement 297 (2)
6.6 Public participation in 299 (2)
decision-making
6.6.1 Types of public participation 300 (1)
6.7 Conclusion 301 (6)
Acknowledgements 302 (1)
Notes 302 (5)
PART 3 National and international experience 307 (138)
to date
7 Experience in the European Union and 309 (73)
selected developed countries
7.1 The European Union and Europe-wide 310 (24)
agenda
7.1.1 Legal and policy framework 310 (1)
7.1.1.1 Sustainable development in EU 310 (2)
primary law
7.1.1.2 EU sustainable development 312 (7)
policy and strategy
7.1.2 (Integrated) impact assessment 319 (1)
7.1.2.1 Cornerstones and elements of 320 (2)
approach
7.1.2.2 Initial phase of implementation 322 (1)
(2002--2005)
7.1.2.3 Recent changes in guidance and 323 (4)
oversight (2006--2011)
7.1.2.4 A final word on impact 327 (1)
assessment as a sustainability tool
7.1.3 EC-funded research projects and 328 (5)
training on impact assessment
7.1.4 The European Environmental Agency 333 (1)
7.2 The Organisation for Economic 334 (1)
Co-operation and Development (OECD)
7.3 Selected national experiences 335 (47)
7.3.1 Australia 335 (1)
7.3.1.1 Legal and policy background 335 (1)
7.3.1.2 Integrated assessment at the 336 (2)
Commonwealth level
7.3.1.3 Application at the state level: 338 (2)
Western Australia
7.3.1.4 The Commonwealth Scientific and 340 (1)
Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
7.3.2 Canada 341 (1)
7.3.2.1 Legal and policy background 341 (1)
7.3.2.2 Role and approach of the 342 (2)
National Round Table on the Environment
and the Economy
7.3.2.3 Experience with federal 344 (3)
sustainable development strategies
7.3.2.4 Impact assessment 347 (3)
7.3.2.5 Land use and resource planning 350 (3)
related approaches
7.3.3 The Netherlands 353 (1)
7.3.3.1 National-level assessment 353 (1)
7.3.3.2 Provincial-level assessment 354 (1)
7.3.3.3 Municipal-level assessment 354 (3)
7.3.3.4 General framework for SA 357 (3)
7.3.4 New Zealand 360 (1)
7.3.4.1 Legal and policy background 360 (2)
7.3.4.2 RMA practice 362 (3)
7.3.5 Switzerland 365 (3)
7.3.6 The United Kingdom 368 (2)
7.3.6.1 Policy-level appraisal 370 (3)
7.3.6.2 Assessment of plans and 373 (7)
programmes
7.3.6.3 New planning framework in 380 (1)
England
7.3.7 The USA 380 (2)
7 A Conclusion 382 (63)
Acknowledgements 382 (1)
Notes 382 (6)
Experience in selected development 388 (1)
cooperation agencies and developing
countries
8.1 Introduction 388 (2)
8.2 Multilateral agencies 390 (9)
8.2.1 The African Development Bank 390 (1)
(AfDB)
8.2.2 The Asian Development Bank (ADB) 390 (1)
8.2.2.1 Country environmental analyses 391 (1)
8.2.2.2 Strategic environmental 392 (2)
assessment
8.2.2.3 Safeguard policy statement 394 (1)
8.2.2.4 Sustainability reports 394 (1)
8.2.2.5 Environment-cum-economic 394 (3)
planning
8.2.3 The Inter-American Development 397 (1)
Bank
8.2.4 The International Finance 397 (2)
Corporation and the World Bank
8.3 Bilateral agencies 399 (5)
8.3.1 Australia: Ausaid 399 (1)
8.3.2 Canadian International 400 (1)
Development Agency (CIDA)
8.3.3 The Netherlands 400 (2)
8.3.4 The Norwegian Agency for 402 (1)
Development Cooperation (NORAD)
8.3.5 The Swedish International 403 (1)
Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)
8.4 UN organisations 404 (9)
8.4.1 UNEP 404 (5)
8.4.2 UNDP 409 (2)
8.4.3 Poverty-Environment Initiative 411 (2)
8.5 Developing countries 413 (30)
8.5.1 Southern Africa 414 (1)
8.5.1.1 Southern African views on 414 (1)
