The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism

The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism

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  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9781842121658
  • DDC分類 900

Full Description


Most of us know little of Zoroastrianism and its prophet Zoroaster. For many he is merely Nietzsche's mouthpiece Zarathustra. R.C. Zaehner's book strips away the myth and reveals a monotheistic religion which bore remarkable similarities to Christianity. His book is divided into two parts. The first describes the message of the prophet Zoroaster - his proclamation in a pagan society of one true God who is just and good and who rewards and punishes men in accordance with their deeds, his insistence that all must make their choice between Truth and the Lie, and his vision of heaven and hell and the judgement that awaits the soul after death. The second part of the book describes how various Persian rulers attempted to absorb this inheritance into a society which was not yet ready for monotheistic religion. At all times the author emphasises the vigorous optimism, love of life, the whole-hearted acceptance of this world as something very good that is characteristic of Zoroastrianism in all its phases, and this in turn leads up to the account of the final rehabilitation of all things when the powers of evil rend each other asunder and hell is forever closed. First pub 1961.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            15 (4)
Introduction 19 (14)
The Historical Setting
The Iranians
The Medes
The Persians and the First Persian Empire
Macedonian and Parthian Interregnum
The Sassanian or Second Persian Empire
The Parsees
Sources and Tradition
The Avesta
The Inscriptions
The Pahlavi Books
Difficulties of Interpretation
PART I---DAWN
The Prophet 33 (29)
His Place and Date
The Economic and Political Background
Truth and the Lie
The Traditional Religion
Free Will
The Two Spirits
Zoroaster and his God
The Bounteous Immortals
God and the Two Spirits
The Two Spirits in the Dead Sea Scrolls
The Holiness of God
God, the Sole Creator
Post Mortem Judgement
Heaven and Hell
Influence on Judaism
The `Second Existence'
Summary of Doctrine
The Seven Chapters 62 (17)
Divine Beings beside God
The Wives of Ahura Mazdah
The Old Religion
Ahura and Varuna
Mithra
The `Preservers-Creators': Ahura and
Mithra
The Nature of Zoroaster's Reform
Prototype of the Holy Spirit
Changed Tone of the Seven Chapters
Veneration of Material Things
Minor Prophets
Haoma
The Cultus 79 (18)
The Yasna
The Yashts
The Videvdat
The Three Forms of Zoroastrianism
The Fourfold Confession of Faith
Ahuras and Daevas
Zoroaster and Animal Sacrifice
Sacrificial Bull and Haoma Rite
Haoma, the Drink of Immortality of the
Indo-Iranians
Haoma, as Sacrifice and Sacrament
The Liturgy
Origins of the Cult
Haoma, Victim, Priest, and God
Sraosha
Sraosha the Mediator
Mithra 97 (24)
The Yashts
Iranian Mithra and Roman Mithras
The Pre-Zoroastrian Mithra
Mithra, Compact and Warlord
Mithra and Indra
The Daeva-Worshippers and Mithra
The Separation of Mithra from Ahura
Analysis of Mithra Yasht
Mithra as Contract and King
Mithra as Terrible Warlord
Mithra as Light
Mithra, Sraosha, and Rashnu
Mithra's Heavenly House
Mithra's Plaint to the Wise Lord
Mithra's Descent to Earth
Haoma Consecrates himself Mithra's Priest
Mithra Initiated into the `Good Religion'
Ahura and Mithra Reunited
Mithra and the Holy Spirit
The Revised Cult of Ahura and Mithra
Mithra---Yima---Mithras 121(24)
The Daevas and their Worshippers
The Daeva-Worshippers and Mithra
Roman Mithras and his Immolation of the
Bull
Yima and the Bull-Sacrifice
Ahriman's Slaughter of the Bull
Bull-Sacrifice at the End of Time
Ahriman-Areimanios in the Mithraic
mysteries
The Bull-Sacrifice of Man's First Parents
Yima again
The Vedic Yama
The Avestan Yima
Yima's Golden Reign
His Subterranean Paradise
Yima and the Sun
Zoroaster and Yima
Yima's `Lie'
Yima, Mithra's Twin
Noruz and Mihragan
Yima the Prototype of Ahriman?
Yima and Mithra in the Avesta
Cautes and Cautopates in the Mithraic
Mysteries
Conclusion
Fravashi---Vayu---Khwarenah 145(9)
Ahura Mazdah's Veneration of other Deities
The Fravashis
Vayu
Vayu and Zurvan
The Khwarenah
Achaemenids and Magi 154(21)
Primitive and `Catholic' Zoroastrianism
The God of Darius the Great
The `Zoroastrianism' of Darius
The Daiva-Inscription of Xerxes
Xerxes' `Un-Zoroastrian' acts
Artaxerxes II and III
The Magi
Zoroaster and the Magi
Magavan
Popular Religion in Western Iran
Zoroastrianism and the Popular Cults
The Religion Described by Strabo