sustainable development and approaches
to sustainability appraisal
8.5.1.2 Rossing uranium mine 415 (2)
sustainability assessment, Namibia
8.5.2 South Africa 417 (1)
8.5.2.1 Introduction 417 (3)
8.5.2.2 Government initiatives 420 (3)
8.5.2.3 Provincial and local-level 423 (6)
initiatives
8.5.2.4 Private sector initiatives 429 (1)
8.5.2.5 Cape Action Plan for the 430 (1)
Environment
8.5.2.6 Human settlement policy 430 (7)
framework
8.5.3 Some examples of experience in 437 (6)
other developing countries
8.6 Conclusion 443 (2)
Acknowledgements 443 (1)
Notes 443 (2)
PART 4 Sustainability appraisal methodologies 445 (222)
and their application
9 Natural resources and land use 447 (65)
9.1 Introduction 447 (2)
9.2 Background on key concepts and 449 (5)
approaches
9.2.1 Linking global environmental 450 (1)
issues and human needs
9.2.2 Land evaluation and land use 451 (2)
planning
9.2.3 Cross-cutting concepts and 453 (1)
approaches
9.2.3.1 Analysing the resource wealth 453 (1)
of the poor
9.3 Global assessment and analysis of 454 (2)
natural resource issues and links
9.4 Food and water security as 456 (13)
fundamental challenges
9.4.1 Global food assessment and 457 (2)
response planning
9.4.2 Global assessments of water 459 (1)
trends and issues
9.4.3 Regional and trans-boundary 460 (3)
assessment
9.4.4 National- and sub-national water 463 (2)
assessment: an example from the
Netherlands
9.4.5 Towards hydropower sustainability 465 (4)
assessment
9.5 Sustainable agriculture 469 (12)
9.5.1 Trends and issues 469 (1)
9.5.2 Policy responses to the impact of 470 (2)
intensive farming
9.5.2.1 European approaches to policy 472 (2)
reform
9.5.2.2 Sustainability assessment of 474 (4)
farms
9.5.2.3 Inquiry into the sustainability 478 (2)
of intensive farming, New Zealand
9.5.3 Sustainable agriculture and rural 480 (1)
development, standards and
certification in developing countries
9.6 Sustainable forestry management 481 (13)
9.6.1 Global assessments and trends 482 (2)
9.6.2 Assessing sustainable forest 484 (6)
management
9.6.3 Intensive, commercial forestry 490 (1)
9.6.3.1 Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) 490 (3)
process, Australia
9.6.3.2 Tool for sustainability impact 493 (1)
assessment of the Forest Wood Chain
(ToSIA)
9.7 Sustainable fisheries management 494 (13)
9.7.1 Issues and trends in fisheries 494 (1)
9.7.2 Global assessments 495 (3)
9.7.3 Fisheries certification 498 (1)
9.7.4 Sustainable fisheries assessment 498 (1)
and management
9.7.4.1 Sustainable fisheries 499 (5)
assessment: Australian practice
9.7.5 Aquaculture as a sustainability 504 (1)
issue
9.7.5.1 Assessments and audits of the 504 (3)
impact of salmon farming in British
Columbia
9.8 Conclusion 507 (5)
Notes 508 (4)
10 Sustainability appraisal for business, 512 (47)
industry and infrastructure development
10.1 Introduction 512 (1)
10.2 Key concepts and drivers 513 (4)
10.3 Sustainability norms and principles 517 (3)
for business and industry
10.3.1 Industry member forums 517 (2)
10.3.2 Norms and standards aimed at 519 (1)
regulation of business and industry
10.4 Key tools and approaches 520 (26)
10.4.1 Sustainability reporting 520 (4)
10.4.2 Triple bottom line assessment 524 (1)
10.4.3 Life cycle analysis (LCA) 525 (2)
10.4.4 Environmental accounting 527 (1)
10.4.5 Environmental or sustainability 528 (1)
audit
10.4.6 Sustainability-Integrated 529 (1)
Guidelines for Management (SIGMA)
10.4.7 The Natural Step 530 (2)