Decline and Fall of `Catholic'
Zoroastrianism
PART II---TWILIGHT
In Search of an Orthodoxy 175(18)
Revival of Zoroastrianism by the
Sassanians
In Search of an Orthodoxy
Three Sects
The `Mazdean' Dualists
The `Monotheists'
The Zurvanites
Zurvanism Predominant in the Third
Century AD
The Eclecticism of Shapur I
The High Priest Karter and the `Zandiks'
Aturpat and the `Fatalists'
The Zurvanism of Yezdigird II and his
Grand Vizier
The Synthesis of Khusraw I
Study of Indian and Greek Works
The Second Decline and Final Fall of
Zoroastrianism
The Varieties of Zurvanism 193(18)
The Pahlavi Books
Priestly Brothers: Manushchihr and
Zatspram
The Influx of Greek and Indian Ideas
The `Zandiks' and `Dahris'
`Classical' and Materialist Zurvanism
The Zandik Ontology and Metaphysics
Menok and Geteh
Creative Evolution
The Dualist Interpretation of Evolution
A Zurvanite View of Evolution
The Three Types of Zurvanism
Zurvanite Fatalism
`Classical' Zurvanism
The Zurvanite Myth
Zurvan and the Pact between Ohrmazd and
Ahriman
Classical Zurvanism 211(25)
Zurvan, the One and the Many
Zurvan's Doubt
Ohrmazd and Ahriman in Mythological
Zurvanism
Main Differences between Zurvanism and
Orthodoxy
Aberrant Versions of the Zurvanite Myth
The Sect of Gayomart
The Four Elements and their Prototypes
Infinite and Finite
Emergence of the Finite from the Infinite
The Emergence of Consciousness and the
Genesis of Evil
The Changelessness of Created Being
Az, the Weapon of Concupiscence
The `Endless Form' or Macrocosm
The Zurvanite and the Manichaean Az
Az, a Borrowing from Buddhism?
Essential `Zoroastrianism' of classical
Zurvanism
The Gender and Sex of Az
The Wickedness of the Female
The Defection of Woman to Ahriman
The Defilement of Man by Woman
Zurvan 236(12)
The Sevenfold Zurvan
Macrocosm and Microcosm
Zurvan, the God of Fate
The God of Death
The God of the Resurrection
The Fatalism of Firdausi's Epic
The Orthodox Attitude to Fate
Man's Response to Fate
Orthodoxy's Reaction to the Three Types
of Zurvanism
Ohrmazd and Ahriman 248(17)
The Orthodox Cosmogony
Finite and Infinite in the Orthodox
Account
The Nature of God
The First Creation
Ahriman's Reaction
The Weapons of Ohrmazd and Ahriman
The Limiting of Time
The Perdurance of Ohrmazd's Creation
Ohrmazd's Instrument, the Endless Form
Ahriman's Instrument, Concupiscence
Zurvanite Origin of these `Instruments'
Creation of Truth and Falsehood
Ohrmazd's Offer of Peace
Ahriman Laid Low
Creation of the Bounteous Immortals and
their Demonic Counterparts
The Material Creation
The Heavenly Sphere or Macrocosm
A Variation Derived from India
Man the Microcosm
Man's Fravashis Consent to Descend to
Earth
Ahriman's Revival and Assault against the
Material World
The Fall of Man
Man 265(19)
Ahriman Imprisoned in the Material World
The Re-creation of Plant and Animal Life
and of Man: Man's Second Fall
Soul and Body
Body, Vital Spirit, Soul, Image, and
External Soul
The Fravashi or External Soul
Essential Goodness of Man
The Soul's Free Will
Soul and Reason
Relationship of Soul to Body
Concupiscence, the Enemy of Soul and Body
Alike
The Interconnexion of Bodily Health and
Virtue
Primacy of Spirit over Matter
Moderation in All Things
Self-love the Foundation of All Love
The Solidarity of Mankind
The Indwelling of the Good Mind
Contemplation and Action
The Religion and the King 284(18)
The Interconnexion of the Zoroastrian
Religion and the Sassanian Empire
The Doctrine of the Mean
The Mean as Cosmic Principle
The Mean as the Treaty between Ohrmazd
and Ahriman
The Mean, the Essence of Reason
Virtue, the Mean between Contrary Vices
Wisdom or Reason in Man and God
Wisdom as Creative Principle
Ahriman's Lack of Wisdom and Reason
Concupiscence, the Misuse of Reason and
Desire
Man's Khwarr (Khwarenah) and Concupiscence
The Good Religion in Essence and
Manifestation
Religion and Royalty
The Function of Royalty
Royalty the Material Complement of the
Good Religion
The Virtues of Kings
Royalty the Bond between God and Man
The End 302(21)
The Soul's Fate at Death
The Nature of the Discarnate Soul
Heaven
Hell
The Frashkart or Final Rehabilitation
Ohrmazd's Master-plan for the Overthrow
of Evil
The Three Phases of Ohrmazd's Plan
The Beginning of the End
The Destruction of Az and Ahriman
(Zurvanite Version)
The Meaning of Ahriman's Destruction
The Disintegration of Evil (Orthodox
Version)
The Resurrection of the Body
The Role of Saoshyans and the Final
Bull-Sacrifice
Purgation by Molten Metal
The `Final Body' and Renewal of All Things
The Marriage of Matter and Spirit
Abbreviations Used in the Notes 323(2)
Notes 325(14)
Bibliography 339(10)
Appendix 349(12)
Index 361