10.4.8 Sustainable Project Appraisal 532 (1)
Routine (SPeAR)
10.4.9 Anglo American's Socio-Economic 532 (3)
Assessment Toolbox (SEAT)
10.4.10 Environmental sustainability 535 (1)
assessment
10.4.11 Corporate sustainability 536 (1)
assessment: the case of Crystal Flash,
Michigan
10.4.12 BP's Sustainability Assessment 537 (2)
Model (SAM)
10.4.13 Bank Sarasin: sustainability 539 (1)
assessment for investment
10.4.14 Dow Jones sustainability 539 (2)
indexes and corporate sustainability
assessments
10.4.15 UK Government: sustainability 541 (1)
assessment of renewable energy projects
10.4.16 Sustainability assessment for 542 (4)
small and medium-sized enterprises
10.5 Sectoral review processes 546 (11)
10.5.1 The Sustainable Paper Cycle Study 546 (2)
10.5.2 The Mining, Minerals and 548 (3)
Sustainable Development (MMSD) project
10.5.3 Extractive Industries Review: a 551 (1)
sustainability appraisal by any other
name?
10.5.3.1 The EIR process: did it 552 (2)
satisfy the requirements of a
sustainability appraisal?
10.5.4 World Commission on Dams: 554 (3)
performance assessment of large dams
10.6 Conclusion 557 (2)
Acknowledgements 557 (1)
Notes 557 (2)
11 Sustainable urban development 559 (65)
11.1 Introduction 559 (1)
11.2 Background: conceptual and policy 559 (14)
frameworks
11.2.1 Urban growth in the developing 560 (1)
and developed worlds
11.2.2 Some basic terms and concepts 560 (3)
11.2.3 Urban sustainability policies 563 (1)
and strategies
11.2.3.1 Global policy agenda 564 (1)
11.2.3.2 EU strategies and policies 565 (2)
11.2.3.3 Development cooperation agency 567 (1)
policies
11.2.3.4 National and state approaches 568 (2)
11.2.3.5 Local Agenda 21's and 570 (3)
municipal activities
11.3 Global and comparative assessments 573 (10)
of sustainability-related urban trends
and conditions
11.3.1 Global dynamics and impacts of 573 (2)
urban expansion
11.3.2 Cities as the new frontier in 575 (1)
the struggle for sustainability
11.3.2.1 Cities in a Globalising World; 576 (1)
Global Report on Human Settlements
(2001) (UN-Habitat 2001)
11.3.2.2 The Challenge of Slums; Global 576 (2)
Report on Human Settlements (2003)
(UN-Habitat 2003a)
11.3.2.3 State of the World's Cities 578 (1)
Report, 2008--2009: Harmonious Cities
(UN-Habitat 2008)
11.3.2.4 Slate of the World's Cities 579 (1)
Report, 2010--11: Bridging the Urban
Divide (2010) (UN-Habitat 2010)
11.3.2.5 State of the World's Cities 579 (1)
Report, 2012--2013: Prosperity of
Cities (UN-Habitat 2012)
11.3.3 Comparative rating of cities 580 (1)
11.3.3.1 Global ratings of liveable and 580 (1)
hardship cities
11.3.3.2 National surveys 581 (2)
11.4 Assessing the external impacts of 583 (9)
cities
11.4.1 Regional and peri-urban effects 584 (1)
11.4.1.1 Developing country issues and 584 (1)
approaches
11.4.1.2 Developed country issues and 585 (4)
approaches
11.4.2 Urban ecological footprints and 589 (3)
resource metabolism
11.5 City and municipal-level approaches 592 (18)
11.5.1 Providing information, 594 (1)
awareness-raising and toolkit approaches
11.5.2 Municipal sustainability 595 (3)
assessment
11.5.3 Approaches focusing on the built 598 (5)
environment
11.5.3.1 Sustainability appraisal 603 (2)
applied to government estates
11.5.4 Questionnaire, checklist and 605 (2)
matrix approaches
11.5.5 Municipal environmental budgeting 607 (3)
11.6 Local and community-based planning 610 (4)
initiatives to move towards sustainability
11.6.1 Citizen-based assessment 610 (3)
11.6.2 Campus sustainability assessments 613 (1)
11.6.3 Home sustainability assessment 613 (1)
11.7 Urban development and climate change 614 (4)
11.8 Conclusion 618 (6)
Acknowledgement 619 (1)
Notes 619 (5)
12 Trade liberalisation policies and 624 (33)
sustainability measures
12.1 Introduction 624 (1)
12.2 Background on the international 625 (6)
trade regime with particular reference to
environment and sustainable development
12.2.1 The multilateral trade regime 625 (5)
12.2.2 Regional and bilateral free 630 (1)
trade agreements
12.3 Current practice in SIA of trade 631 (26)
policies
12.3.1 International organisations 633 (1)
12.3.1.1 The Organisation for Economic 633 (3)
Co-operation and Development (OECD)
12.3.1.2 The United Nations Environment 636 (3)
Programme (UNEP)
12.3.1.3 The Organisation of American 639 (1)
States (OAS)
12.3.1.4 World Wide Fund for Nature 640 (2)
(WWF)
12.3.2 Other trade-related 642 (1)
institutional initiatives
12.3.2.1 United Nations Conference on 642 (3)
Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
12.3.2.2 International Institute for 645 (2)
Sustainable Development (IISD)
12.3.2.3 International Centre for Trade 647 (1)
and Sustainable Development (ICTSD)
12.3.3 National and supra-national 647 (1)
approaches
12.3.3.1 The Canadian and US experience 647 (2)
12.3.3.2 North American Commission for 649 (3)
Environmental Cooperation (NACEC)
12.3.3.3 The European Commission (EC) 652 (5)
12.3.4 Other approaches 657 (1)
12 A Common elements and differences in the 657 (10)
major approaches to trade SIA
12.4.1 Coverage of the environmental, 658 (1)
social and economic dimensions of
sustainable development
12.4.2 Coverage of trade measures 658 (1)
12.4.3 Geographical coverage 658 (1)
12.4.4 Assessment procedures 659 (1)
12.4.5 Stakeholder participation and 659 (1)
consultation
12.4.6 Timing 660 (1)
12.4.7 Scenarios 661 (1)
12.4.8 Assessment and valuation tools 661 (1)
12.4.9 Indicators 662 (1)
12.4.10 Significance criteria 662 (1)
12.5 Conclusion 663 (4)
Acknowledgement 664 (1)
Notes 664 (3)
PART 5 Where to from here? 667 (28)
13 Retrospect and prospect 669 (26)
13.1 The evolving agenda of sustainable 669 (10)
development
13.1.1 A reality check: has development 670 (4)
become more sustainable in practice?
13.1.2 A horizon check: what emerging 674 (1)
trends challenge our current approach
to sustainable development?
13.1.3 A strategy check: where should 674 (5)
we now be focusing our energies in the
`new era of challenges for sustainable
development'?
13.2 The anatomy of sustainability 679 (16)
appraisal: some concluding observations
and second thoughts
13.2.1 How far have we progressed with 679 (4)
sustainability appraisal?
13.2.2 Where do we go from here in 683 (2)
process and practice?
13.2.3 Building on what we have: some 685 (5)
ways forward and some unresolved
questions
13.2.4 Sustainability appraisal 690 (4)
framework revisited
Acknowledgement 694 (1)
Notes 694 (1)
Appendix 1 The Millennium Development Goals and 695 (3)
indicators
Appendix 2 Common tools for public participation 698 (4)
Appendix 3 The IUCN sustainability assessment 702 (3)
process
Appendix 4 Scenario planning and global 705 (4)
scenarios
Appendix 5 Sustainability assessment and 709 (6)
Poverty Reduction Strategies
Appendix 6 Changes to deliver an integrated 715 (2)
approach for sustainability appraisal
Appendix 7 Assessing climate change 717 (2)
Bibliography 719 (72)
Index 791